Ultrasonication Outcompetes Other Extraction Methods by Speed
The rapid procedure of ultrasonic extraction and the therefrom resulting time savings in extract production are one of many advantages of ultrasonic extraction of bioactive compounds from plants. Ultrasonic extraction has been scientifically compared to alternative extraction techniques such as supercritical CO2 extraction, maceration, heat-reflux, Soxhlet, or microwave extraction and research results prove the significant advantage of ultrasonication regarding extraction speed and yield.
Ultrasonication as Rapid Extraction Procedure
Ultrasonic extraction of bioactive compounds is well known for its high yields, high-quality extracts, short extraction time, low energy-consumption and the capability to work with very mild solvents. All these factors contribute to the extraordinary overall efficiency of ultrasonic extraction of bioactive constituents from plant materials.
Below you can find a selection of scientific research reports, in which ultrasonic extraction (also ultrasound-assisted extraction / UAE) were compared with other extraction techniques such as maceration, Soxhlet, heat-reflux, supercritical CO2, and microwave extraction.
|Extraction Application||Ultrasonic extraction time||Alternative extraction method time||Additional information||Source|
|Anthocyanin extraction from myrtle berries||5 min||15 min
|ultrasonicator UP200S||Gonzalez et al., 2019|
|Boldo leave extraction||5-30 min||15-90 min
“We can see that from 5 to 30 min of sonication, the yield is equivalent to the yield of conventional maceration at 15 to 90 min: UAE requires a third of the time to extract the soluble material of the leaves in conventional maceration.“
|Petigny et al., 2013|
|Extraction of total phenols and flavonoids from sage||11 min||30 min
conventional extraction with water bath shaker at 60ºC
|Dent et al., 2015|
|Extraction of olive leaf polyphenols||21 min||60min
conventional heat-reflux extraction
|ultrasonicator UP400S||Dobrinčić et al., 2020|
|Extraction of bioactive phenolics from Malva sylvestris leaves||49 min
48°C at 110W
agitated bed extraction at 150 rpm
HPLC analysis revealed that the concentration of bioactive phenolics increased significantly (p≺0.05) under the optimal UAE conditions.
|Bimakr et al., 2017|
|Extraction of Lipids from Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida) Seed||∼36 min||Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction combined with pressure swing technique (SCE-PST) (∼50 min), supercritical CO2 (∼97 min), and conventional Soxhlet extraction (∼360 min)||Comparison of supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), supercritical carbon dioxide extraction combined with pressure swing technique (SCE-PST) and Soxhlet extraction shows that UAE is the most efficient and rapid extraction technique.||Bimakr et al. (2015)|
- High extraction efficiency
- Superior extraction yields
- Rapid process
- Low temperatures
- Suitable to extract thermolabile compounds
- Compatible with any solvent
- Low-energy consumption
- Green extraction technique
- Easy and safe operation
- Low investment and operational costs
- 24/7 operation under heavy-duty
High-Performance Ultrasonic Extractors for Express Isolation of Compounds
Hielscher’s state-of-the-art ultrasonic equipment enable for a rapid extraction of high-quality bio-molecules from plants. Full control over the process parameters such as amplitude, temperature, pressure and energy input allow for the most efficient and mildest extraction conditions producing undamaged, highly bioactive extracts. Optimizing ultrasonic extraction parameters such as raw material particle size, solvent type, solid-to-solvent ratio, and extraction time can be optimized for highest efficiency and best overall results. Since ultrasonic extraction is a non-thermal extraction method, thermal degradation of the bioactive ingredients can be avoided resulting in superior extract quality.
Overall, advantages such as high yield, short extraction time, low extraction temperature, and the reduced solvent requirements make sonication the preferred extraction method.
Ultrasonic Extraction: Established in Lab and Industry
Ultrasonic extraction is widely applied for the extraction of any kind of bioactive compound from botanicals, fungi, algae, bacteria and mammalian cells. Ultrasonic extraction has been established as a simple, cost-effective and highly efficient that excels other traditional extraction techniques by higher extraction yields and shorter processing duration.
With lab, bench-top and fully-industrial ultrasonic systems readily available, ultrasonic extraction is nowadays an well-established and trusted technology. Hielscher ultrasonic extractors are installed worldwide in industrial processing facilities for the production of food- and pharma-grade bioactive compounds.
The table below gives you an indication of the approximate processing capacity of our ultrasonicators:
|Batch Volume||Flow Rate||Recommended Devices|
|1 to 500mL||10 to 200mL/min||UP100H|
|10 to 2000mL||20 to 400mL/min||UP200Ht, UP400St|
|0.1 to 20L||0.2 to 4L/min||UIP2000hdT|
|10 to 100L||2 to 10L/min||UIP4000hdT|
|n.a.||10 to 100L/min||UIP16000|
|n.a.||larger||cluster of UIP16000|
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Literature / References
- Bimakr, Mandana; Ganjloo, Ali; Zarringhalami, Soheila; Ansarian, Elham (2017): Ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from Malva sylvestris leaves and its comparison with agitated bed extraction technique. Food Science and Biotechnology 26(6); 2017.
- Petigny L., Périno-Issartier S., Wajsman J., Chemat F. (2013): Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.). International Journal of Molecular Science 14, 2013. 5750-5764.
- Bimakr, Mandana; Abdul Rahman, Russly; Ganjloo, Ali; Taip, Farah; Mohd Adzahan, Noranizan; Sarker, Md Zaidul (2016): Characterization of Valuable Compounds from Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn.) Seeds Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction Combined with Pressure Swing Technique. Food and Bioprocess Technology 9, 2016. 396-406.
- Bimakr, Mandana, Russly Abdul Rahman, Farah Saleena Taip, Noranizan Mohd Adzahan, Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker, Ali Ganjloo (2012): Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Crude Oil from Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida) Seed Using Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic Content and Fatty Acid Composition. Molecules 17, No. 10, 2012 11748-11762.
- González de Peredo; Ana V., Vázquez-Espinosa, Mercedes; Espada-Bellido, Estrella; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Amores-Arrocha, Antonio; Palma, Miguel; Barbero, Gerardo; Jiménez-Cantizano, Ana (2019): Alternative Ultrasound-Assisted Method for the Extraction of the Bioactive Compounds Present in Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.). Molecules. 2019 Mar 2;24(5):882.
- Dent, Maja; Verica, Dragović-Uzelac; Garofulić, Ivona; Bosiljkov, Tomislav; Ježek, Damir; Brncic, Mladen (2015): Comparison of Conventional and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction Techniques on Mass Fraction of Phenolic Compounds from sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly 29 (3), 2015.
- Dobrinčić, Ana; Maja Repajić, Ivona E. Garofulić, Lucija Tuđen, Verica Dragović-Uzelac; Branka Levaj (2020): Comparison of Different Extraction Methods for the Recovery of Olive Leaves Polyphenols. Processes 8, no. 9, 2020.
Facts Worth Knowing
Working Principle of Ultrasonic Extraction
Ultrasonic extraction is a widely used method to isolate and separate bioactive components from plant materials. Since sonication is compatible with any kind of solvent, the ultrasonic extraction procedure can be optimally designed regarding bioactive compounds (i.e., the targeted compounds), their polarity, solubility, heat-sensitivity and other factors. Adapting the sonication process specifically to a certain compound or various compounds, the most ideal setup can be chosen in order to obtain an extract of extraordinarily high quality.
Ultrasound waves coupled into a liquid or slurry creates intense vibrations and acoustic cavitation. Acoustic aka ultrasonic cavitation is determined by locally occurring extremely high pressure differentials, shear forces and liquid jets. These forces break cell walls, disrupt vegetable cells and intensify the mass transfer between cell interior and solvent. Thereby, bioactive ingredients are released efficiently into the surrounding solvent, from where target molecules can be easily isolated and purified (e.g., by rotor-evaporation, steam-distillation, or HPLC).