Hielscher tecnologia de ultra-som

Extração ultrassônica de tabaco

A extração convencional do tabaco é um processo lento e demorado, que envolve o uso de solventes tóxicos em altas temperaturas, o que torna o processo perigoso.
A extração ultrassonicamente assistida de alcaloides do tabaco pode ser administrada usando água ou solventes leves em um processo rápido de alguns minutos. Alcalóides extraídos ultrassonicamente, como a nicotina do tabaco, são liberados em um procedimento rápido e altamente eficiente, que dá altos rendimentos de um extrato de espectro completo (contendo nicotina, nornicotina, ácido clorogênico (ácido 5-caffeoilástico), rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina, rutina ácido caffeic e escopoletina, solanesol etc.).

Extração ultrassônica de tabaco

A extração ultrassônica assistida (Emirados Comum) é um método de extração rápido, eficaz e conveniente, que é baseado na aplicação de ultra-som de energia. Ondas ultrassônicas intensas geram micromovimento rápido e cavitação acústica em sistemas de líquido sólido (por exemplo, material vegetal em solvente, por exemplo, folhas de tabaco no etanol), o que resulta em um aumento da transferência de massa, bem como um processo de extração acelerado. Em comparação com outras técnicas avançadas de extração, como extração de fluidos supercríticos e extração de pares de íons, a extração ultrasonicamente assistida é significativamente mais econômica, ambiental-mais amigável, mais segura e mais fácil de usar. Portanto, a extração ultrassônica é a técnica de extração preferida para liberar compostos bioativos de botânicos.
A extração ultrassônica resulta em um extrato de amplo espectro, contendo nicotina, que é o alcaloide primário do tabaco, com 94 a 98% do teor total de alcalóides, bem como os alcalóides nornicotina, anabacia, anatabina, cotinina e miosmina.

UP100H com sonotrode MS14 para a extração de botânicos, como tabaco

O SonoStation da Hielscher Ultrasonics é uma configuração ultrassônica fácil de usar para escala de produção. (Clique para ampliar!)

A SonoStation – um sistema ultra-sônico com 2x ultrasonicators 2kW, De tanque agitado e bomba – é um sistema fácil de usar para a extração.

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Extratos de tabaco de espectro completo com sonication

Alcalóides como nicotina e nornicotina, ácido clorogênico, fenólico, solanesol e outros compostos bioativos podem ser rapidamente, eficientes e seguros isolados usando extração ultrassônica. A extração convencional de tabaco envolve o uso de solventes tóxicos, como heptane em altas temperaturas, o que transforma o processo de extração em um procedimento perigoso. Todo o processo de extração convencional leva cerca de 24h e é, assim, muito demorado.
A extração ultrassônica pode ser realizada como extração de água fria ou usando solventes leves, como etanol ou mistura de etanol-água à temperatura ambiente ou temperaturas ligeiramente elevadas. A sonorização leva alguns minutos, o que transforma a extração em um procedimento rápido. Além disso, usando água ou solventes leves, o processo é completamente seguro e conveniente.
As folhas de tabaco ultrassonicamente desplead são separadas dos compostos extraídos no solvente. Os extratos de espectro completo produzidos ultrassonicamente contêm a nicotina alcalóide primária, bem como os alcalóides secundários ou menores, como anabasine ou 3-(2-piperidinyl)pyridine, anatabina ou 3-(2-1,2,3,6-tetrahidropilado) piridina, cotinina ou 1- metil-5-(3-pyridyl)-2-pirrolidinone), 2,3'-dipyridyl ou isonicoteina, N-formylnornicotina ou 2-(3-pyridyl)pyrrolidinecarbaldehyde, miosmina ou 3-(1-pirrolin-2-yl)piridina, nornicotina ou 3-(pyrrolidin-2-yl)pyridine, e 𝛽-nicotyrine or 3-(1-methylpyrrol-2-yl)pyridine. The content of these alkaloids varies depending on tobacco species and tobacco products. While nicotine is the primary alkaloid with 94–98% of the total alkaloid content, nornicotine and anatabine are the two most abundant secondary alkaloids, each accounting for approx. 2% to 6% of the total alkaloid content of tobacco.

Benefits of Ultrasonic Tobacco Extraction:

  • Higher Yield
  • High Quality
  • Rapid Extraction
  • Mild, Non-thermal Process
  • Water or Solvent
  • Simple & Safe Operation

Choose from a Broad Selection of Solvents

Using ultrasonic extraction, you can select from various solvents, including water, alcohol, ethanol, methanol, ethanol-water mixtures or strong solvents such as heptane or hexane. All of the former named solvents have been already successfully tested and shown to be effective for the isolation of bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics and solanesol from tobacco plant materials. Sonication can be used in solvent-free cold-water extraction (e.g. to prepare organic extracts) or can be combined with a solvent of your choice.
Learn more about solvents for the ultrasonic extraction from botanicals!

Hielscher ultrasonicator UP400St with sonotrode S24d22L2 for extraction of nicotine and harmala from tobacco leaves.

Ultrasonic processor UP400St (400 watts) for the extraction of alkaloids such as nicotine and harmala from tobacco leaves.

High-Performance Ultrasound Extractors

UIP4000hdT (4kW) ultrasonic processor for the extraction of pectins in an industrial inline process.Hielscher’s ultrasonic equipment is a commonly extraction tool for the isolation of bioactive compounds from botanicals. Supplying ultrasonic extractors for all process scales, Hielscher is able to recommend you the most suitable ultrasonic system for your needs. Starting with compact, yet powerful lab systems for analysis and feasibility testing, Hielscher offers the full range from lab and pilot plant ultrasonicators up to fully industrial ultrasound reactors. Offering the full band width of ultrasonic processors, Hielscher has the ideal setup for your extraction process. Depending on your process volume and goal, ultrasonic extraction can be performed in batch or continuous flow mode. Manifold accessories such as sonotrodes, booster horns, flow cells and reactors allow to equip the ultrasonic processor to fulfil the process targets ideally.
Hielscher’s ultrasonic processors can be precisely controlled and process data are automatically recorded on the integrated SD-card of our digital ultrasonic systems. The reliable control over the process parameters ensure a consistently high product quality. The automatic data recording of the process parameters allow for an easy process standardization and the fulfilment of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP).
The robustness of Hielscher’s ultrasonic equipment allows for 24/7 operation at heavy duty and in demanding environments. Easy and safe operation as well as low maintenance make Hielscher’s ultrasonic systems the reliable work horse in your production.

The table below gives you an indication of the approximate processing capacity of our ultrasonicators:

Batch Volume Flow Rate Recommended Devices
0.5 to 1.5mL n.a. VialTweeter
1 to 500mL 10 to 200mL/min UP100H
10 to 2000mL 20 to 400mL/min UP200Ht, UP400St
0.1 to 20L 0.2 to 4L/min UIP2000hdT
10 to 100L 2 to 10L/min UIP4000
n.a. 10 to 100L/min UIP16000
n.a. larger cluster of UIP16000

Contact us now for further information! Our well-trained staff will be glad to discuss your extraction process with you!

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Hielscher Ultrasonics manufactures high-performance ultrasonicators for sonochemical applications.

High-power ultrasonic processors from lab to pilot and industrial scale.



Facts Worth Knowing

Why is Ultrasonic Extraction so Effective?

Ultrasonically-assisted extraction (UAE) is based on coupling highly intense ultrasound waves (acoustic waves) into a liquid or slurry. The acoustic waves create alternating high pressure / low pressure cycles, which result in the phenomenon of acoustic cavitation. The phenomenon of ultrasonic or acoustic cavitation is characterized by extreme, locally confined conditions of very high pressures, temperatures and shear forces. In proximity of the imploding cavitation bubbles, temperatures of up to 5000K, pressures of 1000 atmosphere, heating-cooling rate above 1010 K/s and liquids jets with up to 280m/s velocity, which appear as very high shear force and turbulences in the cavitational zone, can be measured. The combination of these factors (pressure, heat, shear and turbulence) disrupt cells (lysis) and intensify mass transfer during the extraction process. Thereby, the liquid-solid extraction of phytoconstituents from plant cells is promoted. The ultrasonic extraction technique is widely applied for the successful and efficient extraction of flavonoids, polysaccharides, alkaloids, phytosterols, polyphenols, and pigments from plants.

Ultrasonic disruptors are used for extractions from phyto sources (e.g. plants, algae, fungi)

Ultrasonic extraction from plant cells: the microscopic transverse section (TS) shows the mechanism of actions during ultrasonic extraction from cells (magnification 2000x) [resource: Vilkhu et al. 2011]

Tobacco

Various plants in the Nicotiana genus and the Solanaceae (nightshade) family are known as tobacco plants. Besides being the commonly used term for the plant, tobacco describes also the products prepared from the cured leaves of the tobacco plant. Whilst Nicotiana tabacum is the main crop use for tobacco and nicotine production, there are over 70 plant species of tobacco. N. tabacum is the dominant species used for tobacco products, however the more potent variant N. rustica can be found around the world and is used for.
Tobacco contains the stimulant alkaloid nicotine as well as harmala alkaloids. Dried and cured tobacco leaves are mainly used for smoking in cigarettes, cigars, pipes, shishas as well as e-cigarettes, e-cigars, e-pipes and vaporizers. Alternatively, they can be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco and snus.

The tobacco plant family contains various (sub-)species, which exhibit different alkaloid and flavour profiles.
Oriental tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is a species of tobacco grown mainly in Turkey, Greece, and neighboring areas, which is used for the commercial production of cigarettes, cigars and chewing tobacco. It has a strong characteristic flavor, is relatively low in nicotine and high in reducing sugars, acids, and volatile flavor oil, which gives the tobacco products an intense aroma.

There are 67 natural species of tobacco known. Below the most common species are listed:

  • Nicotiana acuminata (Graham) Hook. – manyflower tobacco
  • Nicotiana africana Merxm.
  • Nicotiana alata Link & Otto – winged tobacco, jasmine tobacco, tanbaku (Persian)
  • Nicotiana attenuata Torrey ex S. Watson – coyote tobacco
  • Nicotiana benthamiana Domin
  • Nicotiana clevelandii A. Gray
  • Nicotiana glauca Graham – tree tobacco, Brazilian tree tobacco, shrub tobacco, mustard tree
  • Nicotiana glutinosa L.
  • Nicotiana langsdorffii Weinm.
  • Nicotiana longiflora Cav.
  • Nicotiana occidentalis H.-M. Wheeler
  • Nicotiana obtusifolia M. Martens & Galeotti – desert tobacco, punche, “tabaquillo”
  • Nicotiana otophora Griseb.
  • Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv.
  • Nicotiana quadrivalvis Pursh
  • Nicotiana rustica L. – Aztec tobacco, mapacho
  • Nicotiana suaveolens Lehm. – Australian tobacco
  • Nicotiana sylvestris Speg. & Comes – South American tobacco, woodland tobacco
  • Nicotiana tabacum L. – commercial tobacco grown for the production of cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, etc.
  • Nicotiana tomentosiformis Goodsp.

The three species below are man-made hybrids:

  • Nicotiana × didepta N. debneyi × N. tabacum
  • Nicotiana × digluta N. glutinosa × N. tabacum
  • Nicotiana × sanderae Hort. ex Wats. N. alata × N. forgetiana

Types of Tobacco
The curing and subsequent aging process of tobacco leaves induces a slow oxidation and degradation of the present carotenoids in tobacco leaf. Due to the oxidation, certain compounds in the tobacco leaves are synthesized, which result in sweet hay, tea, rose oil, or fruity aromatic flavors, which contribute to the “smoothness” of the smoke. Starches are converted into sugars, which subsequently glycate proteins, and are oxidized into advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). This is a caramelization process that also gives the smoke its flavor.
The preparation and curing method of tobacco influences its final aroma characteristics. Curing can be achieved by air-, fire-, flue-, and sun-curing. For example, flue-cured tobacco (e.g. from France) contains only low levels of alkaloids, whilst air-cured Burley tobacco (e.g. sourced from Guatemala) is known for its high content of alkaloids.