Hielscher Echografietechniek

Ultrasone tabaksextractie

Conventionele tabaksextractie is een langzaam en tijdrovend proces, waarbij giftige oplosmiddelen bij hoge temperaturen worden gebruikt, wat het proces gevaarlijk maakt.
Ultrasonisch geassisteerde extractie van alkaloïden uit tabak kan worden uitgevoerd met water of milde oplosmiddelen in een snel proces van een paar minuten. Ultrasoon geëxtraheerde alkaloïden zoals nicotine uit tabak komen vrij door middel van een snelle en zeer efficiënte procedure, die een hoge opbrengst geeft van een volledig spectrum extract (dat nicotine, nornicotine, chlorogeenzuur (5-caffeoylquinezuur), rutine, cafeïnezuur en scopoletine, solanesol, etc. bevat).

Ultrasone extractie van tabak

Ultrasoon ondersteunde extractie (VAE) is een snelle, effectieve en handige extractiemethode, die gebaseerd is op de toepassing van power-ultrasound. Intense ultrasone golven genereren snelle microbewegingen en akoestische cavitatie in vast-vloeistofsystemen (bv. plantaardig materiaal in oplosmiddel, bv. tabaksbladeren in ethanol), wat resulteert in een verhoogde massa-overdracht en een versneld extractieproces. In vergelijking met andere geavanceerde extractietechnieken zoals superkritische vloeistofextractie en ionenpaarde-extractie is ultrasoon geassisteerde extractie aanzienlijk zuiniger, milieuvriendelijker, veiliger en gemakkelijker te gebruiken. Daarom is ultrasone extractie de voorkeursextractietechniek om bioactieve verbindingen vrij te maken uit plantaardige producten.
Ultrasone extractie resulteert in een breed spectrum extract, dat nicotine bevat, dat is de primaire alkaloïde van tabak met 94-98% van de totale alkaloïde inhoud, evenals de alkaloïden nornicotine, anabasine, anatabine, cotinine en myosmine.

UP100H met MS14-sonotrode voor de extractie van botanische producten zoals tabak.

Hielscher Ultrasonics' SonoStation is een eenvoudig te gebruiken ultrasone setup voor productieschaal. (Klik om te vergroten!)

Sonostation – een ultrasoon systeem met 2x 2kW ultrasone apparatenGeroerde tank en de pomp – is een gebruiksvriendelijk systeem voor extractie.

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Volledige spectrumextracten van tabak met sonisch geluid

Alkaloïden zoals nicotine en nornicotine, chlorogeenzuur, fenolen, fenolen, solanesol en andere bioactieve verbindingen kunnen snel, efficiënt en veilig worden geïsoleerd door middel van ultrasone extractie. Bij de conventionele tabaksextractie worden giftige oplosmiddelen zoals heptaan bij hoge temperaturen gebruikt, waardoor het extractieproces een gevaarlijke procedure wordt. Het hele conventionele afzuigproces duurt ca. 24 uur en is daardoor zeer tijdrovend.
Ultrasone extractie kan worden uitgevoerd als koudwater-extractie of met behulp van milde oplosmiddelen zoals ethanol of een mengsel van ethanol en water bij kamertemperatuur of licht verhoogde temperaturen. De sonificatie duurt een paar minuten, waardoor de extractie een snelle procedure wordt. Bovendien is het proces bij gebruik van water of milde oplosmiddelen volledig veilig en gemakkelijk.
De ultrasonisch gedeblokkeerde tabaksbladeren worden in het oplosmiddel gescheiden van de geëxtraheerde verbindingen. De ultrasoon geproduceerde full spectrum extracten bevatten zowel de primaire alkaloïde nicotine als de secundaire of kleine alkaloïden zoals anabasine of 3-(2-piperidinyl)pyridine, anatabine of 3-(2-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridyl)pyridine, cotinine of 1-methyl-5-(3-pyridyl)-2-pyrrolidinon), 2,3'-dipyridyl of isonicoteine, N-formylnornicotine of 2-(3-pyridyl)pyrrolidinecarbaldehyde, myosmine of 3-(1-pyrrolin-2-yl)pyridine, nornicotine of 3-(pyrrolidine-2-yl)pyridine, en 𝛽-nicotyrine or 3-(1-methylpyrrol-2-yl)pyridine. The content of these alkaloids varies depending on tobacco species and tobacco products. While nicotine is the primary alkaloid with 94–98% of the total alkaloid content, nornicotine and anatabine are the two most abundant secondary alkaloids, each accounting for approx. 2% to 6% of the total alkaloid content of tobacco.

Benefits of Ultrasonic Tobacco Extraction:

  • Higher Yield
  • High Quality
  • Rapid Extraction
  • Mild, Non-thermal Process
  • Water or Solvent
  • Simple & Safe Operation

Choose from a Broad Selection of Solvents

Using ultrasonic extraction, you can select from various solvents, including water, alcohol, ethanol, methanol, ethanol-water mixtures or strong solvents such as heptane or hexane. All of the former named solvents have been already successfully tested and shown to be effective for the isolation of bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics and solanesol from tobacco plant materials. Sonication can be used in solvent-free cold-water extraction (e.g. to prepare organic extracts) or can be combined with a solvent of your choice.
Learn more about solvents for the ultrasonic extraction from botanicals!

Hielscher ultrasonicator UP400St with sonotrode S24d22L2 for extraction of nicotine and harmala from tobacco leaves.

Ultrasonic processor UP400St (400 watts) for the extraction of alkaloids such as nicotine and harmala from tobacco leaves.

High-Performance Ultrasound Extractors

UIP4000hdT (4kW) ultrasonic processor for the extraction of pectins in an industrial inline process.Hielscher’s ultrasonic equipment is a commonly extraction tool for the isolation of bioactive compounds from botanicals. Supplying ultrasonic extractors for all process scales, Hielscher is able to recommend you the most suitable ultrasonic system for your needs. Starting with compact, yet powerful lab systems for analysis and feasibility testing, Hielscher offers the full range from lab and pilot plant ultrasonicators up to fully industrial ultrasound reactors. Offering the full band width of ultrasonic processors, Hielscher has the ideal setup for your extraction process. Depending on your process volume and goal, ultrasonic extraction can be performed in batch or continuous flow mode. Manifold accessories such as sonotrodes, booster horns, flow cells and reactors allow to equip the ultrasonic processor to fulfil the process targets ideally.
Hielscher’s ultrasonic processors can be precisely controlled and process data are automatically recorded on the integrated SD-card of our digital ultrasonic systems. The reliable control over the process parameters ensure a consistently high product quality. The automatic data recording of the process parameters allow for an easy process standardization and the fulfilment of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP).
The robustness of Hielscher’s ultrasonic equipment allows for 24/7 operation at heavy duty and in demanding environments. Easy and safe operation as well as low maintenance make Hielscher’s ultrasonic systems the reliable work horse in your production.

The table below gives you an indication of the approximate processing capacity of our ultrasonicators:

Batch Volume Flow Rate Recommended Devices
0.5 to 1.5mL n.a. VialTweeter
1 to 500mL 10 to 200mL/min UP100H
10 to 2000mL 20 to 400mL/min UP200Ht, UP400St
0.1 to 20L 0.2 to 4L/min UIP2000hdT
10 to 100L 2 to 10L/min UIP4000
n.a. 10 to 100L/min UIP16000
n.a. larger cluster of UIP16000

Contact us now for further information! Our well-trained staff will be glad to discuss your extraction process with you!

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Hielscher Ultrasonics manufactures high-performance ultrasonicators for sonochemical applications.

High-power ultrasonic processors from lab to pilot and industrial scale.



Facts Worth Knowing

Why is Ultrasonic Extraction so Effective?

Ultrasonically-assisted extraction (UAE) is based on coupling highly intense ultrasound waves (acoustic waves) into a liquid or slurry. The acoustic waves create alternating high pressure / low pressure cycles, which result in the phenomenon of acoustic cavitation. The phenomenon of ultrasonic or acoustic cavitation is characterized by extreme, locally confined conditions of very high pressures, temperatures and shear forces. In proximity of the imploding cavitation bubbles, temperatures of up to 5000K, pressures of 1000 atmosphere, heating-cooling rate above 1010 K/s and liquids jets with up to 280m/s velocity, which appear as very high shear force and turbulences in the cavitational zone, can be measured. The combination of these factors (pressure, heat, shear and turbulence) disrupt cells (lysis) and intensify mass transfer during the extraction process. Thereby, the liquid-solid extraction of phytoconstituents from plant cells is promoted. The ultrasonic extraction technique is widely applied for the successful and efficient extraction of flavonoids, polysaccharides, alkaloids, phytosterols, polyphenols, and pigments from plants.

Ultrasonic disruptors are used for extractions from phyto sources (e.g. plants, algae, fungi)

Ultrasonic extraction from plant cells: the microscopic transverse section (TS) shows the mechanism of actions during ultrasonic extraction from cells (magnification 2000x) [resource: Vilkhu et al. 2011]

Tobacco

Various plants in the Nicotiana genus and the Solanaceae (nightshade) family are known as tobacco plants. Besides being the commonly used term for the plant, tobacco describes also the products prepared from the cured leaves of the tobacco plant. Whilst Nicotiana tabacum is the main crop use for tobacco and nicotine production, there are over 70 plant species of tobacco. N. tabacum is the dominant species used for tobacco products, however the more potent variant N. rustica can be found around the world and is used for.
Tobacco contains the stimulant alkaloid nicotine as well as harmala alkaloids. Dried and cured tobacco leaves are mainly used for smoking in cigarettes, cigars, pipes, shishas as well as e-cigarettes, e-cigars, e-pipes and vaporizers. Alternatively, they can be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco and snus.

The tobacco plant family contains various (sub-)species, which exhibit different alkaloid and flavour profiles.
Oriental tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is a species of tobacco grown mainly in Turkey, Greece, and neighboring areas, which is used for the commercial production of cigarettes, cigars and chewing tobacco. It has a strong characteristic flavor, is relatively low in nicotine and high in reducing sugars, acids, and volatile flavor oil, which gives the tobacco products an intense aroma.

There are 67 natural species of tobacco known. Below the most common species are listed:

  • Nicotiana acuminata (Graham) Hook. – manyflower tobacco
  • Nicotiana africana Merxm.
  • Nicotiana alata Link & Otto – winged tobacco, jasmine tobacco, tanbaku (Persian)
  • Nicotiana attenuata Torrey ex S. Watson – coyote tobacco
  • Nicotiana benthamiana Domin
  • Nicotiana clevelandii A. Gray
  • Nicotiana glauca Graham – tree tobacco, Brazilian tree tobacco, shrub tobacco, mustard tree
  • Nicotiana glutinosa L.
  • Nicotiana langsdorffii Weinm.
  • Nicotiana longiflora Cav.
  • Nicotiana occidentalis H.-M. Wheeler
  • Nicotiana obtusifolia M. Martens & Galeotti – desert tobacco, punche, “tabaquillo”
  • Nicotiana otophora Griseb.
  • Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv.
  • Nicotiana quadrivalvis Pursh
  • Nicotiana rustica L. – Aztec tobacco, mapacho
  • Nicotiana suaveolens Lehm. – Australian tobacco
  • Nicotiana sylvestris Speg. & Comes – South American tobacco, woodland tobacco
  • Nicotiana tabacum L. – commercial tobacco grown for the production of cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, etc.
  • Nicotiana tomentosiformis Goodsp.

The three species below are man-made hybrids:

  • Nicotiana × didepta N. debneyi × N. tabacum
  • Nicotiana × digluta N. glutinosa × N. tabacum
  • Nicotiana × sanderae Hort. ex Wats. N. alata × N. forgetiana

Types of Tobacco
The curing and subsequent aging process of tobacco leaves induces a slow oxidation and degradation of the present carotenoids in tobacco leaf. Due to the oxidation, certain compounds in the tobacco leaves are synthesized, which result in sweet hay, tea, rose oil, or fruity aromatic flavors, which contribute to the “smoothness” of the smoke. Starches are converted into sugars, which subsequently glycate proteins, and are oxidized into advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). This is a caramelization process that also gives the smoke its flavor.
The preparation and curing method of tobacco influences its final aroma characteristics. Curing can be achieved by air-, fire-, flue-, and sun-curing. For example, flue-cured tobacco (e.g. from France) contains only low levels of alkaloids, whilst air-cured Burley tobacco (e.g. sourced from Guatemala) is known for its high content of alkaloids.