Sono-Electrochemical Synthesis of Nanoparticles
The ultrasonically promoted electrochemical synthesis of nanoparticles is a highly efficacious and cost-efficient route to produce high-qulaity nanoparticles on large scale. The sono-electrochemical synthesis, also known as sonoelectrodeposition, allows to prepare nanostructures of various materials and shapes.
Sonoelectrochemical Synthesis and Sonoelectrodeposition of Nanoparticles
Sonoelectrochemical synthesis or sonoelectrodeposition is a technique used to produce metallic nanoparticles applying high-power ultrasound during the electrodeposition process in order to promote the mass transfer of growing nanoparticles on the cathode surface and the surrounding solution.
For sonoelectrochemical synthesis or sonoelectrodeposition of nanoparticles, the effects of sonochemistry are combined with the process of electrodeposition. The sonoelectrochemical effects of powerful ultrasound waves and the resulting acoustic cavitation on chemical reactions are caused by very high temperatures, pressures, and their respective differentials, which develop in and around the collapsing cavitation bubbles. By combining sonochemistry with electrochemistry, sonoelectrochemistry offers joined effects such improves mass transfer, surface cleaning of the electrode surfaces, degassing of the solution, as well as increased reaction rates. All together, sonoelectrochemical nanoparticle synthesis (sonoelectrodeposition) excels by high yields of high-quality nanoparticles, which can be produced under mild conditions in a rapid and cost-efficient process. The process parameters of sonoelectrochemistry and sonoelectrodeposition allow to influence particle size and morphology.
- Highly efficacious
- Applicable to many materials and structures
- Rapid process
- “One pot” process
- Mild conditions
- Safe and easy to operate
How Does Sonoelectrochemical Synthesis / Sonoelectrodeposition Work?
The basic setup of an sonoelectrodeposition system for sonoelectrochemical nanoparticle synthesis is quite simple. The only difference between a sonoelectrodeposition setup and an electrodeposition setup is the fact that for the electrode(s) of the sonoelectrodeposition system ultrasonic probe(s) are used. The ultrasonic probe functions as working electrode to synthesize metallic nanoparticles. One of the main driving effects of ultrasound in sonoelectrodeposition is the increased mass transfer between electrode (cathode and/or anode) and the surrounding solution.
Since the process parameters of sonoelectrochemical synthesis and sonoelectrodeposition can be precisely controlled and adjusted, nanoparticles of controlled size and shape can be synthesized. Sonoelectrochemical syntheis and sonoelectrodeposition are applicable to a wide range of metallic nanoparticles and nanostructured complexes.
The Advantages of Sonoelectrochemical Nanoparticle Synthesis
The NTNU research group of Prof. Islam and Prof. Pollet resume in their research article (2019) the main advantages of the sonoelectrochemical production of nanoparticles as following: “(i) a great enhancement in mass transport near the electrode, thereby altering the rate, and sometimes the mechanism of the electrochemical reactions, (ii) a modification of surface morphology through cavitation jets at the electrode-electrolyte interface, usually causing an increase of the surface area and (iii) a thinning of the electrode diffusion layer thickness and therefore ion depletion.” (Islam et al. 2019)
- metallic nanoparticles
- alloy and semiconductor nanopowders
- polymeric nanoparticles
- copper (Cu) nanoparticles (NPs)
- magnetite (Fe3O4) NPs
- Tungsten-cobalt (W-Co) alloy NPs
- zinc (Zn) nano-complexes
- gold (Au) nanorods
- ferromagnetic Fe45Pt55 NPs
- cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs)
- lead telluride (PbTe) nanorods
- fullerene-like Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)
- polyaniline (PA) nanoparticles
- poly(N-methylaniline) (PNMA) conducting polymer
- polypyrrole/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/chitosan nanocomposites
High-Performance Electrochemical Probes and Reactors
Hielscher Ultrasonics is your long-time experienced partner for high-performance ultrasonic systems in sonochemistry and sonoelectrochemistry. We manufacture and distribute state-of-the-art ultrasonic probes and reactors, which are used worldwide for heavy-duty applications in demanding environments. For sonoelectrochemistry and sonoelectrodeposition, Hielscher has developed special ultrasonic probes, reactors and insulators,. The ultrasonic probes act as cathode and/or anode, whilst the ultrasonic reactor cells provide the optimal conditions for electrochemical reactions. Ultrasonic electrodes and cells are available for galvanic / voltaic as well as electrolytic systems.
Precisely Controllable Amplitudes for Optimum Results
All Hielscher ultrasonic processors are precisely controllable and thereby reliable work horses in R&D and production. The amplitude is one of the crucial process parameters that influence the efficiency and effectiveness of sonochemically and sonomechanically induced reactions. All Hielscher Ultrasonics’ processors allow for the precise setting of the amplitude. Hielscher’s industrial ultrasonic processors can deliver very high amplitudes and deliver the required ultrasonic intensity for demanding sono-electrochamical applications. Amplitudes of up to 200µm can be easily continuously run in 24/7 operation.
Precise amplitude settings and the permanent monitoring of the ultrasonic process parameters via smart software give you the possibility to influence the sonoelectrochemical reaction precisely. During every sonication run, all ultrasonic parameters are automatically recorded on a built-in SD-card, so that each run can be evaluated and controlled. Optimal sonication for most efficient sonoelectrochemical reactions!
All equipment is built for the 24/7/365 use under full load and its robustness and reliability make it the work horse in your electrochemical process. This makes Hielscher’s ultrasonic equipment a reliable work tool that fulfils your sonoelectrochemical process requirements.
Highest Quality – Designed and Manufactured in Germany
As a family-owned and family-run business, Hielscher prioritizes highest quality standards for its ultrasonic processors. All ultrasonicators are designed, manufactured and thoroughly tested in our headquarter in Teltow near Berlin, Germany. Robustness and reliability of Hielscher’s ultrasonic equipment make it a work horse in your production. 24/7 operation under full load and in demanding environments is a natural characteristic of Hielscher’s high-performance ultrasonic probes and reactors.
Contact us now and tell us about your electrochemical process requirements! We will recommend you the most suitable ultrasonic electrodes and reactor setup!
Contact Us! / Ask Us!
Literature / References
- Cabrera L., Gutiérrez S., Herrasti P., Reyman D. (2010): Sonoelectrochemical synthesis of magnetite. Physics Procedia 3, 2010. 89-94.
- Md Hujjatul Islam, Michael T.Y. Paul, Odne S. Burheim, Bruno G.Pollet (2019): Recent developments in the sonoelectrochemical synthesis of nanomaterials. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Volume 59, December 2019, 104711.
- Yurdal K.; Karahan İ.H. (2017): A Cyclic Voltammetry Study on Electrodeposition of Cu-Zn Alloy Films: Effect of Ultrasonication Time. Acta Physica Polonica Vol 132, 2017. 1087-1090.
- Mason, T.; Sáez Bernal, V. (2012): An Introduction to Sonoelectrochemistry In: Power Ultrasound in Electrochemistry: From Versatile Laboratory Tool to Engineering Solution. First Edition. Edited by Bruno G. Pollet. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Haas, I.: Gedanken A. (2008): Synthesis of metallic magnesium nanoparticles by sonoelectrochemistry. Chemical Communications 15(15), 2008. 1795-1798.
- Ashassi-Sorkhabi, H.; Bagheri R. (2014): Sonoelectrochemical and Electrochemical Synthesis of Polypyrrole Films on St-12 Steel and Their Corrosion and Morphological Studies. Advances in Polymer Technology Vol. 33, Issue 3; 2014.
- Bruno G. Pollet; Faranak Foroughi; Alaa Y. Faid; David R. Emberson; Md.H. Islam (2020): Does power ultrasound (26 kHz) affect the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) on Pt polycrystalline electrode in a mild acidic electrolyte? Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Vol. 69, December 2020.
- Md H. Islam; Odne S. Burheim; Bruno G.Pollet (2019): Sonochemical and sonoelectrochemical production of hydrogen. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Vol. 51, March 2019. 533-555.
- Jayaraman Theerthagiri; Jagannathan Madhavan; Seung Jun Lee; Myong Yong Choi; Muthupandian Ashokkumar; Bruno G. Pollet (2020): Sonoelectrochemistry for energy and environmental applications. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Vol. 63, 2020.
- Bruno G. Pollet (2019): Does power ultrasound affect heterogeneous electron transfer kinetics? Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Vol. 52, 2019. 6-12.
- Sherif S. Rashwan, Ibrahim Dincer, Atef Mohany, Bruno G. Pollet (2019): The Sono-Hydro-Gen process (Ultrasound induced hydrogen production): Challenges and opportunities. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 44, Issue 29, 2019, 14500-14526.