Hielscher Ultrazvočna tehnologija

Ultrazvočno hladno vodo ekstrakcija Psilocybin

Isolating psilocybin from fresh and dried fungi of the psilocybe species is known to be time-consuming and often quite inefficient. With ultrasonic extraction psilocybin, psilocin, baeocystin and norbaeocystin are rapidly extracted from fresh and dried psilocibe mushrooms. Ultrasonic extraction breaks the cell walls of the mushroom so that the bioactive substances are completely released, so that a highly efficient and rapid extraction process is achieved.

Ultrasonic Psilocybin Extraction

Ultrasonic extraction is used successfully in many industries such as food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and fine-chemical industry to extract and isolate bioactive compounds and other substances from raw materials. The ultrasonic technique is considered as highly efficient, rapid, reliable, safe and easy to operate as well as environmental-friendly extraction method. Due to these advantages, the ultrasonically-assisted extraction (UAE) outperforms alternative extraction methods. Compounds such as psilocybin, psilocin, baeocystin and norbaeocystin are already successfully extracted using Hielscher Ultrasonics equipment. The ultrasonic extraction of psychedelic compounds gives high yields of superior extract quality within a turbo-extraction procedure. Ultrasonic extraction is compatible with any solvent and allows for the production of full-spectrum extracts.

Ultrasonication je hiter in blag način ekstrakcije za proizvodnjo visoko kakovostnih gob ekstrakta. V video, UP400St se uporablja za Shitake extraktion.

Cold-Water Mushroom Extraction using the ultrasonic extractor UP400St with 22mm probe S24d22L2

Ultrasonic probe S24d22L2 at ultrasonic processor UP400St for botanical extraction

ultrasonicator UP400St is a powerful extractor for the isolation of psilocybin from mushrooms

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Ultrazvočna ekstrakcija – A Cold Extraction Technique

Bioactive compounds are heat-sensitive, which means they degrade and decompose under high temperatures so that they loose their effect and potency. Therefore, most botanical extraction benefit from a non-thermal extraction method, which is not based on heat a basic working principle. Ultrasonic extraction is a purely mechanical extraction technique, which working principle is the generation of acoustic cavitation.
What is Ultrasonic Cavitation and How does it Impact Extraction?
For instance, when a liquid is sonicated with an ultrasound probe at 20kHz, 20,000 vibrations per second are transmitted into the medium. The ultrasonic waves travel through the liquid, where they create alternating high-pressure (compression) / low-pressure (rarefaction or expansion) cycles. During the low-pressure vacuum cycle, minute vacuum bubbles or cavities occur in the liquid, which grow over several pressure cycles. During the compression phase of the liquid and bubbles, the pressure is positive, while the rarefaction phase produces a vacuum (negative pressure.) During the compression-expansion cycles, the cavities in the liquid grow until they reach a size, at which they cannot absorb more energy. At this point, they implode violently. The implosion of those cavities results in various highly energetic sonomechanical effects, which are known as the phenomenon of acoustic / ultrasonic cavitation. During the implosion of ultrasonic cavitation bubbles, extreme energy dense forces such as high shear, liquid streaming and turbulences are created in the sonicated liquid. These cavitational forces disrupt cell walls of plant tissues and release the intracellular compounds, including bioactive substances such as the hallucinogenics psilocybin, psilocin, baeocystin and norbaeocystin from mushroom species. The alternating high-pressure/low-pressure cycles also promote intense mass transfer rates, which results in the superior extraction yield obtained by sonication. Ultrasonic extraction can release the complete active substance content from botanicals.

Ultrasonic Psilocybin Extraction: Step-by-Step

You can extract psilocybin and other bioactive substances from mushrooms using water, ethanol or 200 proof ethyl alcohol as solvents.
Chop the fresh or dried psilocybin mushrooms into small bits and pieces. You can use caps and stems. Both contain the psychoactive compounds, however the caps consistently are richer in psilocybin. The spores do not contain psilocybin.
Place the chopped mushrooms in a glass beaker and fill it with cold water.
Optionally, you might place the glass beaker in an ice bath to keep the process temperature as cold as possible.
The sonicated slurry turn blue with blue water containing extracted psilocybin from the mushroom fruits.
Separate the mushroom pieces and debris by straining or filtering. Optionally, keep the mushroom material from filtration for a second extraction run using either water or ethanol.
Use an evaporation system to remove the solvent. 1 to 2 grams of dried magic mushrooms should yield in approx. 1cc of final extract. As mushrooms are a natural product, the content of psychedelic substances can vary.
Fill the final extract into a dark glass container or vial and store in the freezer.
By an optional crystallization step, the shelf-life of the psilocybin extract can be prolonged further.

Ultrasonic extractor UP400St (400 watts, 24kHz) for the extraction of psilocybin, psilocin, baeocystin and norbaeocystin from mushrooms

UP400Sta 400 watts powerful ultrasonic probe-type extractor for the extraction of psilocybin from mushrooms

Prednosti Ultrasonic Extraction

  • bolj popolno ekstrakcijo
  • višje Donosi
  • hiter proces
  • Cold extraction / Non-thermal process
  • Združljiv s katero koli topilo
  • Enostavna in varna za delovanje
  • Nizki stroški vzdrževanja

Psilocybin-Containing Mushrooms

The most well-known psilocybin-containing mushroom is the species Psilocybe cubensis. Ultrasonic extraction is used to extract full-spectrum extracts from mushrooms.Psilocybin can be found in more than 200 species of mushrooms of the four fungus genera Conocybe. Panaeolus, Psilocybe, Stropharia, which are all suitable for extracting the the active compound psilocybin ultrasonically. In general, mushrooms that contain psilocybin exhibit the following characteristics: They have dark spores, are lamella / gills fungi, grow mostly in humus-rich soil in meadows and woods of tropical and sub-tropical regions and exhibit blue bruises which occurs due to an oxidative reaction, when the mushroom is handled or damaged.
The most well-known species of psilocybin-containing mushroom is Psilocybe cubensis, which contains two psycho-active compounds, psilocybin and psilocin. Commonly known as shrooms, magic mushrooms, golden tops, cubes, or gold caps, Psilocybe cubensis belongs to the fungus family Hymenogastraceae, and was formerly known as Stropharia cubensis. As it is widely distributed and easy to cultivate, Psilocybe cubensis is the best-known pscilocybin-containing mushroom species.
Psilocybe cubensis is probably the most famous for its hallugcinogenic effects, which are caused mainly by the active compounds triggering psychedelic experiences after ingestion. Its major psychoactive compounds are:

  • Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine)
  • Psilocin (4-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine)
  • Baeocistin (4-fosforiloksi-N-metiltiptamin)
  • Norbaeocistin (4-fosforiloksitryptamine)

Prednosti ultrazvočnih ekstrakcijskih sistemov

The advantages of ultrasonic extraction are the high extraction yield of psychedelic compounds (i.e. psilocybin, psilocin, baeocystin, norbaeocystin), the free choice of solvent (e.g. water, ethanol, water-alcohol mixture etc.), as well as the simple and safe operation. Due to the intensive mechanical forces of sonication, ecological and mild solvents such as water, ethanol etc. are usually sufficient to achieve an extraordinary extraction rate and yield. As a result, ultrasonic extraction shortens the extraction time and enables a reduced use of solvents or the use of milder, gentler solvents. This means that ultrasonic extraction allows for both, higher extraction rates and healthier extracts (e.g. cold water extracts). Since the process temperature can be precisely controlled during the sonication, thermal decomposition of the extracts due to excessively high temperatures as well as evaporation of the substances are avoided.

Sophisticated Ultrasonicators for Mushroom Extraction

Hielscher Ultrasonics product portfolio covers the full range of high-performance ultrasonic extractors from small to large scale. Additional accessories allow for the easy assembly of the most suitable ultrasonic extractor configuration for your process. The optimal sonication setup depends on the envisaged capacity, volume, raw material, batch or inline process and timeline. Our long-experiences, well-trained staff will recommend you the most suitable ultrasonic extractor and will assist you during the establishing phase of your mushroom extraction process.

Ultrazvočna ekstrakcija – Serija in v vrstici

Ultrazvočni procesor UIP4000hdT, 4kW močan ultrazvočni reaktorHielscher ultrasonicators can be used for batch and continuous flow-through processing. Depending on your process volume and hourly throughput, inline processing might be recommended for higher processing volumes. Whilst batching of large violumes is time- and labour-intensive, a continuous inline mixing process comes handy as it is more efficient, faster and requires significantly less labour. Hielscher Ultrasonics has the most suitable extraction setup for your extraction volume and process goals.

Ultrazvočni ekstraktorji za vsako zmogljivost izdelka

Hielscher Ultrasonics paleto izdelkov zajema celoten spekter ultrazvočnih procesorjev iz kompaktnih lab ultrasonicators nad klopi-top in pilotni sistemi za popolnoma industrijske ultrazvočne procesorje z zmogljivostjo za obdelavo truckloads na uro. Celotna ponudba izdelkov nam omogoča, da vam ponudimo najprimernejši ultrazvočni ekstraktor za vašo surovino, procesno zmogljivost in proizvodne cilje.
Ultrazvočni klopi sistemi so idealni za preskuse izvedljivosti in optimizacijo procesov. Linearna lestvica, ki temelji na uveljavljenih procesnih parametrih, omogoča zelo enostavno povečanje predelovalnih zmogljivosti od manjših sklopov do v celoti komercialne proizvodnje. Up-povečanje je mogoče storiti bodisi z namestitvijo močnejši ultrazvočni ekstraktor enoto ali grozdenje več ultrasonicators vzporedno. Z UIP16000, Hielscher ponuja najmočnejši ultrazvočni ekstraktor po vsem svetu.

Natančno nadzorovati Amplitudes za optimalne rezultate

Hielscher's industrial processors of the hdT series can be comfortable and user-friendly operated via browser remote control.All Hielscher ultrasonicators are precisely controllable and thereby reliable work horses in production. The amplitude is one of the crucial process parameters that influence the efficiency and effectiveness of ultrasonic extraction of bioactive phyto-nutrients and hallucinogenic compounds from botanicals. Raw material such as soft fresh mushrooms require milder sonication and lower amplitude settings, whilst dried mushrooms might require sonication at higher amplitudes to release the intracellular content. All Hielscher Ultrasonics’ procesorji omogočajo natančno nastavitev amplitude. Sonotrodes in booster rogovi so dodatki, ki omogočajo, da spremenite amplitudo v še širšem območju. Hielscher je industrijski ultrazvočni procesorji lahko poda zelo visoke amplitude in poda potrebno ultrazvočno intenzivnost za zahtevne aplikacije. Amplitude do 200 μm lahko enostavno neprekinjeno izvajamo v 24/7 delovanju.
Natančne nastavitve amplitude in stalno spremljanje ultrazvočnih procesnih parametrov prek pametne programske opreme vam omogočajo zdravljenje semen z najučinkovitejšimi ultrazvočnimi pogoji. Optimalno ultrazvočno razbijanje za najboljše rezultate ekstrakcije!
Robustnost Hielscher je ultrazvočna oprema omogoča 24 / 7 delovanje na težkih in v zahtevnih okoljih. To naredi Ultrazvočna oprema Hielscher je zanesljivo delovno orodje, ki izpolnjuje vaše zahteve ekstrakcije.

Enostavno, brez tveganja Testiranje

Ultrazvočni procesi se lahko popolnoma linearno. To pomeni, da lahko vsak rezultat, ki ste ga dosegli z laboratorijem ali ultrazvočnim programom na klopi, pomanjšate na popolnoma enak izhod z uporabo popolnoma enakih procesnih parametrov. To naredi ultrasonication idealen za testiranje brez tveganja izvedljivosti, optimizacijo procesov in naknadno izvajanje v komercialno proizvodnjo. Pišite nam, da se naučijo, kako lahko ultrazvočno razbijanje poveča vaš ohrovt donos in kakovost.

Najvišja kakovost – Izdelano in izdelano v Nemčiji

Kot družinsko voden in družinsko vodeno podjetje Hielscher daje prednost najvišjim standardom kakovosti za svoje ultrazvočne procesorje. Vsi ultrasonicators so zasnovani, izdelani in temeljito testirajo v naši sedež v Teltow blizu Berlin, Nemčija. Robustnost in zanesljivost Hielscher je ultrazvočne opreme, da je delovni konj v vaši proizvodnji. 24/7 operacija pod polnim tovorom in v zahtevnih okoljih je naravna značilnost Hielscher je visoko zmogljivih mešalniki.

You can buy Hielscher ultrasonic processor in any different size and exactly configured to your process requirements of mushroom extraction. From treating fungi in a small lab beaker to the continuous flow-through mixing of mushroom slurries on industrial level, Hielscher Ultrasonics offers a suitable ultrasonicator for you! Please contact us – veseli smo, da vam priporočamo idealno ultrazvočno nastavitev!
V spodnji tabeli vam daje podatek o približni zmogljivosti obdelave naših ultrasonicators:

serija Volume Pretok Priporočena naprave
1 do 500ml 10 do 200 ml / min UP100H
10 do 2000 ml 20 do 400ml / min UP200Ht, UP400St
00,1 do 20L 00,2 do 4L / min UIP2000hdT
10 do 100L 2 do 10L / min UIP4000hdT
ni podatkov 10 do 100L / min UIP16000
ni podatkov večja gruča UIP16000

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Prosimo, uporabite spodnji obrazec, da zahteva dodatne informacije o ultrazvočni procesorji, aplikacije in ceno. Mi bo z veseljem razpravljali vaš proces z vami in vam ponudimo ultrazvočni sistem, ki izpolnjuje vaše zahteve!









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Ultrasonic high-shear homogenizers are used in lab, bench-top, pilot and industrial processing.

Hielscher Ultrasonics proizvaja visoko zmogljivost ultrazvočnih homogenizatorjev za mešanje aplikacij, disperzijo, emulgiranje in ekstrakcijo na lab, pilot in industrijske lestvice.

Literatura/reference

  • Mason, N.L; Mischler, E.; Uthaug, M.V.; Kuypers, K.P.C. (2019) Sub-Acute Effects of Psilocybin on Empathy, Creative Thinking, and Subjective Well-Being, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 2019.
  • Pedersen-Bjergaard, S.; Sannes, E.; Rasmussen, K.E.; Tønnesen, F. (1997): Determination of psilocybin in Psilocybe semilanceata by capillary zone electrophoresis. Journal of Chromatography B, 694; 1997. 375–381.
  • Stamets, P. (1996): Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World. 1996



Dejstva je treba vedeti

Magic Gobe

Gobe, ki vsebujejo psihoaktivne / psihedeličnih snovi, kot psilocibin, psilocin in baeocystin, so znane kot psihedeličnih gob, halucinogene gobe, Shrooms, halucinogene tartufi in kašo. Več kot 180 vrst gob, ki vsebujejo psilocibin ali njegovega derivata psilocin so znani.
Psilocibin gobe so v številnih državah nezakonito, npr ZDA, Kanada, Evropa, Indija. V ZDA so razvrščene kot priloge sem nadzorovano snov, čeprav v zadnjem času, so FDA in DEA dovoljeno nekaj manjših, visoko nadzorovane človeške študije o njihovem potencialu za uporabo v medicinske in psihiatrične dajanju zdravila. Učinki psilocibin in drugih Psihadeliki so bile raziskane za njihove učinke in morebitno zdravljenje motenj, kot so kasetne glavoboli, motnje razpoloženja, in odvisnosti.

vrste

Psilocybe cubensis je eden izmed najbolj priljubljenih halucinogene gobe, ki ponujajo srednjo koncentracijo psilocibin pribl. 0,63% psilocibin in 0,60% psilocin v suhih gob. Notranja gojenih gob imajo večinoma višje koncentracije njihovih aktivnih spojin.

Psilocibe vrste % psilocibin % psilocin % BAEOCYSTIN
P. azurenscens 1,78 00,38 00,35
P. Bohemica 1,34 00,11 00,02
P. semilanceata 00,98 00,02 00,36
P. baeocystis 00,85 00,59 0.10
P. cianescens 00,85 00,36 00,03
P. tampanensis 00,68 00,32 ni podatkov
P. cubensis 00,63 00,60 00,025
P. weilii 00,61 00,27 00,05
P. hoogshagenii 00,60 0.10 ni podatkov
P. stuntzii 00,36 00,12 00,02
P. cyanofibrillosa 00,21 00,04 ni podatkov
P. liniformans 00,16 ni podatkov 00,005

psilocibin

Psilocibin je psihoaktivna, halucinogene snovi najdemo v gob rodu Psilocybe, Panaeolina, Panaeolus, Copelandia, Conocybe, Gymnopilus, Stropharia in Pluteus in se šteje kot mamila.
Poleg psilocibin, psilocin in baeocystin sta še dve aktivni snovi, ki jih najdemo v halucinogene gobe.
Jakost gob se lahko zelo razlikujejo, saj so gobe naravni izdelek, ki se razvije kot odziv na svoje okolje. Različni deli gob razlikujejo v jakosti, tudi (na primer pokrov in steblo ima lahko različne koncentracije psihoaktivnih snovi). Zaradi teh naravnih odstopanj, morda maceracija, homogenizacija in ultrazvočno ekstrakcijo pripomore k zmanjšanju tveganja nepričakovano močnih (ali šibko) odmerkih psilocibin.
Uporaba in učinki: po dajanju psilocybin so poročali o širokem razponu subjektivnih učinkov, ki segajo od občutkov dezorientacije, letargije, giddiness, evforije, radosti in depresije. Približno tretjina uporabnikov doživljajo občutke tesnobe ali paranoje. Nizki odmerki zdravila lahko povzročijo halucinacijske učinke, zaprte oči halucinacije, in/ali Sinestetičnost (izkušnje otipne občutke pri gledanju barv). Pri višjih odmerkih, psilocibin lahko povzroči stopnjevanje afektivnih odzivov, povečana sposobnost za introspekcijo, regresije do primitivnih in otroško razmišljanje, in aktiviranje žive sledi spomin. Odprte oči vidne halucinacije so pogoste in so lahko zelo podrobna, čeprav redko zamenjujejo z resničnostjo.
Anekdotalna poročila, kot tudi nedavne študije kažejo, da lahko enotno dajanje psilocibin poveča reative razmišljanje in empatije in bi zato lahko potencialno zdravljenje kognitivne in družbene obnaša. Rezultati študije “Ustvarjalno razmišljanje in empatije” (Mason et al. 2019) kažejo, da psilocibin okrepljeno različno razmišljanje in čustveno empatije zjutraj po uporabi. Izboljšave v konvergentni razmišljanje, Valence specifične čustvene empatije, in dobro počutje vztrajali sedem dni po uporabi. Sub-akutne spremembe v empatije korelaciji s spremembami v dobro počutje. Študija dokazuje, da lahko enotno dajanje psilocibin v socialne nastavitve, povezane s sub-akutna krepitev ustvarjalnega razmišljanja, empatije, in subjektivne blaginje.