Sono-Electrochemical Synthesis of Nanoparticles

The ultrasonically promoted electrochemical synthesis of nanoparticles is a highly efficacious and cost-efficient route to produce high-quality nanoparticles on large scale. The sono-electrochemical synthesis, also known as sonoelectrodeposition, allows to prepare nanostructures of various materials and shapes.

Sonoelectrochemical Synthesis and Sonoelectrodeposition of Nanoparticles

Sonoelectrochemical synthesis or sonoelectrodeposition is a technique used to produce metallic nanoparticles applying high-power ultrasound during the electrodeposition process in order to promote the mass transfer of growing nanoparticles on the cathode surface and the surrounding solution.
For sonoelectrochemical synthesis or sonoelectrodeposition of nanoparticles, the effects of sonochemistry are combined with the process of electrodeposition. The sonoelectrochemical effects of powerful ultrasound waves and the resulting acoustic cavitation on chemical reactions are caused by very high temperatures, pressures, and their respective differentials, which develop in and around the collapsing cavitation bubbles. By combining sonochemistry with electrochemistry, sonoelectrochemistry offers joined effects such improves mass transfer, surface cleaning of the electrode surfaces, degassing of the solution, as well as increased reaction rates. All together, sonoelectrochemical nanoparticle synthesis (sonoelectrodeposition) excels by high yields of high-quality nanoparticles, which can be produced under mild conditions in a rapid and cost-efficient process. The process parameters of sonoelectrochemistry and sonoelectrodeposition allow to influence particle size and morphology.
Read more about sonoelectrochemical deposition of nanoparticles and nanostructured materials!

Sonoelectrochemical system with electrically isolated ultrasonic probe as electrode for nanoparticle synthesis

Sonoelectrochemical electrode for nanoparticle synthesis (sonoelectrodeposition)

Advantages of Sonoelectochemical NP Synthesis

  • Highly efficacious
  • Applicable to many materials and structures
  • Rapid process
  • “One pot” process
  • Mild conditions
  • Inexpensive
  • Safe and easy to operate

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How Does Sonoelectrochemical Synthesis / Sonoelectrodeposition Work?

The basic setup of an sonoelectrodeposition system for sonoelectrochemical nanoparticle synthesis is quite simple. The only difference between a sonoelectrodeposition setup and an electrodeposition setup is the fact that for the electrode(s) of the sonoelectrodeposition system ultrasonic probe(s) are used. The ultrasonic probe functions as working electrode to synthesize metallic nanoparticles. One of the main driving effects of ultrasound in sonoelectrodeposition is the increased mass transfer between electrode (cathode and/or anode) and the surrounding solution.
Since the process parameters of sonoelectrochemical synthesis and sonoelectrodeposition can be precisely controlled and adjusted, nanoparticles of controlled size and shape can be synthesized. Sonoelectrochemical syntheis and sonoelectrodeposition are applicable to a wide range of metallic nanoparticles and nanostructured complexes.

The Advantages of Sonoelectrochemical Nanoparticle Synthesis

The NTNU research group of Prof. Islam and Prof. Pollet resume in their research article (2019) the main advantages of the sonoelectrochemical production of nanoparticles as following: “(i) a great enhancement in mass transport near the electrode, thereby altering the rate, and sometimes the mechanism of the electrochemical reactions, (ii) a modification of surface morphology through cavitation jets at the electrode-electrolyte interface, usually causing an increase of the surface area and (iii) a thinning of the electrode diffusion layer thickness and therefore ion depletion.” (Islam et al. 2019)

Examples of Successfully Synthesised Nanoparticles via Sonoelectrochemical Route

  1. metallic nanoparticles
  2. alloy and semiconductor nanopowders
  3. polymeric nanoparticles
  4. nanocomposites

such as

  • copper (Cu) nanoparticles (NPs)
  • magnetite (Fe3O4) NPs
  • Tungsten-cobalt (W-Co) alloy NPs
  • zinc (Zn) nano-complexes
  • gold (Au) nanorods
  • ferromagnetic Fe45Pt55 NPs
  • cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs)
  • lead telluride (PbTe) nanorods
  • fullerene-like Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)
  • polyaniline (PA) nanoparticles
  • poly(N-methylaniline) (PNMA) conducting polymer
  • polypyrrole/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/chitosan nanocomposites
Sonoelectrochemical synthesis of nanoparticles (electrodeposition)

The probes of the ultrasonic processors UIP2000hdT (2000 watts, 20kHz) act as electrodes for the sonoelectrodeposition of nanoparticles

High-Performance Electrochemical Probes and Reactors

Hielscher Ultrasonics is your long-time experienced partner for high-performance ultrasonic systems in sonochemistry and sonoelectrochemistry. We manufacture and distribute state-of-the-art ultrasonic probes and reactors, which are used worldwide for heavy-duty applications in demanding environments. For sonoelectrochemistry and sonoelectrodeposition, Hielscher has developed special ultrasonic probes, reactors and insulators,. The ultrasonic probes act as cathode and/or anode, whilst the ultrasonic reactor cells provide the optimal conditions for electrochemical reactions. Ultrasonic electrodes and cells are available for galvanic / voltaic as well as electrolytic systems.

Precisely Controllable Amplitudes for Optimum Results

Hielscher's industrial processors of the hdT series can be comfortable and user-friendly operated via browser remote control.All Hielscher ultrasonic processors are precisely controllable and thereby reliable work horses in R&D and production. The amplitude is one of the crucial process parameters that influence the efficiency and effectiveness of sonochemically and sonomechanically induced reactions. All Hielscher Ultrasonics’ processors allow for the precise setting of the amplitude. Hielscher’s industrial ultrasonic processors can deliver very high amplitudes and deliver the required ultrasonic intensity for demanding sono-electrochamical applications. Amplitudes of up to 200µm can be easily continuously run in 24/7 operation.
Precise amplitude settings and the permanent monitoring of the ultrasonic process parameters via smart software give you the possibility to influence the sonoelectrochemical reaction precisely. During every sonication run, all ultrasonic parameters are automatically recorded on a built-in SD-card, so that each run can be evaluated and controlled. Optimal sonication for most efficient sonoelectrochemical reactions!
All equipment is built for the 24/7/365 use under full load and its robustness and reliability make it the work horse in your electrochemical process. This makes Hielscher’s ultrasonic equipment a reliable work tool that fulfils your sonoelectrochemical process requirements.

Highest Quality – Designed and Manufactured in Germany

As a family-owned and family-run business, Hielscher prioritizes highest quality standards for its ultrasonic processors. All ultrasonicators are designed, manufactured and thoroughly tested in our headquarter in Teltow near Berlin, Germany. Robustness and reliability of Hielscher’s ultrasonic equipment make it a work horse in your production. 24/7 operation under full load and in demanding environments is a natural characteristic of Hielscher’s high-performance ultrasonic probes and reactors.

Contact us now and tell us about your electrochemical process requirements! We will recommend you the most suitable ultrasonic electrodes and reactor setup!

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Sonoelectrochemical inline reactor with ultrasonic probe UIP2000hdT for the electrodeposition of nanoparticles

The probe of the ultrasonicator UIP2000hdT acts as electrode in a sonoelectrochemical setup for nanoparticle synthesis.

Literature / References

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