An emulsion is a two-phase system of two immiscible liquids, where one phase, the so-called internal or dispersed phase, is distributed as small droplets into the other, so-called external or continuous, phase. To prepare an emulsion, generally energy input into the two-phase system is required. Ultrasonic shear forces are well proven to be highly efficient to produce long-term stable emulsions with nano-sized droplets and of superior quality.
Ultrasonically Improved Emulsion Stability
The physical effects of ultrasound induced by acoustic cavitation results in the disruption of oil and water droplets and facilitates thereby the formation of stable O/W and W/O emulsions with very small droplets size in the micron- and nano-size. Due to very small droplet size and its high surface area, nanoemulsions offer extraordinarily high bioactive properties, which is important for foods and supplements, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic production. Due to the minute droplet size, the bioactive compound can penetrate cells rapidly. Also in material science and industry, nano-emulsions are important for the manufacturing of high-performance coatings, paints, polymers and other composites. Ultrasonically prepared nanoemulsions are usually significantly more stable than macroemulsions and do not show sedimentation, coalescence or flocculation.
- Nano- and mini-emulsions
- Highly efficient
- Batch or continuous
- Low to viscous liquids
- Reproducibility / repeatability
- Reliable technique
- Easy and safe to use
Highly Efficient Ultrasonic Emulsification
Taha et al. (2020) conclude in their review paper that High-Intensity Ultrasonics (HIU) “could be used to improve the emulsifying properties of food emulsifiers such as proteins and polysaccharides and enhance the stability of their emulsions. Protein-polysaccharide complex stabilized emulsions produced by HIU showed better stability against environmental stresses than the emulsions stabilized by individual components. Moreover, several studies showed that HIU homogenizers were more energy efficient than high pressure homogenizers and microfluidizers.” (Taha et al., 2020)
- Mean droplet size (influenced by emulsification technique)
- Droplet size distribution (influenced by emulsification technique)
- Internal-phase viscosity
- Continuous-phase viscosity
- Oil-phase concentration
- Continuous-phase pH
- Optical properties of emulsion
High-Performance Ultrasonic Emulsifiers
Hielscher Ultrasonics supplies high-power, low-frequency ultrasonic emulsifiers at any scale for research, process development, R&D and industrial production of very large volume streams. Our broad portfolio offers the ideal ultrasonic processor at any size and for any industry.
Hielscher Ultrasonics’ industrial ultrasonic processors can deliver very high amplitudes. Amplitudes of up to 200µm can be easily continuously run in 24/7/365 operation. For even higher amplitudes, customized ultrasonic sonotrodes are available. All process parameters can be exactly controlled and monitored via smart software.
- for any volume / production capacity
- for any industry
- efficacious and process intensifying
- for batch and inline processing
- versatile usable
- easy and safe to operate
- reproducible results
- linear scalable
- robust, low maintenance
- easy to install or retro-fit
- fast RoI
MultiPhaseCavitator – The Ultrasonic Injection System
The MultiPhaseCavitator – MPC48insert – is a unique insert for Hielscher flow cell reactors. The design of the MultiPhaseCavitator features 48 fine cannulas that inject the second phase of the emulsion directly into cavitational hot-spot. In the cavitation zone, the fine strands of the injected second phase get cut by ultrasonic frequency waves of 20kHz. This means the injected fluid gets cut by 20,000 vibration strokes per second, which produces extraordinarily minute droplets in the nano range. The ultrasonic shear, shock waves and turbulences emulsifies these small droplets within the continuous phase and produces a superior nano-emulsion of high stability.
Want to Buy an Ultrasonic Emulsifier?
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Our well-experienced team will be glad to discuss your emulsion application with you and to recommend you the most suitable ultrasonic emulsifier system!
- precisely controllable parameters
- high amplitudes
- batch and inline
- linear scalable to any size
- smart software with programmable sonication settings
- 24/2/365 operation
- sonotrodes and accessories available
The table below gives you an indication of the approximate processing capacity of our ultrasonicators:
|Batch Volume||Flow Rate||Recommended Devices|
|1 to 500mL||10 to 200mL/min||UP100H|
|10 to 2000mL||20 to 400mL/min||UP200Ht, UP400St|
|0.1 to 20L||0.2 to 4L/min||UIP2000hdT|
|10 to 100L||2 to 10L/min||UIP4000hdT|
|n.a.||10 to 100L/min||UIP16000|
|n.a.||larger||cluster of UIP16000|
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Literature / References
- Zahra Hadian, Mohammad Ali Sahari, Hamid Reza Moghimi; Mohsen Barzegar (2014): Formulation, Characterization and Optimization of Liposomes Containing Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids; A Methodology Approach. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (2014), 13 (2): 393-404.
- Ahmed Taha, Eman Ahmed, Amr Ismaiel, Muthupandian Ashokkumar, Xiaoyun Xu, Siyi Pan, Hao Hu (2020): Ultrasonic emulsification: An overview on the preparation of different emulsifiers-stabilized emulsions. Trends in Food Science & Technology Vol. 105, 2020. 363-377.
- Seyed Mohammad Mohsen Modarres-Gheisari, Roghayeh Gavagsaz-Ghoachani, Massoud Malaki, Pedram Safarpour, Majid Zandi (2019): Ultrasonic nano-emulsification – A review. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Vol. 52, 2019. 88-105.
Facts Worth Knowing
What is an Emulsion? – Definition of the Term “Emulsion”
An emulsion is a fluid systems consisting of at least two immiscible liquids, where one of the liquids is dispersed in the other as small droplets. The phase of small, distributed droplets is called dispersed or internal phase, whilst the other phase is called continuous or external phase. There are two main types of emulsions, which is distinguished between: The oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. In the oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion, the internal phase is an oil or oil miscible liquid, and the external phase is water or a water miscible liquid. In the water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion, the internal phase is the water-like liquid, while the external phase is the oil-like liquid.
Most emulsions require an emulsifying agent, known as stabilizer or surfactant. The droplet size plays also a crucial role regarding emulsion stability. The smaller the droplet size, the more stable is the emulsion.