Ultrasonic Cold-Water Extraction of Mogrosides from Monk Fruit

  • Monk fruit (S. grosvenorii) extract and particularly its compound mogroside V is used as a natural non-caloric sweetener.
  • Ultrasonic extraction is a simple, rapid, reproducible, and reliable extraction method successfully applied to produce natural non-caloric sweetener from monk fruit.
  • Ultrasonic extraction can be performed with water or solvents such as ethanol or methanol. The water extraction is a green method that allows to produce high-quality mogroside extracts.

Mogrosides as Sweeteners

Chemical structure of mogroside V. Ultrasonic extraction improves the isolation of mongrosides from monk fruit giving higher yields of the sweet substance. Chemical structure of mogroside V [/caption]The monk fruit contains cucurbitane-type triterpenoids known as mogrosides. Especially the mogroside V gained attention as it offers a sweetness 100-250 times sweeter than regular sugar, whilst containing zero calories. Therefore the monk fruit extract is nowadays a popular natural, zero-calorie sweetener. Its sweet-flavored mogrosides show various health benefits such as antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, which make it consumption in many ways beneficial.

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Ultrasonic SonoStation - An All-in-One Ultrasonic production system consisting of tank, stirrer, pump and sonicator ready for production.

SonoStationan ultrasonic system with 2x 2kW ultrasonicators, stirred tank and pumpis a user-friendly system for extraction.


Ultrasonic botanical extraction gives higher yields. The Hielscher UIP2000hdT, 2000 watts homogenizer is powerful enough to extract batches from 10 liters to 120 liters easily.

Ultrasonic Extraction of Botanicals - 30 Liter / 8 Gallon Batch

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Ultrasonic Extraction of Mogrosides from Monk Fruit

The ultrasonic extraction technique is well known to intensify extraction processes by opening cell structures and increasing the mass transfer. Mogroside extracts can be very efficiently recovered from the fruit raw material using water or various aqueous solutions as solvent. Sonication is a mild, non-thermal treatment, which can be combined with cold water-extraction to produce monk fruit extracts of highest quality. By the mild process temperature and the avoidance of harsh solvents a thermal and chemical degradation of the mogrosides is prevented.
However, in regards of solvent use, sonication can be used with a variety of extraction media. Read more about the use of solvents for ultrasonic extraction from botanicals!
For instance, in a case study of Luo et al. 2016 ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction of mogrosides in methanol/water (80:20 v/v) was found to give optimal results while being convenient, cost effective, and highly reproducible.

Why Ultrasonication for Monk Fruit Extraction?

Ultrasonic probe-type extraction is a highly effective method for extracting mogrosides from monk fruit (Siraitia grosvenorii), a natural sweetener known for its intense sweetness without calories. Here are some important aspects to know about this extraction process:

Principle of Ultrasonic Extraction: Ultrasonic probe-type extraction employs high-intensity ultrasound to create cavitation in a solvent. The rapid formation and collapse of these bubbles generate locally intense forces that disrupt the cell walls or the plant material and promote mass transfer, facilitating the release of mogrosides into the solvent.

  • Efficiency: Ultrasonic extraction is known for its high efficiency in extracting bioactive compounds like mogrosides. It significantly reduces extraction times compared to conventional methods, making it a preferred choice for numerous extraction applications.
  • Solvent Selection: The choice of solvent is crucial. Typically, water or a mixture of water and ethanol is used to extract mogrosides from monk fruit. The solvent mixture can be composed to optimize the extraction efficiency and the purity of the extract.
  • Optimization: Parameters such as sonication time, temperature, solvent concentration, and the ratio of monk fruit to solvent should be optimized to maximize mogroside extraction while minimizing the degradation of these compounds.
    Temperature Control: Monitoring and controlling the temperature during ultrasonic extraction is essential. Elevated temperatures can lead to mogroside degradation, affecting the quality of the extract.
    Read more about temperature control during sonication!
  • Scalability: Ultrasonic probe-type extraction can be performed on various scales, from small laboratory setups to larger industrial systems. The scale of operation should be chosen based on the intended use and production needs.
  • Benefits of Ultrasonic Mogroside Extraction at a Glance:

    • higher yield
    • higher quality
    • non-thermal, cold extraction
    • solvent-free
    • reduced extraction time
    • process intensification
    • retro-fitting possible
    • green extraction
    UP200Ht sonicator for monk fruit extraction

    Sonicator UP200Ht for monk fruit extraction

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    In this presentation we introduce you to the manufacturing of botanical extracts. We explain the challenges of producing high-quality botanical extracts and how a sonicator can help you to overcome these challenges. This presentation will show you how ultrasonic extraction works. You will learn, what benefits you can expect using a sonicator for extraction and how you can implement an ultrasonic extractor into your extract production.

    Ultrasonic Botanical Extraction - How to use sonicators to extract botanical compounds

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    High Performance Ultrasonic Extractors

    Hielscher Ultrasonics offers powerful compact lab, mid-size bench-top and industrial ultrasonic extractors, which can be operated continuously 24/7 under full load. Depending on your raw material and process volume, we are able to offer you an ultrasonic extraction system that suits your needs. You can choose between batch and continuous extraction. Later scale-up to larger process capacities can be easily done since ultrasonic processes can be scaled linearly.
    Hielscher pilot and industrial sonicators reliably deliver very high amplitudesallowing to run amplitudes of up to 200µm reliable and continuously run in 24/7 operation. For even higher amplitudes, customized ultrasonic sonotrodes are available. The robustness of Hielscher’s ultrasonic equipment allows operations at heavy duty and in demanding environments.
    As long-time experienced manufacturer of high-power ultrasonic extractors, Hielscher is your reliable partner for sophisticated extraction. We consult and assist our customers with our knowledge and guide them from feasibility testing to industrial installation.
    Contact us now! We are glad to discuss your extraction requirements with you!
    The table below gives you an indication of the approximate processing capacity of our ultrasonicators:

    Batch VolumeFlow RateRecommended Devices
    10 to 2000mL20 to 400mL/minUP200Ht, UP400St
    0.1 to 20L0.2 to 4L/minUIP2000hdT
    10 to 100L2 to 10L/minUIP4000
    n.a.10 to 100L/minUIP16000
    n.a.largercluster of UIP16000

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    Ultrasonic flow cells are used for particle size reduction and botanical extraction amongst many other applications.

    Ultrasonic flow reactors are highly efficient in botanical extraction

    Advantages of Ultrasonic Extraction

    • High quality extracts
    • More complete extraction
    • High extraction rate
    • Use of various solvents
    • Non-toxic
    • Non-thermal (cold) method
    • Rapid extraction process
    • Safe and easy-to-use
    • Linear scalability


    • Jing Liu, Can Liu, Yonghai Rong, Long Rong (2012): Extraction of Mogroside and Limonin with Different Extraction Methods and its Modeling. International Journal of Food Engineering, Volume 8, Issue 2. 1556-3758.
    • Luo Z., Shi H., Zhang K., Qin X., Guo Y., Ma X. (2016): Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of multiple sweet mogrosides in the fruits of Siraitia grosvenorii and its marketed sweeteners. J Sep Sci. November 2016;39(21):4124-4135.
    • Petigny L., Périno-Issartier S., Wajsman J., Chemat F. (2013): Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.). International Journal of Molecular Science 14, 2013. 5750-5764.
    • Dogan Kubra, P.K. Akman, F. Tornuk(2019): Improvement of Bioavailability of Sage and Mint by Ultrasonic Extraction. International Journal of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, 2019. 2(2): p.122- 135.
    • Fooladi, Hamed; Mortazavi, Seyyed Ali; Rajaei, Ahmad; Elhami Rad, Amir Hossein; Salar Bashi, Davoud; Savabi Sani Kargar, Samira (2013): Optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds of jujube (Ziziphus Jujube) using ultrasound-assisted extraction method.

    Facts Worth Knowing

    What is Monk Fruit?

    The fruits of Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle), a herbaceous vine also known as Luo Han Guo, Buddha fuit, or longevity fruit, can be widely found through Asia, where they are valued as medicinal plant to treat coughs, sore throats and constipation. In the Western world, monk fruit extracts have gained high popularity as a non-caloric sweetener for food and beverages.
    The main components of crude Luo Han Guo fruit extracts are cucurbitane glycosides (known as mogrosides, specifically mogrosides II, III, IV, V, and VI) as well as flavonoids and melanoidins.
    Mogrosides are cucurbitane-type triterpenoid glycosides, which are responsible for the intense sweet taste. Monk fruitsglycosides are composed from various mogrosides. Mogroside V is the major sweetness component of the fruit and is present in relatively high amounts (0.50%) in S. grosvenorii. The pure mogroside V extract is approx. 250–450 times sweeter than that of the same concentration of sucrose (table sugar)
    Monk fruit extract, which has been isolated using water as solvent, is approx. 150 times sweeter than sucrose and is reported to remain stable even when boiled in water for 5 h.
    Research has demonstrated that mogroside V acts as an antioxidant that can scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and prevents thereby DNA damage. These multiple characteristics of monk fruit’s mogrosides turns the extract into a highly valued product. Ultrasonically-assisted extraction has been successfully applied to extract and isolate mogroside V from S. grosvenorii (monk fruit) for nutritional use in food and beverages as well as for medical products.

    What are the Active Ingredients in Monk Fruit?

    Monk fruit (Siraitia grosvenorii), also known as luo han guo, contains several active ingredients, with the primary ones being mogrosides. Here are the key active components:

    • Mogrosides: These are a group of triterpene glycosides, which are the main sweetening compounds in monk fruit. The most notable of these is mogroside V, which is the most abundant and sweetest of the mogrosides.
    • Vitamins: Monk fruit contains vitamin C and several B vitamins.
    • Amino Acids: It contains various amino acids that contribute to its nutritional profile.
    • Antioxidants: Monk fruit is rich in antioxidants, which help combat oxidative stress in the body.
    • Polysaccharides: These contribute to the fruit’s overall health benefits, including potential immune-boosting properties.

    The mogrosides, especially mogroside V, are responsible for the intense sweetness of monk fruit, which can be up to 250 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar) but with no calories.

    Does Monk Fruit Spike Blood Glucose?
    Monk fruit sweetener is generally considered to be insulin-neutral, meaning it does not spike insulin levels.

    Zero Calories and Carbohydrates: Monk fruit sweetener contains no calories and no carbohydrates, so it doesn’t raise blood glucose levels.
    Mogrosides: The sweet compounds in monk fruit, primarily mogroside V, are metabolized differently from sugar and do not have the same impact on blood glucose and insulin levels.
    Studies and Research: Research has shown that monk fruit extract does not significantly affect blood glucose or insulin levels. This makes it a suitable sweetener for people with diabetes or those looking to manage their blood sugar levels.

    While individual responses to sweeteners can vary, the evidence suggests that monk fruit sweetener does not cause an insulin spike and is a safe alternative for those concerned about blood sugar control.

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