Sonoelectrochemistry Setup – 2000 Watts Ultrasound
Sonoelectrochemistry combines the benefits of electrochemistry with sonochemistry. The biggest advantage in these techniques is their simplicity, low cost, reproducibility and scalability. Hielscher Ultrasonics offers complete sonoelectrochemical setup for batch and inline use. It consists of:
- an advanced ultrasonic generator (2000 watts) with auto-tuning, amplitude control and sophisticated data logging,
- a powerful transducer with ultrasonic horn (industrial grade, 2000 watts, 20kHz),
- an electrical insulator that does not reduce ultrasonic vibrations
- ultrasonic booster horns for amplitude increase or decrease
- various sonotrode designs (The sonotrode is the electrode. Cathode or anode.)
- flow cell reactor with interchangeable cell walls (aluminium, stainless steel, steel, copper, …)
You do not need to waste your time developing your own setup just so you can combine ultrasound with electrochemistry. You do not need to make electrical modifications to standard ultrasound equipment. Get this industrial sonoelectrochemistry setup and focus your efforts and time on your chemical research and process optimization!
Ready to use Setup for Sonoelectrochemistry
Hielscher Ultrasonics offers an easy to use sonoelectrochemical setup with an adaptable, flexible configuration. This setup is suitable for general research and development and process optimization as well as for medium scale production. The sonotrode at the UIP2000hdT (2000 watts, 20kHz) can be used as an electrode in a batch setup or inline with a flow cell. It has a unique electrical isolation design. The sonoelectrochemical transducer upgrade does not reduce the ultrasonic power.
The standard sonotrode/electrode is grade 5 titanium and is designed to optimize the uniformity of the ultrasonic intensity along its side. Other designs and other materials such as aluminum, steel or stainless steel are available. The special flow cell reactor of this design has an aluminum body which is electrically insulated by the plastic connections at both ends. The aluminum profile can be used as a low cost sacrificial electrode and can be easily replaced with other materials such as steel, stainless steel or copper. Other cell diameters or designs are available. The cell in the drawing has a gap of about 2-4 mm between the ultrasonic electrode and the cell body. Therefore the ultrasonic waves cause acoustic streaming and cavitation on the cell body as well. All standard items of this design are available in our warehouses in Germany and the USA. Of course you can use the same setup for all other non-electrical ultrasonic and sonochemical processes. This setup also works for ultrasound-supported processes with high electrical pulses (HEP).
Advanced Industrial Grade Components
The UIP2000hdT is used by many customers to bridge the gap between bench-top testing and production. All Hielscher instruments are built for continuous operation – 24h/7d/365d. The UIP2000hdT is equipped with touch screen, ethernet interface, 24/7 Excel compatible CSV protocoling on SD card and a thermocouple for temperature monitoring. You can control the UIP2000hdT via your browser. A digital pressure sensor that connects to the UIP2000hdT is available. The UIP2000hdT can show you the actual net power output at the electrode. This is the net mechanical ultrasonic power in the liquid. This allows you to monitor and verify every second of the sonication, e.g. for process control or optimization. Ultrasonic devices from Hielscher provide very reproducible and repeatable results. You can scale your results linearly to production level. Of course the Hielscher technical team will support you in setting up the right experiments and Hielscher will work with you to make your process work.
If you are a newcomer to this branch of chemistry, you will find more information about sonochemistry, electrochemistry and sonoelectrochemistry below.
Sonochemistry + Electrochemistry = Sonoelectrochemistry
Sonoelectrochemistry is the combination of electrochemistry and sonochemistry.
Electrochemistry adds electricity to physical chemistry. It is an advanced means of activating reagents or reactants by transferring electrons. It enables targeted, selective chemical transformations. Electrochemistry is a surface phenomenon.
Sonochemistry adds acoustic and cavitational flow and activation energy to chemical reactions. The most important mechanism in sonochemistry is cavitation. The collapse of cavitation bubbles in an ultrasonic field creates localized hot spots with extreme conditions, such as temperatures of more than 5000 Kelvin, pressures of up to 1000 atmospheres and liquid jets of up to 1000 kilometers per hour. This improves electrochemical reactions on the surface of the electrodes.
Sonoelectrochemistry combines the two techniques mentioned above by applying ultrasonication to an electrochemical setup. Ultrasound influences important electrochemical parameters and the efficiency of chemical processes. The electrochemical solution or the hydrodynamics of the electroanalyte in an electrochemical cell is greatly enhanced by the presence of ultrasound. The coupling of an electrode to an ultrasonic horn has positive effects on the electrode surface activity and the concentration profile of the electroanalyte species in the entire cell. Sonomechanical effects improve the mass transport of electrochemical species from the bulk solution to the electroactive surface. An ultrasonic electrode reduces the diffusion layer thickness at the electrode surface, increases the thickness of the electrode deposition/electroplating, increases the electrochemical rates, yields and efficiencies, increases the porosity and hardness of the electrode deposition, improves gas removal from electrochemical solutions; cleans and reactivates the electrode surface, reduces electrode overpotentials, by metal depassivation and gas bubble removal on the electrode surface (induced by cavitation and acoustic flow), and suppresses electrode fouling. Applications of sonoelectrochemistry include electropolymerization, electrocoagulation, organic electrosynthesis, material electrochemistry, environmental electrochemistry, electroanalytical chemistry, hydrogen production and electrode deposition.
Sonoelectrochemistry in Flow Chemistry Applications
If you perform sonoelectrochemical processes in a flow setup, you can adjust the residence time of sonoelectrochemical reactions by varying the flow rate. You can recirculate for repeated exposure or pump through the cell once. Recirculation can be advantageous for temperature control, e.g. by flowing through a heat exchanger for cooling or heating.
If you use a back pressure valve at the outlet of the sono-electrochemical cell reactor, you can increase the pressure inside the cell. The pressure inside the cell is a very important parameter to intensify the sonication and influence the production of gas phases. It is also important when working with reactants or products with a low boiling point.
Operation in flow-through mode allows continuous operation and thus the production of larger volumes.
If the material flows between two electrodes, e.g. sonotrode and cell wall, you can reduce the distance between the electrodes. This allows better control of the number of electrons transferred and better selectivity of the reaction. This can improve product accuracy, distribution and yield.
In general, sonoelectrochemical reactions in a flow cell reactor arrangement can be much faster than the analog reaction in a batch process. Reactions that can take up to several hours can be completed in several minutes, producing a better product.
Literature / References
- Bruno G. Pollet; Faranak Foroughi; Alaa Y. Faid; David R. Emberson; Md.H. Islam (2020): Does power ultrasound (26 kHz) affect the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) on Pt polycrystalline electrode in a mild acidic electrolyte? Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Vol. 69, December 2020.
- Md H. Islam; Odne S. Burheim; Bruno G.Pollet (2019): Sonochemical and sonoelectrochemical production of hydrogen. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Vol. 51, March 2019. 533-555.
- Jayaraman Theerthagiri; Jagannathan Madhavan; Seung Jun Lee; Myong Yong Choi; Muthupandian Ashokkumar; Bruno G. Pollet (2020): Sonoelectrochemistry for energy and environmental applications. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Vol. 63, 2020.
- Bruno G. Pollet (2019): Does power ultrasound affect heterogeneous electron transfer kinetics? Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Vol. 52, 2019. 6-12.
- Md Hujjatul Islam; Michael T.Y. Paul; Odne S. Burheim; Bruno G. Pollet (2019): Recent developments in the sonoelectrochemical synthesis of nanomaterials. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Vol. 59, 2019.
- Sherif S. Rashwan, Ibrahim Dincer, Atef Mohany, Bruno G. Pollet (2019): The Sono-Hydro-Gen process (Ultrasound induced hydrogen production): Challenges and opportunities. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 44, Issue 29, 2019, 14500-14526.
- M.D. Esclapez, V. Sáez, D. Milán-Yáñez, I. Tudela, O. Louisnard, J. González-García (2010): Sonoelectrochemical treatment of water polluted with trichloroacetic acid: From sonovoltammetry to pre-pilot plant scale. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Volume 17, Issue 6, 2010. 1010-1020.
- L. Cabrera, S. Gutiérrez, P. Herrasti, D. Reyman (2010): Sonoelectrochemical synthesis of magnetite. Physics Procedia Volume 3, Issue 1, 2010. 89-94.