Most Efficient Extraction Method for Botanicals
Are you looking for a powerful and reliable extraction setup to produce high-quality botanical extracts? Here you can find a comparison of common extraction techniques including ultrasonic extraction, supercritical CO2 extraction, ethanol extraction, maceration amongst others and their advantages as well as disadvantages.
Botanical Extraction using Ultrasound vs Alternative Techniques
Extraction of botanicals can be performed via various techniques. However, efficiency, extract yield and quality are influenced heavily by the extraction method and protocol used. Maceration, supercritical CO2 extraction, percolation and Soxhlet extraction are common extraction methods, which deliver often insufficient extraction results.
Ultrasound-based extraction is a sophisticated isolation technique, which excels traditional extraction methods in several points.
Ultrasound-based extraction using an ultrasonic probe is a highly efficacious method of extracting compounds from plants and other materials. Compared to other methods like maceration, CO2 extraction, percolation, and microwave extraction, ultrasonic probe-type extraction excels due to several advantages:
- Faster extraction: Ultrasonic probe-type extraction can extract compounds much faster than maceration and percolation. This is because ultrasonic waves create cavitation bubbles in the solvent, which create micro-shocks that help to break down cell walls and release the compounds more quickly.
- Higher yield: Ultrasonic probe-type extraction can extract a higher yield of compounds than maceration, CO2 extraction, and percolation. This is because the ultrasonic waves help to release more of the target compounds from the material being extracted.
- More efficient: Ultrasonic probe-type extraction is more efficient than maceration, CO2 extraction, percolation and Soxhlet extractors, as it requires less solvent to extract the same amount of compounds. This is because the ultrasonic waves help to increase the solubility of the target compounds in the solvent.
- Versatility: Ultrasonic probe-type extraction can be used to extract a wide range of compounds from various materials, including both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds. This means that ultrasound is excellent for the production of full-spectrum extracts, too.
- Low cost: Ultrasonic probe-type extraction is generally less expensive than CO2 extraction, percolation, maceration, and Soxhlet extraction, as it does not require high-pressure equipment or time-intense labour.
- Environmentally friendly: Ultrasonic probes allow for an environmentally friendly extraction, as it requires less solvent and energy compared to other methods, and produces less waste. Although sonication is compatible with any solvents, due to the high efficiency of ultrasonicators, toxic solvents can be mostly avoided. Ethanol, aqueous ethanol and water are excellent solvents for ultrasonic botanical extraction.
When compared to traditional botanical extraction techniques, ultrasonic probe-type extraction offers significant advantages, which explains the wide use of ultrasound extraction for numerous bioactive compounds from plants.
Extraction of High-Quality Extracts from Botanicals
For high-quality botanical extracts from not only the raw material (plant material) is essential, but also the extraction technique applied is crucial. Plant extracts are temperature-sensitive, which means they are degraded by heat. It is therefore crucial to choose a non-thermal extraction method.
The selection of the extraction solvent is another important factor, which influences the extract quality. Solvents such as hexane, methanol, butane and other harsh chemicals can contaminate the extract. Even though solvents are removed after extraction, trace amounts of toxic solvents can be found in the final extract. Water, alcohol, ethanol, glycerine or vegetable oils are safe, non-toxic solvents and approved by the FDA for consumption.
Hielscher Ultrasonics is proud to be partner of Eden Ecosystem, a market pioneer for innovative extraction techniques and high-quality natural fragrance and flavors extracts.
Eden Ecosystem is specialised in producing botanical extracts for fragrances, flavourings, cosmetics and nutritional supplements.
As Eden Ecosystem only applies mild extraction techniques such as ultrasound and eco-friendly, non-toxic solvents, the resulting extracts are both totally new and richer.
Having gathered extraordinary experience in botanical extraction applications, Eden Ecosystem offers also consultancy service for third parties users and manufacturers.
Visit the Eden Ecosystem website to learn more about their products and services!
|Ultrasonic Extraction||Maceration||CO2 Extraction||Soxhlet||Percolation|
|Solvent||compatible with almost any solvent||water, aqueous and non-aqueous solvents||CO2||water, aqueous and non-aqueous solvents||organic solvents|
precise temperature control
|ambient||under heat||ambient temperature,
occasionally heat is applied
|above the critical
temperature of 31°C
|Pressure||both, atmospheric or
elevated pressure possible
|atmospheric||atmospheric||atmospheric||very high pressures
(above the critical pressure of 74 bar)
|Processing Time||rapid||very slow||slow||very slow||moderate|
|Amount of Solvent||low,
high solid load of plant material
in the solvent, especially when a flow cell
setup is used
|large||moderate||large||large amounts of
|Polarity of Natural Extract||dependent on solvent;
to extract non-polar and polar
compounds, a dual-stage extraction
using two solvents is recommended
|dependent on solvent||dependent on solvent||dependent on solvent||dependent on pressure
(under higher pressures more polar)
|Flexibility / Scalability||for batch and inline extraction,
|batch extraction only,
|batch extraction only,
|batch extraction only,
|batch extraction only,
limited linear scalability,
- High yields
- Superior Quality
- Full Spectrum Extracts
- Rapid Process
- Compatible with Any Solvent
- Easy and Safe to Operate
- Linear Scalability
- Fast RoI
Step-by-Step Protocol of Botanical Extraction using an Ultrasonic Probe
How are bioactive compounds extracted from plants using probe-type ultrasonication? Below you can find a step-by-step instruction for the extraction of phytochemicals and bioactive compounds from plant material such as leaves, petals, fruiting body, stems, roots or rhizomes!
- First, the plant material is ground or chopped into small pieces to increase the surface area for extraction.
- The plant material is then mixed with a solvent (such as ethanol or water) to extract the polyphenols.
- Probe-type ultrasonication is then used to aid in the extraction process by applying high-intensity, low-frequency ultrasound waves at approx. 20kHz to the mixture. This causes acoustic cavitation and a rapid vibration of the solvent, which promotes the disintegration and disruption of the plant cells and the release the bioactive substances such as polyphenols, flavonoids and vitamins.
- The mixture is then filtered to separate the solid plant material from the liquid containing the extracted bioactive compounds.
- The liquid is then evaporated or subjected to further processing to remove the solvent and concentrate the bioactive molecules.
- The final product is a bioactive-rich extract that can be used in various applications such as dietary supplements, functional foods, and cosmetics.
Note: This is an overview of the process and the specific conditions (solvent, ratio of plant material to solvent, time of extraction, ultrasonication power, etc.) may vary depending on the plant source and desired bioactive substance content.
How Does Ultrasonic Extraction Work?
Ultrasonic extraction is based on the working principle of ultrasonic acoustic cavitation and is a purely mechanical treatment. Similar to a high-shear mixer, an ultrasonicator only creates mechanical shear forces in the process medium. Ultrasonic extraction itself is non-thermal, chemical-free extraction technique.
What is Acoustic Cavitation? – Acoustic or ultrasonic cavitation occurs when high-power, low-frequency ultrasound waves are coupled into a slurry consisting of botanical material in a liquid (solvent). High-power ultrasonic waves are coupled via a probe-type ultrasonic processor into the botanical slurry. Highly energetic ultrasound waves travel through the liquid creating alternating high-pressure / low-pressure cycles, which results in the phenomenon of acoustic cavitation. Acoustic or ultrasonic cavitation leads locally to extreme conditions such as very high pressure differentials and high shear forces. When cavitation bubbles implode on the surface of solids (such as particles, plant cells, tissues etc.), micro-jets and inter-particlular collision generate effects such as particle breakdown, sonoporation (the perforation of cell walls and cell membranes) and cell disruption. Additionally, the implosion of cavitation bubbles in liquid media creates turbulences and agitation, which promotes the mass transfer between the cell interior and the surrounding solvent. Ultrasonic irradiation is a highly efficient way to enhance mass transfer processes, since sonication results in cavitation and its related mechanisms such as micros-movement by liquid jets, compression and decompression in the material with the subsequent disruption of cell walls.
Depending on the raw material, the ultrasonic extraction process might require high intensities, e.g. to break stiff plant cells or material with a high cellulose amount. Probe-type ultrasonicators can generate very high amplitudes, which is necessary to generate impactful cavitation. Hielscher Ultrasonic manufactures high-performance ultrasonic extractors, which can easily create amplitudes of 200µm in continuous 24/7 operation. For even higher amplitudes, Hielscher offers specified high-amplitude sonotrodes (probes).
Pressurizable ultrasonic reactors and flow cells are used to intensify the cavitation. With increasing pressures, cavitation and cavitational shear forces become more destructive and improve thereby the ultrasonic extraction effects.
Extract Phyto-Chemicals and Bioactive Compounds with Sonication
Ultrasonic extraction is used to release and isolate a wide variety of bioactive compounds (so-called phyto-chemicals) from botanicals.
The list below gives you a small overview over ultrasonically extracted phyto-chemicals:
- CBD and other Cannabinoids from Cannabis and Hemp
- Capsaicin from Chillies
- Caffeine from Coffee Beans
- Astaxanthin from Algae
- Allicin from Garlic
- Catechins (EGEC) from Tea
- Ellagitannins from Pomegranate
- Ayurvedic Herbal Extracts
- Nicotine from Tobacco
- Essential Oils
- Pectins from Citrus Fruit Peels
Solvents for Ultrasonic Extraction
Ultrasonic extraction is compatible with almost any solvent. Most commonly, ethanol, water, ethanol/water mix, glycerine, and vegetable oils are used for the extraction of bioactive compounds from botanicals as these solvents are considered as safe for consumption and are easy-to-use.
Read more about solvents used for ultrasonic extraction!
The Advantages of Ultrasonic Ethanol Extraction
Ethanol is one of the most commonly used solvents with ultrasonic extraction due to its safety (FDA-approved for consumption), its efficacy, and its wide ranging solvency. Ultrasonic ethanol extraction outshines other solvents and other extraction technologies with cost-efficiency, linear scalability, simplicity, and safety.
The superior efficacy of ethanol as solvent is linked to its chemical composition of a hydrocarbon tail and a single hydroxyl group. This chemical composition allows ethanol to dissolve and extract a very wide spectrum of substances, from polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenes, cannabinoids, and lipids (oils).
For instance, ultrasonic ethanol extraction of cannabinoids does not require winterization (dewaxing), a step required with other extraction methods such as CO2 extraction to remove the waxes.
Ethanol extraction exhibits different effects depending on the ethanol temperature. Heated ethanol is often used to produce full-spectrum extracts, which are valued for their entourage effect. On the other hand, ice-cold ethanol is preferably used to produce herbal or cannabis distillates. The extraction in ice-cold ethanol does not require subsequent filtration. Since ultrasonic extraction is a non-thermal treatment, it can be used with hot/warm or cooled/ice-cold ethanol. Jacketed ultrasonic reactors help to maintain the desired processing temperature during the treatment. The digital control and smart software of the ultrasonicator monitors the processing temperature via a pluggable temperature sensors and can be programmed to stop or pause the extraction treatment when the temperature of the medium gets out of a certain range.
Buy the Most Efficient Ultrasonic Extraction Equipment!
Hielscher Ultrasonics’ high-performance extraction systems are available at any scale from small lab size, mid-size pilot scale to fully-industrial production of several tons per hour. Depending on the throughput, Hielscher ultrasonic extractors can be used in batch or continuous inline mode. The choice of solvent is up to you, as Hielscher ultrasonicators can be used in combination with any solvent. All ultrasonic extraction devices are simple and safe to operate. In accordance on your raw material, process capacities and output target, Hielscher offers you the most suitable ultrasonicator.
Ultrasonic extraction processes are influenced by raw material, solvent, and throughput. Various accessories such as sonotrodes (probes) of various sizes and shapes, booster horns, flow cells with various volumes and geometries, pluggable temperature and pressure sensors and many other gadgets are available to assemble the ideal ultrasonic setup for your extraction process.
Process control is crucial in order to obtain reproducible outcome. Therefore, all digital models are equipped with intelligent software, which allows you to adjust, monitor, and revise extraction parameters. Due to the precise control over amplitude, sonication time and duty cycles, optimum process results such as superior yield and highest extract quality can be achieved. The automatic data recording of the sonication process are the bases for process standardization and reproducibility / repeatability, which are required for Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP).
The table below gives you an indication of the approximate processing capacity of our ultrasonicators:
|Batch Volume||Flow Rate||Recommended Devices|
|1 to 500mL||10 to 200mL/min||UP100H|
|10 to 2000mL||20 to 400mL/min||UP200Ht, UP400St|
|0.1 to 20L||0.2 to 4L/min||UIP2000hdT|
|10 to 100L||2 to 10L/min||UIP4000hdT|
|15 to 150L||3 to 15L/min||UIP6000hdT|
|n.a.||10 to 100L/min||UIP16000|
|n.a.||larger||cluster of UIP16000|
Contact Us! / Ask Us!
Random Facts Worth Knowing
What are Botanical Extracts?
Botanicals such as leaves, petals, flowers, stems, roots, and bark contain potent bioactive compounds (phyto-chemicals), which are used in foods and beverages, dietary supplements, therapeutics and pharmaceuticals as well as in cosmetic products. Prominent examples of botanical extracts are antioxidants, vitamins (e.g. vitamin A, C, E, K; B vitamins), proteins (e.g. hemp, soy), polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenes, cannabinoids (e.g. CBD, CBG, THC), oligosaccharides, and lipids (e.g. omega-3s from flax seeds or hemp seeds).
Antioxidants act as a powerful defense mechanism that prevents the body’s cells against damage to from aging, stress, inflammation and disease. Research also shows that antioxidants can contribute as immun system enhancer and exhibit anti-cancer properties. Furthermore, antioxidants prevents the oxidation of products and extends thereby their stability and shelf-life. Therefore, antioxidants are added to many foods and drinks, nutritional supplements, therapeutics and cosmetic products. Very prominent examples of antioxidants are vitamin E (α-tocopherol), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), beta-carotene and glutathione.
Antioxidants and other bioactive compounds can be either extracted from natural materials such as botanicals or algae or artificially synthesised. Bioactive compounds, which are extracted from a natural source, show a higher bioavailability, bioaccessibility and thereby increased potency. Therefore, in high-quality supplements naturally extracted phyto-chemicals are used.
How does CO2 work as solvent?
CO2 heated to above 90 degrees Fahrenheit and 1000 pounds per square inch pressure is considered supercritical. Supercritical CO2 will act as a solvent that dissolves oils.
What is the Winterization of Cannabis Extracts?
In order to winterize a crude extract, the crude cannabis extract is mixed with ethanol. Afterwards, the solution is then placed in a freezer to chill. The cold allows for the separation of compounds by differences in their melting and precipitation points. In the cooling process, the fats and waxes with higher melting points will precipitate out and can then be removed by filtration, centrifugation, decantation, or other separation processes. Finally, the ethanol must be removed from the solution. This is achieved by boiling. Ethanol boils off at 78.5°C atmospheric pressure. Eventually, a pure liquid cannabis oil extract is obtained.
The Nutritional Benefits of Antioxidants
Antioxidants act as a powerful defense mechanism that prevents the body’s cells against damage to from aging, stress, inflammation and disease. Research also shows that antioxidants can contribute as immun system enhancer and exhibit anti-cancer properties.
Antioxidants are molecules that capture free radicals. Free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are derived either from regular, essential metabolic processes in the human body or from external sources such as exposure to X-rays, ozone, cigarette smoking, air pollutants, and toxic chemicals. Free radicals are produced in many chemical chain reactions in the body as result of aerobic metabolism. The formation and exposure to free radicals is part of many metabolic processes and cannot be avoided. A healthy body can cope with the normal formation of free radicals, scavenges them and turns them into harmless molecules. However, in stressful events or under harmful environmental conditions, the burden of free radicals rises and contributes to inflammation and ageing. Good, healthy nutrition provides antioxidants, which disarm oxidative free radicals.
There are two categories of antioxidants that can be distinguished, the antioxidant enzymes (e.g. superoxide dismutases, catalase, glutathione peroxidase), and antioxidant nutrients, which include vitamins, minerals and various phytochemicals. A few classes of anti-oxidative nutrients are listed below:
- vitamin E (α-tocopherol), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), beta-carotene
- glutathione, ubiquinol, and uric acid
- flavonoids (polyphenolic pigments)
Vitamin C, uric acid, bilirubin, albumin, and thiols are hydrophilic, radical-scavenging antioxidants, while vitamin E and ubiquinol are lipophilic radical-scavenging antioxidants.
ORAC Value of Various Foods
The antioxidants‘ potency in food is measured as ORAC value (Oxygen Radical Absobance Capacity). According to the USDA, the following foods has the highest ORAC values and thereby the best antioxidative potency:
- Prunes: 5770
- Raisins: 2830
- Blueberries: 2400
- Blackberries: 2036
- Kale: 1770
- Strawberries: 1540
- Spinach: 1260
- Raspberries: 1220
- Brussels sprouts: 980
- Plums: 949
- Alfalfa sprouts: 930
- Broccoli flowers: 890
- Beets: 840
- Oranges: 750
- Red grapes: 739
- Red bell pepper: 710
- Cherries: 670
- Kiwi fruit: 602
- Grapefruit: 483
- Onion: 450
Literature / References
- Petigny L., Périno-Issartier S., Wajsman J., Chemat F. (2013): Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.). International journal of Molecular Science 14, 2013. 5750-5764.
- Fooladi, Hamed; Mortazavi, Seyyed Ali; Rajaei, Ahmad; Elhami Rad, Amir Hossein; Salar Bashi, Davoud; Savabi Sani Kargar, Samira (2013): Optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds of jujube (Ziziphus Jujube) using ultrasound-assisted extraction method.
- Dogan Kubra, P.K. Akman, F. Tornuk (2019): Improvement of Bioavailability of Sage and Mint by Ultrasonic Extraction. International Journal of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, 2019. 2(2): p.122- 135.
- Sitthiya, K.; Devkota, L.; Sadiq, M.B.; Anal A.K. (2018): Extraction and characterization of proteins from banana (Musa Sapientum L) flower and evaluation of antimicrobial activities. J Food Sci Technol (February 2018) 55(2):658–666.
- Ayyildiz, Sena Saklar; Karadeniz, Bulent; Sagcanb, Nihan; Bahara, Banu; Us, Ahmet Abdullah; Alasalvar, Cesarettin (2018): Optimizing the extraction parameters of epigallocatechin gallate using conventional hot water and ultrasound assisted methods from green tea. Food and Bioproducts Processing 111 (2018). 37–44.
- V. Lobo, A. Patil,A. Phatak, N. Chandra (2010): Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacognosy Reviews 2010 Jul-Dec; 4(8): 118–126.