Ultrasonic Extraction of Active Compounds from Grape and Wine By-Products

Grapes (Vitis vinifera), vine and wine by-products are rich in polyphenols and other bioactive substances, which are valuable compounds for the production of medicinal and nutritional supplements. Ultrasonic extraction allows for the simple and highly efficient isolation of grape- and vine-derived compounds (e.g, grape pomace, seeds, leaves, stems, lee). Ultrasound-assisted extraction is fast, reliable and excels other extraction methods by higher yields, milder extraction conditions, shorter extraction time and lower cost.

Ultrasonic Extraction of Phytochemicals from Grape and Vine

Ultrasonic extraction of polyphenols from grape pomace, grape seeds, leaves and stems.By-products from vineyards and the wine-making process include grape pulp, pomace (skins and seeds), lees, grape leaves, stems, and cane, which make up to 30−40% w/w solids, which are mostly discarded unused as waste. Discovering the richness of polyphenols and other bioactive compounds in these grape and wine by-products, the industry is increasingly using these plant-based materials to produce valuable extracts. Resveratrol, anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidin, quercitin and other substances found in grapes and vine (Vitis vinifera) are already widely consumed as medicinal and nutritional supplements. As source of health-promoting compounds, extracts from Vitis vinifera by-products are used in the pharmaceutical and food industries, whilst at the same time supporting sustainable agriculture. Ultrasonic extraction facilitates the release of the bioactive compounds from grape and grape by-products. Ultrasound-assisted extraction is an long-time established extraction technique used for pharmaceutical and food compounds. It gives very high extract yields within a short extraction procedure and works with any solvent (e.g., water, ethanol, isopropanol, hexane etc.)

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Ultrasonic extraction is a simple and efficient strategy to produce higher yields of premium extracts from botanicals.

Industrial installation of the ultrasonic extractor UIP4000hdT for the production of botanical extracts.

Advantages of Ultrasonic Extraction of Phytochemicals

  • High extraction yield
  • High-quality extract
  • Rapid process
  • Non-thermal treatment
  • Compatible with any solvent
  • Safe and easy to operate
  • Energy-efficient

Ultrasonic Extraction of Polyphenols from Grape Seeds

Grape seeds are rich in proanthocyanidins and are therefore a great source for producing proanthocyanidin extracts for medicinal and nutritional supplements. Thilakarathna and Rupasinghe (2022) could demonstrate the superior efficiency of ultrasonication under controlled elevated temperatures, which resulted in higher proanthocyanidin yields and significantly shorter extraction time (ultrasound 53 min. vs conventional solvent extraction 150 h!).
The introduction of heat and ultrasonication significantly reduced the extraction time (sonication time of 53 min) and aqueous ethanol requirement (10.14:1 v:w) while considerably increasing the PAC yield (16.1 mg CE/g FW Vs. 26.6 predicted mg CE/g FW). The final optimum conditions were 47% ethanol, 10:1 s:s ratio (v:w), 53 min sonication time, and 60◦C extraction temperature.

Efficient Grape Leaf Extract Production Using Sonification

The leaves of the common grape vine (Vitis vinifera) are rich in reseveratrol, anthocyanidins, quercetin, isoquercetin as well as many other bioactive compounds, which are subministered often in extract form for medicinal and health purposes.
Ultrasonic extraction has been shown to give high yields of full-spectrum extract from grape leaves, thereby making the extraction process very efficient. Aqueous ethanol has been demonstrated as preferable solvent for grape vine extracts as it has excellent dissolving capacity for the target molecules and has no toxicity. The extraction process using ultrasonics takes only a few minutes and can be run in batch process as well as in continuous flow-through mode.
For instance, ultrasonically extracted resveratrol from grape leaves can be purified using a column of mesoporous carbon, which improves the resveratrol purity from 2.1 to 20.6%. (cf. Sun et al., 2018)

Ultrasonicator UIP4000hdT for commercial wine-making with high flow-through

Installation of ultrasonicator UIP4000hdT for industrial wine processing with high flow-through rates.

Ultrasonic Stilbenoid Extraction from Grape Stems

The ultrasonic extraction protocol of Piñeiro et al. (2013) results in high recovery of stilbenes such as trans-resveratrol, ε-viniferin, piceatannol, and vitisin B, which are mostly present in grape canes and in grape stems.

Graphic abstract gives overview over the study for ultrasonic stilbenoid extraction from grape stems using the Hielscher ultrasonic extractor UP200S.

Graphic abstract of the study for ultrasonic stilbenoid extraction from grape stems.
(Study and picture: Piñeiro et al., 2013)

With the ultrasonicator UP200S (200W, 24kHz), the main stilbenoids found in grape stems can be extracted in 15 min, using 75°C as the extraction temperature and 80% ethanol as the extraction solvent, and no cleaning step with organic solvent is needed. The optimized method allowed for the simple and efficacious analysis of stilbenoid content from 22 grape stem samples.

The Hielscher ultrasonicator UP200S was successfully used for the stilbenoid extraction from grape stems.

Main effects plot on the mean recovery (area 10.000−1) by ultrasonic extraction using the UP200S applying various parameters: piceatannol (a), trans-resveratrol (b), ε-viniferin (c), and vitisin-B (d).
(Study and graphs: Piñeiro et al., 2013)

Ultrasonication as highly efficacious extraction method for stilbenoids from grape and vine.

HPLC-DAD chromatogram corresponding to the stilbenoid enriched reference extract.
(Study and graphs: Piñeiro et al., 2013)

Ultrasonic probe-type extractor for efficient phytochemical and botanical release from plants.

Ultrasonic extractor UP400St for the preparation of extracts from grape and vine (e.g., grape pomace, seeds, leaves, stems, lee).

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High-Performance Ultrasonic Processors for Grape and Vine Extraction

Hielscher Ultrasonics extractors are well established in the field of botanical extraction, no matter what plant materials or solvent is used. Extract producers – both, exclusive boutique extract manufacturers as well as large-scale mass producers – find at Hielscher‘s broad equipment range the ideal ultrasonic extraction equipment for their production requirements. Batch as well as continuous inline process setups are readily available and can be shipped off at the same day.

High Efficiency Extraction with Hielscher Ultrasonicators

Hielscher Ultrasonic extractors efficiently disrupt vegetable cells, increase the surface area of the plant material for solvent penetration, as well as improved mass transfer, which results in the quick and complete release of phytochemicals (secondary metabolites). Designed with regards to user-friendliness, Hielscher extractors are quickly installed and can be safe and intuitively operated.
 
The table below gives you an indication of the approximate processing capacity of our ultrasonicators:

Batch Volume Flow Rate Recommended Devices
1 to 500mL 10 to 200mL/min UP100H
10 to 2000mL 20 to 400mL/min UP200Ht, UP400St
0.1 to 20L 0.2 to 4L/min UIP2000hdT
10 to 100L 2 to 10L/min UIP4000hdT
n.a. 10 to 100L/min UIP16000
n.a. larger cluster of UIP16000

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Ultrasonic high-shear homogenizers are used in lab, bench-top, pilot and industrial processing.

Hielscher Ultrasonics manufactures high-performance ultrasonic homogenizers for mixing applications, dispersion, emulsification and extraction on lab, pilot and industrial scale.



Literature / References

Ultrasonic extraction is an efficient method to release stilbenoids from grape stems.

Chemical structures of piceatannol (a), trans-resveratrol (b), isorhapontigenin (c), ε-viniferin (d), and vitisin-B (e).
(Study and graphs: Piñeiro et al., 2013)

Facts Worth Knowing

Working Principle of Ultrasonic Extraction

High-power, low-frequency ultrasound creates oscillation and acoustic cavitation in liquid medium, which results in intense turbulences, mixing, cell disruption, and high mass transfer. These ultrasonic effects are applied to plant materials in order to break cell structures such as cell walls and vesicles. Due to the high mass transfer, the intracellular compounds such as phytochemicals (polyphenols, flavanols, antioxidants etc.) are released into the surounding solvent. This intensity of sonication turn ultrasonic extraction into the superior isolation method for the production of natural product component. Ultrasonic extraction is an established extraction technique, which is used in food and pharmaceutical production since decades.

Ultrasonic extraction works by disrupting cell structures and promoting mass transfer

Power ultrasound waves disrupt the cell structure of botanicals, release the bioactive compounds and promote the mass transfer between the plant material and the solvent (e.g., ethanol).


High performance ultrasonics! Hielscher's product range covers the full spectrum from the compact lab ultrasonicator over bench-top units to full-industrial ultrasonic systems.

Hielscher Ultrasonics manufactures high-performance ultrasonic homogenizers from lab to industrial size.