Ultrasonic Psilocybin Extraction from Mushrooms
- Psilocybin is the active substance extracted from hallucinogenic mushrooms.
- Ultrasonic extraction is often used to extract the psilocybin efficiently from mushrooms.
- Ultrasonic extraction gives high psilocybin yield in a very rapid extraction time.
Ultrasonic Isolation of Psilocybin
Ultrasonic extraction of dried magic mushroom material works very well with ethanol or methanol as solvent. For best results, it is recommended to use dried mushroom. Before ultrasonication, the dried mushroom material should be ground to provide a large surface area for the mass transfer between the mushroom and solvent. The ultrasonic treatment breaks the cell walls of the mushroom so that the psilocybin and psilocin molecules are released into the solvent. The ultrasonic isolation method of active substances such as psilocybin is used to extract the compounds for medical as well as for analytical purposes.
Ultrasound is known as the most simple and most versatile method for cell disruption and the production of extracts. High-power ultrasound waves are successfully used in the food, pharma and nutraceutical industry to isolate targeted compounds from plant and animal tissues. Typical applications include the extraction of flavour ingredients from foods (e.g. tomato, herbs, coffee, fruits, shellfish etc.) as well as the isolation of pharmaceutically and nutraceutically active substances (e.g. CBD from cannabis, high molecular weight polysaccharides from medicinal mushrooms, vitamins from vegetables etc.). One main advantage of ultrasound-assisted cell lysis and isolation the outstanding effectiveness of the extraction procedure, resulting in very high yields and fast extraction rates. Another advantages, which comes in play with food and medical substances, is that sonication is an non-thermal process. This means active compounds are not treated at high temperatures so that thermal degradation of the extracts is avoided – protecting the extracts’ bioactivity.
Ultrasonic Extraction Equipment
Hielscher Ultrasonics supplies ultrasonic devices for the cell disruption and extraction on lab and industrial scale. For the extraction of lab samples and smaller batches up to 4L (or up to 50L/hr with flow cell), an ultrasonic lab homogenizer such as the UP200St (200W) or UP400St (400W) is powerful and efficient enough to fulfil the treatment.
Besides extraction, the same ultrasonic device can be used for the preparation of emulsions or tinctures, e.g. to improve bioavailability and digestibility.
Literature / References
- Mason, N.L; Mischler, E.; Uthaug, M.V.; Kuypers, K.P.C. (2019) Sub-Acute Effects of Psilocybin on Empathy, Creative Thinking, and Subjective Well-Being. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 2019.
- Pedersen-Bjergaard, S.; Sannes, E.; Rasmussen, K.E.; Tønnesen, F. (1997): Determination of psilocybin in Psilocybe semilanceata by capillary zone electrophoresis. Journal of Chromatography B, 694; 1997. 375–381.
- Stamets, P. (1996): Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World. 1996
Facts Worth Knowing
Mushrooms, which contain psychoactive / psychedelic substances such as psilocybin, psilocin, and baeocystin, are known as psychedelic mushrooms, magic mushrooms, shrooms, magic truffles, and mush. More than 180 species of mushrooms containing psilocybin or its derivative psilocin are known.
Psilocybin mushrooms are illegal in many countries, e.g. USA, Canada, Europe, India. In the USA, they are classified as a Schedule I controlled substance, though recently, the FDA and DEA have allowed some small, highly controlled human studies on their potential for use in medical and psychiatric drug administration. The effects of psilocybin and other psychedelics have been researched for their effects and potential treatment of disorders such as cluster headaches, mood disorders, and addiction.
Psilocybe cubensis is one of the most popular magic mushrooms offering a medium psilocybin concentration of approx. 0.63% psilocybin and 0.60% psilocin in dried wild mushrooms. Indoor cultivated mushrooms mostly have higher concentrations of their active compounds.
|Psilocibe Species||% PSILOCYBIN||% PSILOCIN||% BAEOCYSTIN|
Psilocybin is an psychoactive, hallucinogenic substance found in mushrooms of the genera of Psilocybe, Panaeolina, Panaeolus, Copelandia, Conocybe, Gymnopilus, Stropharia and Pluteus and is considered as a narcotic drug.
Besides psilocybin, psilocin and baeocystin are two further active substances found in magic mushrooms.
The potency of mushrooms can vary greatly since mushrooms are a natural product, which develops in response to its environment. The various parts of mushrooms differ in potency, too (e.g. cap and stem may have a different concentrations of the psychoactive compounds). Due of these natural variations, the maceration, homogenization and ultrasonic extraction might help to reduce the risk of unexpectedly strong (or weak) doses of psilocybin.
Use and Effects: After administration of psilocybin, a wide range of subjective effects have been reported which range from feelings of disorientation, lethargy, giddiness, euphoria, joy, and depression. Approx. a third of users experience feelings of anxiety or paranoia. Low doses of the drug can induce hallucinatory effects, closed-eye hallucinations, and/or synesthesia (the experience of tactile sensations when viewing colors). At higher doses, psilocybin can induce the intensification of affective responses, enhanced ability for introspection, regression to primitive and childlike thinking, and activation of vivid memory traces. Open-eye visual hallucinations are common and can be very detailed although rarely confused with reality.
Anecdotal reports as well as recent studies suggest that a single administration of psilocybin can enhance reative thinking and empathy and could therefore be a potential treatment for cognitive and social behavior. Results of the study “Creative thinking and empathy” (Mason et al. 2019) indicate that psilocybin enhanced divergent thinking and emotional empathy the morning after use. Enhancements in convergent thinking, valence-specific emotional empathy, and well-being persisted seven days after use. Sub-acute changes in empathy correlated with changes in well-being. The study demonstrates that a single administration of psilocybin in a social setting may be associated with sub-acute enhancement of creative thinking, empathy, and subjective well-being.