I-Hielscher Ultrasound Technology

Ultrasonically Intensified okungaguquki Umbhede sikhungo

  • Ukuhlanganiswa kwe-Ultrasonic nokusabalalisa kusebenza futhi kuqinise ukusabela okubalulekile ku-bed fixed bed reactors.
  • I-sonication ithuthukisa ukudluliselwa kwamandla futhi kwanda ngaleyo ndlela ukusebenza kahle, izinga lokuguqulwa nokukhiqizwa.
  • Inzuzo eyengeziwe ukususwa kwezendlalelo ezingasetshenziselwa izinhlayiya ezithandwa yi-cavitation ye-ultrasonic.

I-Fixed Bed Catalysts

Imibhede ehleliwe (ngezinye izikhathi futhi ebizwa ngokuthi umbhede ogcwele) ivame ukulayishwa ngamapelitiki, okuvame ukugaya amamitha ukusuka ku-1-5mm. Angakwazi ukulayishwa kwisitoreji ngesimo sombhede owodwa, njengama-shells ahlukene, noma kuma-tubes. Lezi zithandwa kakhulu zisekelwe ezinsimbi ezifana ne-nickel, ithusi, i-osmium, i-platinum ne-rhodium.
Imiphumela yamandla ultrasound ekuphenduleni kwamakhemikhali angenangqondo iyaziwa kahle futhi isetshenziselwa kabanzi izinqubo zezimboni zezolimo. Ukusabela kwe-Catalytic kwisitoreji esinqunyiwe sombhede kungase kuzuze ekunakekeleni kwe-ultrasonic, futhi. I-ultrasonic irradiation ye-bed fixed catalyst idala izindawo ezinamandla kakhulu, yandisa ukuthutha okukhulu phakathi kwesigaba se-liquid (reactants) kanye ne-catalyst, futhi isusa izembatho ezingasondelene (isib. Izitha ze-oxide) ezivela phezulu. Ukuhlukaniswa kwe-ultrasonic yezinto eziphazamisayo kwandisa izindawo ezingaphezulu futhi kungabangela ukuthi kwenziwe umsebenzi owandayo.

Izinhlayiyana eziphathwa nge-ultrasonicallyIzinzuzo

  • Ukusebenza kahle
  • Ukubuyiswa kabusha kwe-reactivity
  • Ukukhula kwesilinganiso sokuguqulwa
  • isivuno esiphezulu
  • Ukusetshenziswa kabusha kwe-catalyst
Ukusabalalisa kwe-Ultrasonic kwe-Silica

Isicelo solwazi




Qaphela kwethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


Ukuqanjwa kwe-Ultrasonic ye-Catalytic Reactions

Ukuxubana kwe-ultrasonic nokudabuka kuthuthukisa ukuxhumana phakathi kwezinhlayiyana ze-reactant ne-catalyst, kudala izindawo ezinamandla eziqhamukayo futhi kuqala futhi / noma kuthuthukisa ukuphendula kwamakhemikhali.
Ukulungiswa kwe-ultrasonic catalyst kungabangela ushintsho ekuziphatheni kwe-crystallization, ukuhlakazeka / deagglomeration kanye nezindawo eziphezulu. Ngaphezu kwalokho, izici ze-catalysts ezakhiwe ngaphambili zingathonywa ngokususa izendlalelo ezingaphezulu komhlaba, ukuhlakazeka okungcono, ukudluliswa kwamandla amaningi.
Chofoza lapha ukuze ufunde kabanzi ngemiphumela ye-ultrasonic ekusebenzeni kwamakhemikhali (sonochemistry)!

Izibonelo

  • Ultrasonic pre-treatment of Ni catalyst for hydrogenation ukusabela
  • I-Sonicated Raney Ni i-catalyst nge-tartaric acid ephumela enantioselectivity ephakeme kakhulu
  • I-Ultrasonic ilungiselele ama-catalysts e-Fischer-Tropsch
  • I-sonochemically iphathwa amorphous powder catalysts for reactivity eyanda
  • Sono-synthetic amorphous metal powders

Ukuvuselelwa kwe-Ultrasonic Catalyst

Izakhi eziqinile ezibhebhethekile ezibhebheni zisezinhlobonhlobo zezinhlayiya zezingcwecwe noma amashubhu e-cylindrical. Ngesikhathi sokusebenza kwamakhemikhali, indawo yokucubungula iqhutshwe ngqimba lomswakama obangela ukulahlekelwa komsebenzi wokwenza izinto kanye / noma ukukhetha ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Izikali zesikhathi sokubola kwe-catalyst ziyahlukahluka kakhulu. Nakuba isibonelo sokufa kwe-catalyst ye-catalyst yokuqhekeka kungenzeka kwenzeke phakathi kwamasekhondi, isakhi se-iron esisetshenziselwa ukuhlanganiswa kwe-ammonia singahlala iminyaka engu-5-10. Kodwa-ke, ukuyeka ukusebenza kungabonwa kuwo wonke ama-catalysts. Yize izindlela ezahlukene (isibonelo, amakhemikhali, ama mechanical, ezishisayo) zokususa ukuguquka kungabonwa, ukuhlanjululwa kungenye yezinhlobo ezivame kakhulu zokubola kwe-catalyst. Ukuvuvukala kubhekisela ekuthunjweni kwezinto eziphilayo ezivela kwisigaba samanzi esiyinkimbinkimbi kuze kube sekugcineni nasemaphethelweni e-catalyst evimbela ngaleyo ndlela amasayithi asebenzayo. I-Catalyst ehlanjululwa nge-coke ne-carbon iyinkqubo eyenzeka ngokushesha futhi ingaguqulwa ngokuvuselelwa (isib. Ukwelashwa kwe-ultrasonic).
I-cavitation ye-Ultrasonic iyindlela ephumelelayo yokukhipha izendlalelo ezingasetshenziswanga ezingxenyeni zobuso. Ukuvuselelwa kwe-ultrasonic catalyst kuvame ukufezwa nge-sonicating izinhlayiya eziketshezi (isib. Amanzi ahlanzekile) ukususa izinsalela ze-fouling (isb platinum / i-silica fiber pt / SF, i-nickel catalysts).

Izinhlelo ze-Ultrasonic

I-ultrasonics yamandla isetshenziselwa ama-catalysts kanye nokuphendula okuthandayo. (Chofoza ukuze ukhulise!)Hielscher Ultrasonics inikeza inqubo ehlukahlukene ultrasonic kanye nokuhlukahluka ukuhlanganiswa kwamandla ultrasound ibe fixed embhedeni reactors. Izinqubo ezahlukene ze-ultrasonic zitholakala ukuthi zifakwe zibe zibheke ezibheke ezibheke ezitheni. Ukuze uthole izinhlobo eziyinkimbinkimbi zama-reactor, sinikeza i-ultrasonic eyenziwe ngokwezifiso izixazululo.
Ukuze uhlole ukuphendula kwamakhemikhali akho ngaphansi kwemisebe ye-ultrasonic, wamukelekile ukuvakashela uhlelo lwethu lwe-ultrasonic lab ne-technical center e-Teltow!
Xhumana nathi namuhla! Siyajabula ukuxoxa nge-ultrasonic intensification yenqubo yakho yamakhemikhali nawe!
Ithebula elingezansi linikeza isibonakaliso somthamo wokucubungula we-ultrasonicators wethu:

Iqoqwana Ivolumu flow Rate Amadivayisi ezinconyiwe
10 kuya ku-2000mL 20 kuya ku-400mL / min UP200Ht, UP400St
0.1 kuya ku-20L 0.2 kuya ku-4L / min I-UIP2000hdT
10 kuya ku-100L 2 kuya ku-10L / iminithi UIP4000
na 10 kuya ku-100L / iminithi UIP16000
na sikhulu yinhlanganisela UIP16000
Ukucubungula kwe-inline ngamaphrosesa angu-7kW amandla e-ultrasonic (Chofoza ukuze ukhulise!)

Uhlelo lokugeleza lwe-Ultrasonic

Ukusabela okunamandla kwe-Ultrasonically

  • Hydrogenation
  • Alcylation
  • I-Cyanation
  • Ukwehliswa
  • Esterification
  • I-polymerization
  • (isib. Ziegler-Natta catalysts, metallocens)

  • U-Allylation
  • Ukubhanjiswa

Xhumana nathi! / Cela Us!

Sicela usebenzise ifomu elingezansi, uma ufisa ukucela ulwazi oluthe xaxa mayelana ne-homogenization yama-ultrasonic. Sizojabula ukukunikeza uhlelo lwe-ultrasonic ukuhlangabezana nezidingo zakho.









Sicela uqaphele wethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


Izincwadi / Izinkomba



Amaqiniso Okufanele Ukwazi

I-Ultrasonic Cavitation ne-Sonochemistry

Ukusebenzisa amandla e-ultrasound zibe yiziphuzo ama-slurries aphumela i-acoustic cavitation. I-acoustic cavitation ibhekisela esimweni sokwakheka okusheshayo, ukukhula, nokuwa kwe-implosive ye-voids egcwele i-vapor. Lokhu kudala isikhathi esincane kakhulu "izindawo ezishisayo" ngezingqikithi eziphezulu zokushisa ezifika ku-5000K, izinga eliphezulu lokushisa / ukupholisa phezulu ngenhla 109Ks-1, nezingcindezi ze-1000atm ezinezici ezihlukene – konke ngaphakathi kwesikhathi sokuphila se-nanosecond.
Inkambu yocwaningo Sonochemistry ucwaninga umphumela we-ultrasound ekwenzeni i-acavtic cavitation kulesosizi, esiqala futhi / noma sithuthukise umsebenzi wamakhemikhali kwisisombululo.

Ukuphendulwa Kwe-Catalytic Okumangalisayo

Emakhemikhali, i-catalytic ye-heterogeneous ibhekisela enhlobonhlobo yokuphendula okwenzekayo lapho izigaba ze-catalyst ne-reactants zihluka komunye nomunye. Ngokwesimo samakhemikhali angenangqondo, isigaba asisetshenziselwa ukuhlukanisa phakathi kokuqina, amanzi, negesi, kodwa kubhekisela ekungenakutshezi kwamanzi, isibonelo, amafutha namanzi.
Ngesikhathi sokuphendula okuyingqayizivele, isisindo esisodwa noma ngaphezulu sithinta ushintsho lwamakhemikhali esikhungweni esibonakalayo, isib. Phezu kwesimo esiqinile se-catalyst.
Izinga lokuphendula kuncike ekuhlungeni kwe-reactants, usayizi wezinhlayiyana, izinga lokushisa, ukuguqula nokunye okunye.
Ukuhlushwa okwenziwe: Ngokuvamile, ukwanda kwe-concentrant of a reactant kwandisa izinga lokuphendula ngenxa yesikhombikubona esikhulu futhi ngaleyo ndlela kudluliselwa kwesigaba esikhulu phakathi kwama-particle reactant.
Usayizi wezinhlayiyana: Uma enye ye-reactants iyinhlayiya eqinile, ayikwazi ukuboniswa ngesilinganiso sokulingana, njengoba ukulingana kwesilinganiso kubonisa kuphela ukugxila kwezinto kanye nezinsila ezingenakukwazi ukugxila kusukela kwesigaba esithile. Kodwa-ke, usayizi wezinhlayiyana oqinile luyakuthinta izinga lokuphendula ngenxa yendawo ekhona yokudluliselwa kwesigaba.
Ukushisa kokuphendula: Ukushisa kuhlobene njalo nesilinganiso nge-equation Arrhenius: k = Ae-Ea / RT
Lapho i-EA iyinhlangano yokusebenza, i-R iyinhlangano yegesi yonke kanye noT is lokushisa ngokuphelele eKelvin. A iyinhlangano ye-Arrhenius (imvamisa). e-Ea / RT unikeza inani lezinhlayiyana ngaphansi kwekhasi elinamandla amakhulu kanti amandla okuqalisa, i-Ea.
I-Catalyst: Ezimweni eziningi, ukusabela kwenzeka ngokushesha nge-catalyst ngoba badinga amandla okusebenza kancane. Ama-catalysts ajwayelekile ahlinzeka ngesakhiwo se-template lapho kutholakala khona ukusabela, kuyilapho ama-catalysts ajwayelekile enza ama-intermediate imikhiqizo ekhulula isisusa ngesikhathi sesinyathelo esilandelayo sendlela.
Ezinye izici: Ezinye izinto ezifana nokukhanya zingathinta ukuphendula okuthile (photochemistry).

Ukuvuselelwa kweNucleophilic

Ukuguqulwa kwe-Nucleophilic kuyisigaba esiyisisekelo sokuphendula emakhemikhali anemvelo (futhi engavamile), lapho i-nucleophile ihlanganisa izibopho ngendlela ye-Lewis base (njenge-electron pair donator) ene-complex complex noma ehlasela noma enhle noma enhle (+ ve) ukukhokhwa kwe-athomu noma iqembu lama-athomu ukuze libambe iqembu elishiya. I-athomu enhle noma encane, eyamukelekayo ye-electron pair, ibizwa ngokuthi i-electrophile. Inhlangano yonke yama-molecular ye-electrophile neqembu elishiya ngokuvamile libizwa ngokuthi i-substrate.
Ukuguqulwa kwe-nucleophilic kungabonwa njengendlela emibili ehlukene – i-Sn1 no-Sn2 ukusabela. Yiliphi uhlobo lokuphendula ngendlela – Sn1 noma uSn2 – kwenzeka, kuxhomeke kwisakhiwo samakhemikhali, uhlobo lwe-nucleophile kanye ne-solvent.

Izinhlobo ze-Catalyst Deactivation

  • I-Catalyst poisoning yiyona nkulumo ye-chemisorption eqinile yezinhlobo ezinhlobonhlobo ze-catalytic ezivimbela izingosi zokuphendula ngokuthinta. Ukushisa kungashintsha noma kungaphenduki.
  • Ukuvuvukala kubhekisela ekuhlakalweni komshini we-catalyst, lapho izinhlobo ezivela emgodini omswakama ophazamise phezu kwendawo yokucubungula kanye ne-catalyst pores.
  • Ukulimala nokushisa kwe-thermal kuholela ekulahlekelweni kwendawo ebonakalayo, indawo yokusekela, nokusebenza kwesigaba-esebenzayo.
  • Ukwakheka kwe-Vapor kusho ifomu lokuchithwa kwamakhemikhali, lapho isigaba segesi sithinta khona nesigaba se-catalyst sokukhiqiza izidakamizwa ezinamandla.
  • Ukusabela okuqinile kwe-Vapor-eqinile futhi eqinile kuholela ekuqedeni kwamakhemikhali we-catalyst. I-Vapor, ukwesekwa, noma umgqugquzeli uyasabela ne-catalyst ukuze kukhishwe isigaba esingasebenzi.
  • Ukumiswa noma ukuchotshozwa kwezinhlayiya ze-catalyst kuholela ekulahlekelweni kwezinto ezibonakalayo ngenxa yokwehliswa kwemishini. Indawo yangaphakathi ye-catalyst ilahlekile ngenxa yokuchotshozwa komshini we-particle catalyst.