Coronavirus (COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2) and Ultrasonics
Ultrasonication is a powerful tool used in biology, molecular chemistry and biochemistry as well as in the production of pharmaceuticals. Bio-sciences use ultrasonic homogenizers to lyse cells and extract proteins and other intracellular materials, the pharma industry applied ultrasonics to synthesis pharmacologically active molecules, to produce vaccines and to formulate them into nano-sized drug carriers. During the fight against the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 ultrasonicators are used for various applications in research, bio-science and pharma.
Ultrasonication for Development and Production of Pharmaceuticals
Synthesis of Pharmacologically Active Molecules
Improved Remdesivir Solubility by Sonication
Ultrasonic Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Botanicals
Ultrasonic Vaccine Production
Ultrasonic Applications for Vaccine Production
Improved Vaccine Formulation with Power Ultrasound
Production of RNA Vaccines with Ultrasonics
Ultrasonic Formulation of Pharmaceuticals
Ultrasonic Liposome Preparation
Ultrasonic Production of Vitamin C Liposomes
Ultrasonic Production of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles
Ultrasonic Preparation of Cyclodextrin Complexes
Ivermection-Loaded Solid-Lipid Nanoparticles via Sonication
Ultrasonic Nano-Emulsification for Microencapsulation before Spray-Drying
Ultrasonic Viscosity Reduction before Spray-Drying
Ultrasonics for Research in Bio-Science and Bio-Chemistry
High Performance Ultrasonicators for Pharma and Bio-Science
Hielscher Ultrasonics’ systems are widely used in the pharmaceutical production to synthesise high-quality molecules and to formulate solid lipid nanoparticles and liposomes loaded with pharmaceutical substances, vitamins, antioxidants, peptides and other bioactive compounds. To meet its customers’ demands, Hielscher supplies ultrasonicators from the compact, yet powerful hand-held lab homogenizer and bench-top ultrasonicators to fully industrial ultrasonic systems for the production of high qualities of pharmaceutical substances and formulations. A broad range of ultrasonic sonotrodes and reactors are available to ensure an optimal setup for your pharmaceutical production. The robustness of Hielscher’s ultrasonic equipment allows for 24/7 operation at heavy duty and in demanding environments.
In order to enable our customers to fulfil Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and to establish standardised processes, all digital ultrasonicators are equipped with intelligent software for precise setting of the sonication parameter, continuous process control and automatic recording of all important process parameters on a built-in SD-card. High product quality depends on process control and continuously high processing standards. Hielscher ultrasonicators help you to monitor and standardise your process!
The high number of COVID-19 cases is a massive challenge to the health system including the pharmaceutical research and production. Whilst currently several drug substances are under investigation (in vitro and in vivo), from the moment a treatment therapy of COVID-19 patients has been established, a large number of drugs must be produced within a short period of time.
The ultrasonic synthesis of chloroquine and chloroquine derivatives is a fast, simple and safe process, which can be linearly scaled up from lab and pilot plant to full commercial production. Our well-trained and long-experienced staff will assist you technically from pilot trials to large quantity production.
The table below gives you an indication of the approximate processing capacity of our ultrasonicators:
|Batch Volume||Flow Rate||Recommended Devices|
|1 to 500mL||10 to 200mL/min||UP100H|
|10 to 2000mL||20 to 400mL/min||UP200Ht, UP400St|
|0.1 to 20L||0.2 to 4L/min||UIP2000hdT|
|10 to 100L||2 to 10L/min||UIP4000hdT|
|n.a.||10 to 100L/min||UIP16000|
|n.a.||larger||cluster of UIP16000|
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Facts Worth Knowing
The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, also known as 2019-nCoV or novel coronavirus 2019, is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, which started in December 2019 in Wuhan, China and spread from there across the world.
With a high infection / transmission rate, SARS-CoV-2 spreads mainly via droplet infection and fomite transmission. However, since virus particles can be found also in faeces, transmission via fecal–oral route is possible, too. The main route of human to human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is by having close contact to infected persons: Respiratory droplets generated by sneezing and coughing of an infected person are inhaled by others, so that they get subsequently infected.
Coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2 attach to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, which are mainly found in the lungs (and to a smaller degree in the heart, intestines, arteries, and kidney). The coronavirus spike proteins (S-proteins / glycoproteins), which protrude from the coronavirus’ envelope, bind to the ACE2 receptor, fuse with the host cell membrane and enter this way the host cell. Like all viruses, coronaviruses use the host cell to replicate their genome and create thereby new virus particles.
Coronaviruses contain a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome. Unlike influenza viruses, the coronavirus is a unsegmented virus. SARS-CoV-2 has relatively short genome made of just one long strand of genetic molecules. This means that SARS-CoV-2 viruses consist of one segment, only. Influenza viruses, which are RNA viruses like the coronaviruses, have a segmented genome consisting of eight genome segments. This gives the influenza virus a special ability for recombination / mutation.
The scientific name for coronavirus is Orthocoronavirinae or Coronavirinae, Coronavirus belongs to the family of Coronaviridae.
Coronaviruses are a group of related viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In human population, coronavirus infection results in respiratory tract infections. Such respiratory tract infections can have mild effects, expressed as common cold (e.g. rhinoviruses), whilst other coronavirus infections can be lethal, such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome), and COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019).
Concerning human coronaviruses , seven strains are known. Four of these seven coronavirus strains provoke generally mild symptoms, known as the common cold:
- Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
- Human coronavirus HKU1
- Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
- Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 circulate permanently in the human population and cause generally mid respiratory infections in adults and children worldwide.
However, the three coronavirus strains below are known for their severe symptoms:
- Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), also known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC
- Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV / SARS-classic)
- Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as 2019-nCoV or novel coronavirus 2019
- Shah Purvin, Parameswara Rao Vuddanda, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Achint Jain, and Sanjay Singh (2014): Pharmacokinetic and Tissue Distribution Study of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles of Zidov in Rats. Journal of Nanotechnology, Volume 2014.
- Joanna Kopecka, Giuseppina Salzano, PharmDa, Ivana Campia, Sara Lusa, Dario Ghigo, Giuseppe De Rosa, Chiara Riganti (2013): Insights in the chemical components of liposomes responsible for P-glycoprotein inhibition. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 2013.
- Harshita Krishnatreyya, Sanjay Dey, Paulami Pal, Pranab Jyoti Das, Vipin Kumar Sharma, Bhaskar Mazumder (2019): Piroxicam Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs): Potential for Topical Delivery. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research Vol 53, Issue 2, 2019. 82-92.