Teknologjia e ultrazërit Hielscher

Nxjerrja e duhanit tejzanor

Nxjerrja konvencionale e duhanit është një proces i ngadaltë, që kërkon kohë, i cili përfshin përdorimin e tretësve toksikë në temperatura të larta, gjë që e bën procesin të rrezikshëm.
Nxjerrja me ndihmë tejzanore e alkaloideve nga duhani mund të drejtohet duke përdorur ujë ose tretës të butë në një proces të shpejtë prej disa minutash. Alkaloide të ekstraktuara ultrasonikisht si nikotina nga duhani lëshohen në një procedurë të shpejtë dhe shumë efikase, e cila jep rendiment të lartë të një ekstrakti të spektrit të plotë (përmban nikotinë, nornikotinë, acid klorogjenik (acid 5-kafeoylquinic), rutin, acid kafeik dhe scopoletin, solanesol etj).

Nxjerrja tejzanor e duhanit

Nxjerrja me ndihmë tejzanor (Emiratet e Bashkuara Arabe) është një metodë e shpejtë, efektive dhe e përshtatshme e ekstraktimit, e cila bazohet në aplikimin e ultrazërit të energjisë. Valët tejzanore intenzive prodhojnë mikro lëvizje të shpejtë dhe kavilje akustike në sisteme të lëngshme të ngurta (p.sh. materiali vegjetal në tretës, p.sh. gjethet e duhanit në etanol), gjë që rezulton në një transferim të rritur në masë, si dhe një proces të nxitimit të përshpejtuar. Në krahasim me teknikat e tjera të avancuara të nxjerrjes si ekstraktimi i lëngjeve supercritik dhe nxjerrja e palëve jonike, ekstraktimi i ndihmuar nga ultrasonikisht është dukshëm më ekonomik, mjedisor më miqësor, më i sigurt dhe i lehtë për t’u përdorur. Prandaj, nxjerrja tejzanor është teknikë e preferuar e nxjerrjes për të lëshuar komponime bioaktive nga botanikët.
Nxjerrja tejzanor rezulton në një ekstrakt të spektrit të gjerë, që përmban nikotinë, e cila është alkaloidja kryesore e duhanit me 94-98% të përmbajtjes totale të alkaloidit, si dhe alkaloideve nornikotinë, anabazinë, anatabinë, cotininë dhe miozminë.

UP100H me sonotrode MS14 për nxjerrjen e botanikëve, siç është Duhani

SonoStation e Hielscher Ultrasonics është një set i ultrazërit me përdorim të lehtë për shkallë prodhimi. (Kliko per te zmadhuar!)

SonoStation – një sistem tejzanor me 2x ultrasonicators 2KW, Tank trazuar dhe pompë – është një sistem miqësor për nxjerrjen.

Kërkesë informacioni





Ekstrakte të duhanit me spektër të plotë me sinjalizim

Alkaloide të tilla si nikotina dhe nornikotina, acidi klorogjenik, fenolikët, solanesoli dhe komponimet e tjera bioaktive mund të izolohen shpejt, efikase dhe të sigurt duke përdorur nxjerrjen tejzanor. Nxjerrja konvencionale e duhanit përfshin përdorimin e tretësve toksikë siç është heptani në temperatura të larta, gjë që e kthen procesin e nxjerrjes në një procedurë të rrezikshme. I gjithë procesi i nxjerrjes konvencionale merr përafërsisht. 24h dhe në këtë mënyrë është shumë kohë.
Nxjerrja tejzanor mund të kryhet si nxjerrje e ujit të ftohtë ose duke përdorur tretës të butë si etanol ose përzierje etanol-ujë në temperaturën e dhomës ose temperaturat pak të ngritura. Sonication zgjat disa minuta, gjë që e kthen ekstraktimin në një procedurë të shpejtë. Për më tepër, duke përdorur ujë ose tretës të butë procesi është plotësisht i sigurt dhe i përshtatshëm.
The ultrasonically depleated tobacco leaves are separated from extracted compounds in the solvent. Ekstraktet e prodhuara tejzanor me spektër të plotë përmbajnë nikotinë primare alkaloid, si dhe alkaloide sekondare ose të vogla siç janë anabazina ose 3- (2-piperidinil) piridinë, anatabinë ose 3- (2-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridyl) piridine , cotininë ose 1-metil-5- (3-piridil) -2-pirrolidinon), 2,3'-dipyridil ose izonicotinë, N-formilnornicotinë ose 2- (3-piridil) pirrolidinekarbaldehyde, miosmine ose 3- (1-pirrolin -2-il) piridinë, nornikotinë ose 3- (pirrolidin-2-il) piridinë, dhe 𝛽-nicotyrine or 3-(1-methylpyrrol-2-yl)pyridine. The content of these alkaloids varies depending on tobacco species and tobacco products. While nicotine is the primary alkaloid with 94–98% of the total alkaloid content, nornicotine and anatabine are the two most abundant secondary alkaloids, each accounting for approx. 2% to 6% of the total alkaloid content of tobacco.

Benefits of Ultrasonic Tobacco Extraction:

  • Higher Yield
  • High Quality
  • Rapid Extraction
  • Mild, Non-thermal Process
  • Water or Solvent
  • Simple & Safe Operation

Choose from a Broad Selection of Solvents

Using ultrasonic extraction, you can select from various solvents, including water, alcohol, ethanol, methanol, ethanol-water mixtures or strong solvents such as heptane or hexane. All of the former named solvents have been already successfully tested and shown to be effective for the isolation of bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics and solanesol from tobacco plant materials. Sonication can be used in solvent-free cold-water extraction (e.g. to prepare organic extracts) or can be combined with a solvent of your choice.
Learn more about solvents for the ultrasonic extraction from botanicals!

Hielscher ultrasonicator UP400St with sonotrode S24d22L2 for extraction of nicotine and harmala from tobacco leaves.

Ultrasonic processor UP400St (400 watts) for the extraction of alkaloids such as nicotine and harmala from tobacco leaves.

High-Performance Ultrasound Extractors

UIP4000hdT (4kW) ultrasonic processor for the extraction of pectins in an industrial inline process.Hielscher’s ultrasonic equipment is a commonly extraction tool for the isolation of bioactive compounds from botanicals. Supplying ultrasonic extractors for all process scales, Hielscher is able to recommend you the most suitable ultrasonic system for your needs. Starting with compact, yet powerful lab systems for analysis and feasibility testing, Hielscher offers the full range from lab and pilot plant ultrasonicators up to fully industrial ultrasound reactors. Offering the full band width of ultrasonic processors, Hielscher has the ideal setup for your extraction process. Depending on your process volume and goal, ultrasonic extraction can be performed in batch or continuous flow mode. Manifold accessories such as sonotrodes, booster horns, flow cells and reactors allow to equip the ultrasonic processor to fulfil the process targets ideally.
Hielscher’s ultrasonic processors can be precisely controlled and process data are automatically recorded on the integrated SD-card of our digital ultrasonic systems. The reliable control over the process parameters ensure a consistently high product quality. The automatic data recording of the process parameters allow for an easy process standardization and the fulfilment of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP).
The robustness of Hielscher’s ultrasonic equipment allows for 24/7 operation at heavy duty and in demanding environments. Easy and safe operation as well as low maintenance make Hielscher’s ultrasonic systems the reliable work horse in your production.

The table below gives you an indication of the approximate processing capacity of our ultrasonicators:

Batch Volume Flow Rate Recommended Devices
0.5 to 1.5mL n.a. VialTweeter
1 to 500mL 10 to 200mL/min UP100H
10 to 2000mL 20 to 400mL/min UP200Ht, UP400St
0.1 to 20L 0.2 to 4L/min UIP2000hdT
10 to 100L 2 to 10L/min UIP4000
n.a. 10 to 100L/min UIP16000
n.a. larger cluster of UIP16000

Contact us now for further information! Our well-trained staff will be glad to discuss your extraction process with you!

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Hielscher Ultrasonics manufactures high-performance ultrasonicators for sonochemical applications.

High-power ultrasonic processors from lab to pilot and industrial scale.



Facts Worth Knowing

Why is Ultrasonic Extraction so Effective?

Ultrasonically-assisted extraction (UAE) is based on coupling highly intense ultrasound waves (acoustic waves) into a liquid or slurry. The acoustic waves create alternating high pressure / low pressure cycles, which result in the phenomenon of acoustic cavitation. The phenomenon of ultrasonic or acoustic cavitation is characterized by extreme, locally confined conditions of very high pressures, temperatures and shear forces. In proximity of the imploding cavitation bubbles, temperatures of up to 5000K, pressures of 1000 atmosphere, heating-cooling rate above 1010 K/s and liquids jets with up to 280m/s velocity, which appear as very high shear force and turbulences in the cavitational zone, can be measured. The combination of these factors (pressure, heat, shear and turbulence) disrupt cells (lysis) and intensify mass transfer during the extraction process. Thereby, the liquid-solid extraction of phytoconstituents from plant cells is promoted. The ultrasonic extraction technique is widely applied for the successful and efficient extraction of flavonoids, polysaccharides, alkaloids, phytosterols, polyphenols, and pigments from plants.

Ultrasonic disruptors are used for extractions from phyto sources (e.g. plants, algae, fungi)

Ultrasonic extraction from plant cells: the microscopic transverse section (TS) shows the mechanism of actions during ultrasonic extraction from cells (magnification 2000x) [resource: Vilkhu et al. 2011]

Tobacco

Various plants in the Nicotiana genus and the Solanaceae (nightshade) family are known as tobacco plants. Besides being the commonly used term for the plant, tobacco describes also the products prepared from the cured leaves of the tobacco plant. Whilst Nicotiana tabacum is the main crop use for tobacco and nicotine production, there are over 70 plant species of tobacco. N. tabacum is the dominant species used for tobacco products, however the more potent variant N. rustica can be found around the world and is used for.
Tobacco contains the stimulant alkaloid nicotine as well as harmala alkaloids. Dried and cured tobacco leaves are mainly used for smoking in cigarettes, cigars, pipes, shishas as well as e-cigarettes, e-cigars, e-pipes and vaporizers. Alternatively, they can be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco and snus.

The tobacco plant family contains various (sub-)species, which exhibit different alkaloid and flavour profiles.
Oriental tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is a species of tobacco grown mainly in Turkey, Greece, and neighboring areas, which is used for the commercial production of cigarettes, cigars and chewing tobacco. It has a strong characteristic flavor, is relatively low in nicotine and high in reducing sugars, acids, and volatile flavor oil, which gives the tobacco products an intense aroma.

There are 67 natural species of tobacco known. Below the most common species are listed:

  • Nicotiana acuminata (Graham) Hook. – manyflower tobacco
  • Nicotiana africana Merxm.
  • Nicotiana alata Link & Otto – winged tobacco, jasmine tobacco, tanbaku (Persian)
  • Nicotiana attenuata Torrey ex S. Watson – coyote tobacco
  • Nicotiana benthamiana Domin
  • Nicotiana clevelandii A. Gray
  • Nicotiana glauca Graham – tree tobacco, Brazilian tree tobacco, shrub tobacco, mustard tree
  • Nicotiana glutinosa L.
  • Nicotiana langsdorffii Weinm.
  • Nicotiana longiflora Cav.
  • Nicotiana occidentalis H.-M. Wheeler
  • Nicotiana obtusifolia M. Martens & Galeotti – desert tobacco, punche, “tabaquillo”
  • Nicotiana otophora Griseb.
  • Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv.
  • Nicotiana quadrivalvis Pursh
  • Nicotiana rustica L. – Aztec tobacco, mapacho
  • Nicotiana suaveolens Lehm. – Australian tobacco
  • Nicotiana sylvestris Speg. & Comes – South American tobacco, woodland tobacco
  • Nicotiana tabacum L. – commercial tobacco grown for the production of cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, etc.
  • Nicotiana tomentosiformis Goodsp.

The three species below are man-made hybrids:

  • Nicotiana × didepta N. debneyi × N. tabacum
  • Nicotiana × digluta N. glutinosa × N. tabacum
  • Nicotiana × sanderae Hort. ex Wats. N. alata × N. forgetiana

Types of Tobacco
The curing and subsequent aging process of tobacco leaves induces a slow oxidation and degradation of the present carotenoids in tobacco leaf. Due to the oxidation, certain compounds in the tobacco leaves are synthesized, which result in sweet hay, tea, rose oil, or fruity aromatic flavors, which contribute to the “smoothness” of the smoke. Starches are converted into sugars, which subsequently glycate proteins, and are oxidized into advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). This is a caramelization process that also gives the smoke its flavor.
The preparation and curing method of tobacco influences its final aroma characteristics. Curing can be achieved by air-, fire-, flue-, and sun-curing. For example, flue-cured tobacco (e.g. from France) contains only low levels of alkaloids, whilst air-cured Burley tobacco (e.g. sourced from Guatemala) is known for its high content of alkaloids.