I-Hielscher Ultrasound Technology

I-Ultrasonically Assured Fermentation ye-Bioethanol Production

Ukuvuthwa

Ukuvutshelwa kungaba ukuvutshelwa kwe-aerobic (= = ukuvutshelwa kwe-oxidative) noma inqubo ye-anaerobic, esetshenziselwa izinhlelo zokusebenza ze-biotechnology ukuguqula izinto eziphilayo nge-bacterial, fungal noma eminye imithi yamaselula ephilayo noma nge-enzyme. Ngokuvutshelwa, amandla akhishwa ekuxilweni kwamakhemikhali e-organic, isib. Ama-carbohydrate.

I-Sugar yi-substrate evamile kakhulu yokuvutshelwa, okwenza ngemuva kokuvuthwa kwimikhiqizo efana ne-lactic acid, i-lactose, i-ethanol ne-hydrogen. Ukuvutshelwa ngokweqile, i-ethanol - ikakhulukazi ukusetshenziswa njengamafutha, kodwa nokuphuza utshwala – ikhiqizwa ukuvutshelwa. Lapho imvubelo ethile igxila, njenge Saccharomyces cerevisiae i-metabolize ushukela, imvubelo yamasilinda iguqula izinto zokuqala zibe i-ethanol ne-carbon dioxide.

Ukulinganisa kwamakhemikhali ngezansi kufingqa ukuguqulwa:

Emkhiqizweni ovamile we-bioethanol, ushukela uguqulwa ukuvutshelwa nge-lactic acid, i-lactose, i-ethanol ne-hydrogen.

Ukulinganisa kwamakhemikhali kufingqa ukuguqulwa ku-bioethanol.

Uma izinto zokuqala ziyi-starch, isb kusuka emzimbeni, okokuqala isitashi kufanele siguqulwe sibe ushukela. Ukuze i-bioethanol isetshenziswe njengamafutha, i-hydrolysis yokuguqulwa kwesitashi iyadingeka. Ngokuvamile, i-hydrolysis isheshe yenziwe nge-acidic noma enzymatic treatment noma ngokuhlanganiswa kokubili. Ngokuvamile, ukuvutshelwa kwenziwa cishe ku-35-40 ° C.
Uhlolojikelele ngezinqubo ezahlukene zokuvutshelwa:

Ukudla:

  • ukukhiqizwa & ukulondolozwa
  • ubisi (i-lactic acid fermentation), isb yogurt, i-buttermilk, i-kefir
  • imifino enomsoco, eg, kimchi, miso, natto, tsukemono, sauerkraut
  • ukuthuthukiswa kwe-aromatics, isb soy sauce
  • ukudilizwa kwama-tanning agents, isibonelo, itiye, i-cocoa, ikhofi, ugwayi
  • utshwala, isib. ubhiya, iwayini, i-whisky

Izidakamizwa:

  • ukukhiqizwa kwamakhemikhali wezokwelapha, isib. insulin, i-hyaluronic acid

I-Biogas / i-Ethanol:

  • ukuthuthukiswa kohlobo lwe-biogas / bioethanol

Amaphepha nocwaningo oluthile olwenziwe ebhentshini eliphezulu kanye nomshini wokulingisa liye labonisa ukuthi i-ultrasound yenza ngcono inqubo yokuvutshelwa ngokwenza imithi eningi yokutholakala kwe-biomass etholakalayo yokuvutshelwa kwe-enzymatic. Esigabeni esilandelayo, imiphumela ye-ultrasound esakhiweni izokwenziwa.

Izakhi ze-Ultrasonic zanda uketshezi lwe-biodiesel nokucubungula ukusebenza kahle!

I-Bioethanol ingakhiwa kusuka emanzini we-sunflower, ummbila, umoba njll.

Imiphumela ye-Ultrasonic Processing Processing

Ngama amplitudes aphezulu aphezulu / amandla aphansi aphezulu angenziwa. Ngalokho, i-ultra-power / low-frequency ultrasound ingasetshenziselwa ukucubungula uketshezi olufana nokuxuba, ukuxubha, ukuhlakazeka nokuguqula, noma ukugaya.
Lapho ukuphuza utshwala ngokweqile, amagagasi omsindo asakaze emithonjeni yamanzi ashukumisela ukushintsha ukucindezela okuphezulu (ukucindezela) nokujikeleza okuncane (ukungavamile), namazinga kuye ngokuthi imvamisa. Ngesikhathi umjikelezo ophansi ocindezelayo, amagagasi aphakeme kakhulu e-ultrasonic enza ama-bubbles amancane avulekile noma aphuma emanzini. Lapho ama-bubbles athola umthamo lapho bengasakwazi ukuwuthola khona amandla, awela phansi ngesihluku ngesikhathi somjikelezo ophezulu wokucindezela. Lokhu kwenzeka kuthiwa yi-cavitation. cavitation, leyo “ukwakheka, ukukhula, kanye nokuwa kwe-bubbles ku-liquid. Ukuwa kwe-cavitational kuveza ukushisa okukhulu kwendawo (~ 5000 K), ukucindezela okuphezulu (~ 1000 atm), kanye nokushisa okukhulu nokupholisa (>109 K / umzuzwana)” kanye nemifudlana ye-jet stream (~ 400 km / h) ". (Suslick 1998)

Isakhiwo se-Chemical ethanol

Uhlobo lwe-ethanol oluhlelekile

Kunezindlela ezahlukene zokudala i-cavitation, njengezibhamu eziphezulu ezicindezelayo, ama-mixer e-rotor-stator, noma ama-processor ultrasonic. Kuzo zonke lezo zindlela amandla okufakelwa aguqulwa abe ngumbimbi, ama-turbulences, amagagasi kanye ne-cavitation. Ingxenyana yamandla okufaka okuguqulwa ibe cavitation incike ezintweni eziningana ezichaza ukuhamba kwemishini yokukhiqiza i-cavitation eketsheni. Ukuqina kokusheshisa kungenye yezinto ezibaluleke kakhulu ezithonya ukuguqulwa okunamandla kwamandla abe yi-cavitation. Ukusheshisa okuphakeme kudala umehluko ophezulu wokucindezela. Lokhu nakho kwandisa amathuba okudalwa kwamabhulebhu okugcoba esikhundleni sokudalwa kwamagagasi asakazeka kulokhu oketshezi. Ngakho-ke, okuphakemeyo ukusheshisa okuphakemeyo yingxenyana yamandla okuguqulwa ibe cavitation.
Uma kwenzeka i-transducer ye-ultrasonic, i-amplitude ye-oscillation ichaza ubukhulu bokusheshisa. Ama-amplitudes aphezulu aholela ekudalweni okuphumelelayo kwe-cavitation. Ngaphandle kokuqina, uketshezi kumele kuphuthumise ngendlela yokudala ukulahlekelwa okuncane ngokuya kwe-turbulences, ukushayisana nokukhula kwesizukulwane. Ngenxa yalokhu, indlela enhle yindlela yokuhamba ngokungahambisani. Ukushintsha ubukhulu nemingcele yenqubo ye-sonication, i-ultrasound ingaba nzima kanzima noma ilula kakhulu. Lokhu kwenza i-ultrasound ithuluzi elixhumeke kakhulu kwizinhlelo ezihlukahlukene.
Compact and powerful ultrasonic lab devices allow for simple testings in small scale to evaluate process feasibility

Isithombe 1 – idivayisi ye-ultrasonic lab UP100H (Ama-watts angu-100) wokuhlola okusemandleni

Izinhlelo zokusebenza eziphansi, ukusebenzisa i-sonication emincane ngaphansi kwezimo ezibucayi, faka i-degassing, Emulsifying, nokusebenza kwe-enzyme. Izicelo ezinzima ezinezinga eliphezulu / amandla amakhulu e-ultrasound (ikakhulukazi ngaphansi kwengcindezi ephakeme) ukukhishwa kwemanzi, i-deagglomeration & usayizi wezinhlayiyana ukunciphisa, futhi Ukuhlakazeka. Izicelo eziningi ezifana Ukukhipha, ukuhlakazeka noma Sonochemistry, ukuqina kwe-ultrasonic okuceliwe kuncike ekutheni ukwaziswa okumele kwenziwe kube yi-sonicated. Ngezinhlobonhlobo zemingcele, engashintshwa kumsebenzi ngamunye, i-ultrasound ivumela ukuthola indawo enhle yenqubo ngayinye ngayinye.
Ngaphandle kokuguqulwa kwamandla okuvelele, i-ultrasonication inikeza inzuzo enkulu yokulawula okugcwele phezu kwemingcele ebaluleke kakhulu: Ukulinganisa, Ukucindezela, Ukushisa, Ukungazi lutho, nokuxhaswa. Lokhu kunikeza ithuba lokuthi ulungise zonke lezi mingcele ngenhloso yokuthola imingcele yokucubungula efanele yezinto ezithile. Lokhu kuholela ekusebenzeni okuphakeme kanye nokusebenza kahle.

I-Ultrasound Yokuthuthukisa Izinqubo Zama-Fermentation, ichaze ngokukhethekile ngomkhiqizo we-bioethanol

I-Bioethanol ingumkhiqizo wokudilizwa kwe-biomass noma indaba engcolile ye-waste eyenziwa yi-anaerobic noma i-aerobic bacteria. I-ethanol ekhiqizwa isetshenziswa kakhulu njenge-biofuel. Lokhu kwenza i-bioethanol ibe yindlela evuselelekayo futhi engcono yemvelo yamafutha, njengegesi yemvelo.
Ukuze ukhiqize i-ethanol kusuka ku-biomass, ushukela, isitashi kanye nempahla ye-lignocellulosic ingasetshenziswa njenge-feedstock. Ukuze usayizi wokukhiqiza ezimbonini, ushukela kanye nesitashi njengamanje zikhulu kakhulu njengoba zithandwa ngokwezomnotho.
Indlela i-ultrasound ithuthukisa ngayo inqubo yamakhasimende-ngabanye nge-feedstock ethize ngaphansi kwezimo ezinikeziwe ingahlolwa kalula ngokuhlola okusemandleni. Esikhathini sokuqala, ukunikezwa kwe-small amount ye-raw material slurry nge-ultrasonic i-laboratory idivayisi izobonisa, uma i-ultrasound ithinta isondlo sokudla.

Ukuhlola Ukutholakala

Esikhathini sokuqala sokuhlola, kufanelekile ukwethula inani eliphakeme kakhulu lamandla e-ultrasonic ibe yindvwana encane yetshezi ngoba ngaleyo ndlela ithuba landa ukuze ubone ukuthi imiphi imiphumela ingatholakala. Ivolumu encane yesampula nayo iphuthumisa isikhathi usebenzisa idivayisi yebhu futhi inciphisa izindleko zokuhlolwa kokuqala.
Amagagasi e-ultrasound adluliselwa ngendawo ye-sonotrode ibe yiketshezi. Beneth i-sonotrode surface, ukuqina kwe-ultrasound kunamandla kakhulu. Ngaleyo ndlela, ukuhamba okuncane phakathi kwe-sonotrode nezinto eziphathekayo okuthandwa nguwe kuyathandwa. Uma umthamo omncane wamanzi uvezwa, ibanga elivela ku-sonotrode lingagcinwa.
Ithebula elingezansi likhombisa amazinga wamandla / ivolumu ajwayelekile wezinqubo ze-sonication ngemuva kokusebenza kahle. Njengoba ukuhlolwa kokuqala ngeke kusetshenziswe ukulungiswa okunamandla, ukuqina kwe-sonication kanye nesikhathi ngezikhathi ezingu-10 kuya kwezingu-50 zenani elijwayelekile lizobonisa uma kunomthelela kumbhalo ohanjisiwe noma cha.

Inqubo

Amandla /

ivolumu

I-Sample Volume

Amandla

isikhathi

Okulula

< 100Ws / mL

10mL

50W

< 20 amasekhondi

Phakathi

100Ws / mL kuya ku-500Ws / mL

10mL

50W

20 kuya kwangu-100 isekhondi

Kunzima

> 500Ws / mL

10mL

50W

>Isekhondi elingu-100

Ithebula 1 – Amanani we-sonication okujwayelekile emva kokusebenza kwenqubo

Okufakwayo kwamandla wangempela okuhlolwayo kungabhalwa ngokurekhoda kwedatha edidiyelwe (UP200Ht no-UP200St), PC-interface noma i-powermeter. Ngokuhambisana nedatha eqoshiwe yokuhlelwa kwe-amplitude nokushisa, imiphumela yesilingo ngasinye ingahlolwa futhi ingqikithi yamandla / ivolumu ingasungulwa.
Uma phakathi nokuhlolwa ukukhethwa okulungile kukhethiwe, lokhu ukusebenza kokucushwa kungaqinisekiswa ngesikhathi sesinyathelo sokuthuthukisa futhi ekugcineni kungafinyelelwa kwizinga lokuthengisa. Ukwenza ngcono ukusebenza kahle, kunconywa kakhulu ukuhlola imingcele ye-sonication, isib. Izinga lokushisa, ubukhulu bamandla noma amandla / ivolumu yezinhlelo ezithile, futhi. Njengoba i-ultrasound ingabangela imiphumela emibi kumaseli, amakhemikhali noma izinhlayiya, amazinga abucayi kupharamitha ngayinye kudingeka ahlolwe ukuze anciphise ukuhlelwa okulandelayo ebangeni lepharamitha lapho imiphumela emibi ingabonwa khona. Ukuze kusetshenziswe amashabhu amancane noma amabhentshi aphezulu amakhono okuhlola okufezekayo, kunconywa ukunciphisa izindleko zemishini namasampuli ekuhlolweni okunjalo. Ngokuvamile izingxenye eziyi-100 kuya ku-1,000 Watts zisebenzela kahle izinhloso zesifundo sokufezeka. (bheka uHielscher 2005)

Ultrasonic processes are easy to optimize and to scale up. This turns ultrasonication into an highly potential processing alternative to high pressure homogenizers, pearl and bead mills or three-roll mills.

Ithebula 1 – Amanani we-sonication okujwayelekile emva kokusebenza kwenqubo

Ukuthuthukisa

Imiphumela etholakala ngesikhathi sokuhlola izibalo ingabonisa ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwamandla aphezulu kakhulu ngokuphathelene ne-volume encane ephathwayo. Kodwa inhloso yokuhlolwa okusemandleni ngokuyinhloko ukukhombisa imiphumela ye-ultrasound kuya kokuqukethwe. Uma kwenzeka ukuhlolwa okubonakalayo okuhle, kuzomele kwenziwe imizamo eqhubekayo yokwandisa isilinganiso samandla / ivolumu. Lokhu kusho ukuhlola ukulungiswa okuhle kwemigomo ye-ultrasound ukuze kutholakale isivuno esiphezulu usebenzisa amandla angakghonakali okwenza inqubo ezobucayi inengqondo kakhulu futhi iphumelele. Ukuze uthole ukulungiswa kokupaketha okulungile – Ukuthola izinzuzo ezihlosiwe ngokufaka okuncane kwamandla - ukuxhumana phakathi kwamapharamitha abaluleke kakhulu amplitude, ingcindezi, izinga lokushisa futhi amanzi ukwakheka kufanele kuphenywe. Kulesi sinyathelo sesibili ukuguqulwa kusuka ku-sonication ye-batch kuya kusetha okuqhubekayo kwe-sonication nge-reactor reactoror kunconywa njengoba ipharamitha ebalulekile yengcindezi ayikwazi ukuthonywa nge-sonication ye-batch. Phakathi ne-sonication ku-batch, ukucindezelwa kunomkhawulo wokucindezela okukhulu. Uma inqubo ye-sonication idlula ikamelo elingaphakathi lokucindezela, ingcindezi ingaphakanyiswa (noma inciphise) okuyinto evamile ithinta i-ultrasonic cavitation kakhulu. Ngokusebenzisa isisindo sokugeleza, ukulungiswa phakathi kokucindezela kanye nenqubo yokusebenza kahle kungathathwa. Amaprosesa e-Ultrasonic phakathi Ama-Watts angu-500 futhi Ama-watts angu-2000 Amandla afaneleka kakhulu ekwandiseni inqubo.

Fully controllable ultrasonic equipment allows for process optimization and completely linear scale-up

Isithombe 2 - Ishadi lokugeleza ukuze kusetshenziswe uhlelo lwe-Ultrasonic

Isikali-Kufike Ekukhiqizweni Kwezebhizinisi

Uma ukulungiswa okuhle kutholakale, ukukhula okuphezulu okulula kulula njengezinqubo ze-ultrasonic ngokuphindaphinda ngokugcwele ngokulingana. Lokhu kusho ukuthi, uma i-ultrasound isetshenziselwa ukwakheka okuketshezi okwenziwe ngokufanayo ngaphansi kokucushwa kokupakisha kweparitha, amandla afanayo ngevolumu ngalinye liyadingeka ukuze athole umphumela ofanayo ozimele wezinga lokucubungula. (Hielscher 2005). Lokho kwenza kube lula ukusebenzisa ukulungiswa kweparitha ye-ultrasound ngokugcwele usayizi wokukhiqizwa kwesilinganiso. Cishe, ivolumu engacubungula i-ultrasonically ayilimali. Izinhlelo zezohwebo ze-ultrasonic kuze kube Ama-watts angu-16,000 iyunithi ngalinye iyatholakala futhi ingafakwa kumaqoqo. Amaqoqo anjalo amaprosesa e-ultrasonic angafakwa ngokufana noma ochungechungeni. Ngokufakwa kwe-cluster-wise of procesors yamandla aphakeme aphezulu, amandla alinganiselwa angenamkhawulo ukuze imifudlana ephezulu yamanzi ingacutshungulwa ngaphandle kwenkinga. Futhi uma i-adaption yesistimu ye-ultrasonic iyadingeka, isib. Ukulungisa imingcele ekubunjisweni ketshezi olushintshiwe, lokhu kungenziwa ikakhulu ngokushintsha i-sonotrode, i-booster noma i-flow cell. Ukusabalalisa okulinganayo, ukukhiqiza kabusha nokuvumelanisa kwe-ultrasound kwenza lokhu buchwepheshe obubuchwepheshe buphumelele futhi buzuze izindleko.

16kW ultrasonic machine for industrial processing of large volume streams, e.g. biodiesel, bioethanol, nano particle processing and manifold other applications.

Isithombe 3 - Iprosesa ye-industrial ultrasonic UIP16000 namandla angu-16,000 ama-watts

I-paramameters ye-Ultrasonic Processing

Ukucutshungulwa kwe-ultrasonic liquid kuchazwa ngamanani wemingcele. Okubaluleke kakhulu yi-amplitude, ingcindezi, izinga lokushisa, i-viscosity, nokuhlushwa. Umphumela wenqubo, njengobuningi bezinhlayiyana, ukulungiselela ukumiswa kwamaphamethri anikezwe amandla wevolumu ngayinye esetshenzisiwe. Umsebenzi ushintsho ngokuguqulwa kwemingcele ngayinye. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukukhishwa kwamandla okusebenza kwendawo yonke ye-sonotrode yeyunithi ye-ultrasonic incike kwimingcele. Ukuphuma kwamandla endaweni ngayinye ye-sonotrode yi-surface intensity (I). Ubuningi bomzimba buxhomeke ekukhulwini (A), ingcindezi (p), ivolumu yokuphendula (VR), izinga lokushisa (T), i-viscosity (η) nezinye.

Imingcele ebaluleke kunazo zonke yokucubungula kwe-ultrasonic kufaka ukuphakama kwe-amplitude (A), ukucindezelwa (p), ivolumu yokuphendula (VR), izinga lokushisa (T), kanye ne-viscosity (η).

Umthelela wokucubungula wokucubungula kwe-ultrasonic kuncike ekubumbeni okuphezulu okuchazwa yi-amplitude (A), ukucindezelwa (p), ivolumu yokuphendula (VR), izinga lokushisa (T), i-viscosity (η) nezinye. Izimpawu ezihamba phambili kanye nezincane zikhombisa ithonya elihle noma elibi lepharamitha elithile ngokuqina komsindo.

Umthelela we-cavitation owenziwe uxhomeke ekubambeni komzimba. Ngendlela efanayo, umphumela wenqubo uhambisana. Ukukhishwa kwamandla okuphelele kweyunithi ye-ultrasonic yikhiqiza ebusweni bomhlaba (I) nasendaweni engaphezulu (S):

P [W] I [W / mm²] * S[mm²]

amplitude

Ukuphakama kwe-oscillation kuchaza indlela (isib. 50 μm) indawo ye-sonotrode ihamba ngesikhathi esithile (isb. 1 / 20,000s ku-20kHz). Ukukhudlwana kwe-amplitude, ephakeme izinga lapho ingcindezi iyancipha khona futhi ikhuphuka ngesivinini ngasinye. Ngaphezu kwalokhu, ukuhamba kwevolumu yenyuka ngayinye kukhulisa umthamo omkhulu we-cavitation (ubukhulu bubble kanye / noma inombolo). Uma isetshenziselwa ukuhlakazeka, ama-amplitudes aphakeme abonisa ukukhuphuka okuphezulu kuma-particle eqinile. Ithebula 1 libonisa izindinganiso ezijwayelekile zezinqubo ezithile ze-ultrasonic.

The ultrasound amplitude is an important process parameter.

Ithebula 2 – Izincomo ezijwayelekile ze-Amplitudes

ukucindezela

Iphuzu elibilisayo liketshezi lixhomeke ekucindezelekeni. Ukuphakama kwengcindezi ephakeme yiyona iphuzu lokubilisa, futhi uphinde uguquke. Ukucindezela okuphakanyisiwe kuvumela i-cavitation emazingeni okushisa eduze noma ngaphezulu kwephuzu lokubilisa. Kubuye kwandise ubukhulu be-implosion, ehlobene nokuhlukana phakathi kwengcindezi ye-static kanye nomfutho we-vapor ngaphakathi kwe-bubble (bheka Vercet et al. 1999). Njengoba amandla ne-ultrasonic ashintsha masinyane ngezinguquko ekucindezelweni, iphompo yokucindezela njalo ingcono. Uma unikezela uketshezi kwesikhala-iseli ipompo kumele ikwazi ukuphatha ukugeleza okwegazi okwezinye izimo ezifanelekile. Izimpompo ze-Diaphragm noma i-membrane; i-flexible-tube, hose noma fompa amaphampu; amaphampu aphikisayo; noma i-piston noma i-plunger pump izokwenza ukushintsha kwezingcindezi ezihlukile. Amapompo ase-Centrifugal, amaphampu wegesi, amaphampu okuvuthayo, namapompu okuqhubekayo okuqhubekayo anikezela ukuthi uketshezi oluthile lube yinto eqhubekayo ngokucindezela okuqhubekayo. (Hielscher 2005)

lokushisa

Ngokuveza i-liquid, amandla adluliselwa phakathi. Njengoba i-oscillation ekhiqizwa yi-ultrasonically ibangela i-turbulences nokuxubana, uketshezi olwenziwe nge-sonicated - ngokuhambisana nomthetho we-thermodynamics – izoshisa. Amazinga okushisa aphakanyisiwe angaphakathi angase awonakalise indaba futhi anciphise ukusebenza kwe-cavitation ye-ultrasonic. Amaseli okugeleza ama-ultrasonic amasha afakwe ijaji lokupholisa (bheka isithombe). Ngalokho, ukulawula okuqondile kokushisa kwezinto ezibonakalayo ngesikhathi sokucubungula kwe-ultrasonic kunikezwa. Ukuze kube ne-beaker sonication yeminyana encane ibhafu lokushisa lokushisa linconywa.

Picture 3 – Ultrasonic transducer UIP1000hd (1000 watts) with flow cell equipped with cooling jacket – typical equipment for optimization steps or small scale production

Isithombe 3 - i-ultrasonic transducer I-UIP1000hd (1000 watts) nge-flow cell esetshenziswe ijezi lokupholisa - imishini ejwayelekile yokwenza izinyathelo zokuthuthukisa noma ukukhiqizwa okuncane

Ukungazi lutho nokucindezeleka

I-Ultrasonic Ukukhokha futhi Ukuhlakazeka yizinqubo zamanzi. Izinhlayiyana kufanele zibe ukumiswa, isib. Emanzini, amafutha, ama-solvents noma ama-resins. Ngokusebenzisa ukugeleza kwe-ultrasonic-ngokusebenzisa izinhlelo, kuba lula ukukhuluma nge-viscous kakhulu, impahla ye-pasty.
Isisombululo se-high-power ultrasonic singasetshenziselwa ukugxila okunamandla kakhulu. I-concentration ephezulu ihlinzeka ngempumelelo yokucubungula kwe-ultrasonic, njengoba i-ultrasonic milling effect ibangelwa yi-inter-i-particle ukushayisana. Ucwaningo luye lwabonisa ukuthi izinga lokuhlukana kwe-silica lizimele ezikhungweni eziqinile kuze kube ngu-50% ngesisindo. Ukusetshenziselwa kwe-master batches ngenani lezinto ezixubile kakhulu kuyindlela ejwayelekile yokukhiqiza usebenzisa i-ultrasonication.

Amandla kanye ne-Intensity vs. Energy

Ubungako bombuso namandla wamandla agcizelela kuphela amandla okucubungula. I-sampuli ye-sonicated ye-sonicated kanye nesikhathi sokuvezwa ngombono othile kufanele kucatshangelwe ukuchaza inqubo ye-sonication ukuze yenzeke ukuthi ihlaziywe futhi ifakwe kabusha. Ukuze uthole ukulungiswa kwepharamitha elinikeziwe umphumela wenqubo, isib. Usayizi wezinhlayiyana noma ukuguqulwa kwamakhemikhali, kuzoncika emthamo wamandla nge-volume ngayinye (E / V).

Umphumela = f (E /V )

Lapho amandla (E) engumkhiqizo wokukhipha amandla (P) nesikhathi sokuchayeka (t).

E[I-Ws] = P[W] *t[S]

Izinguquko ekulungiselelweni kwepharamitha zizoshintsha umsebenzi womphumela. Lokhu kuzoshintsha umehluko wamandla (E) okudingekayo ukuze uthole isampuli esinikeziwe isampuli (V) ukuthola inani lomphumela othize. Ngenxa yalesi sizathu akwanele ukuhambisa amandla athile we-ultrasound kwinqubo yokuthola umphumela. Kudingeka indlela eyinkimbinkimbi yokubona amandla adingekayo kanye nokulungiswa kwamaparitha lapho amandla kufanele afakwe khona encwadini. (Hielscher 2005)

Ukukhiqizwa okuxhaswe nge-ultrasonically kwe-Bioethanol

Seyazi ukuthi i-ultrasound ithuthukisa ukukhiqizwa kwe-bioethanol. Kunconywa ukuvimbela uketshezi lwamafutha nge-biomass kwi-slurry ene-viscous kakhulu esasatshenziselwa. Ama-reactors e-Ultrasonic angakwazi ukubhekana nokugxila okuphezulu okuqinile ukuze inqubo ye-sonication isebenze kakhulu. Uma kukhona ukwaziswa okungaphezulu ku-slurry, uketshezi oluncane lwe-carrier, olungeke luzuze kwinqubo ye-sonication, luzophathwa. Njengoba ukufakelwa kwamandla abe yizikhukhula kubangela ukushisa kwe-liquid ngomthetho we-thermodynamics, lokhu kusho ukuthi amandla ase-ultrasonic asetshenziselwa ukwaziswa okuhlosiwe, ngangokunokwenzeka. Ngendlela yokusebenza enhle kakhulu, ukushisa okungcolile kwesimiso esithwala ngokweqile kugwenywe.
I-Ultrasound isekela i Ukukhipha we-intracellular material futhi okwenza kube khona ukuze kutholakale ukuvutshelwa kwe-enzymatic. Ukwelashwa okuncane kwe-ultrasound kungathuthukisa umsebenzi we-enzymatic, kodwa kuyodingeka ukuthi kusetshenziswe i-biomass extraction. Ngakho-ke, ama-enzyme kufanele afakwe kwi-slurry ye-biomass ngemuva kokuba i-sonication njenge-ultrasound enamandla ivuselela ama-enzyme, okuyimiphumela engathandeki.

Imiphumela yamanje ezuzwe ucwaningo lwesayensi:

Izifundo zikaJoswathana et al. (2010) ngokuphathelene nokukhiqizwa kwe-bioethanol kusuka emanzini elayisi kubonise ukuthi inhlanganisela ye-acid ngaphambi kokuphathwa kanye ne-ultrasonic ngaphambi kokwelashwa kwe-enzymatic iholela ekukhuleni komkhiqizo ushukela ofika ku-44% (ngesitshalo selayisi). Lokhu kubonisa ukusebenza kahle kokuhlanganiswa komzimba kanye namakhemikhali ngaphambi kwe-hydrozysis ye-enzymatic ye-lignocelluloses izinto ezinoshukela.

Ishadi 2 libonisa imiphumela emihle ye-irradiation ye-ultrasonic phakathi nokukhiqizwa kwe-bioethanol kusuka emgqeni welayisi ngokucacile. (Amalahle asetshenziselwe ukuxosha ama-sampuli esandulelwe ngculazi kusuka ku-acid / enzyme pretreatment kanye ne-ultrasonic pretreatment.)

Ukuvutshelwa kwe-ultrasonic okusizayo kubangela isivuno esikhulu se-ethanol esiphezulu. I-bioethanol ikhiqizwa emanzini elayisi.

Ishadi 2 – Ukuthuthukiswa kwe-ultrasonic ye-ethanol isivuno ngesikhathi sokuvutshelwa (uJoshuwa kanye no-2010)

Kwesinye isifundo samanje, ithonya le-ultrasonication kuma-extracellular namazinga angaphakathi kwe-β-galactosidase enzyme iye yahlolwa. Sulaiman et al. (2011) ingathuthukisa umkhiqizo wokukhiqizwa kwe-bioethanol kakhulu, usebenzisa i-ultrasound ekushiseni okulawulwayo okuvusa ukukhula kwevubelo kwe-Kluyveromyces marxianus (ATCC 46537). Abalobi bephepha baphinde baqale ukukhulumisana nge-ultrasound amandla (20 kHz) emisebenzini yemisebenzi ye-≤20% yokukhiqizwa kwe-biomass, i-lactose metabolism nokukhiqizwa kwe-ethanol ku-K. marxianus ngokuphakama okukhulu kwe-sonication ka-11.8Wcm-2. Ngaphansi kwezimo ezingcono kakhulu, i-sonication ithuthukise ukuhlushwa kokugcina kwe-ethanol cishe ngesi-3.5-isihluthulelo esifanayo ukulawula. Lokhu kufana nokuthuthukiswa okungamaphesenti angu-3.5 emkhiqizweni we-ethanol, kodwa kudingekile ukuthi 952W wokufaka amandla engeziwe engeziwe ngamamitha ayi-cubic yomhluzi ngokusebenzisa u-sonication. Le mfuneko eyengeziwe yamandla yayiyizinkambiso ezisebenzayo zokusebenza kwezidakamizwa futhi, ngenxa yemikhiqizo ephezulu, ingakhokhiswa kalula ngomkhiqizo okhulayo.

Isiphetho: Izinzuzo ezivela ku-Ultrasonically-Assisted Fermentation

Ukwelashwa kwe-Ultrasonic kuye kwaboniswa njengendlela ephumelelayo neyinqubo yokuthuthukisa isivuno se-bioethanol. Ngokuyinhloko, i-ultrasound isetshenziselwa ukukhipha izinto ezifakwe kwi-biomass, njengama-corn, soybean, utshani, impahla ye-ligno-cellulosic noma imfucuza yemifino.

  • Ukwandisa isivuno se-bioethanol
  • Ukususwa kwezinhlanzi / ukukhishwa kwe-Cell nokukhululwa kwezinto zangaphakathi
  • Ukuphuka kwe-anaerobic ethuthukisiwe
  • Ukuvuselelwa kwama-enzyme ngokukhipha i-sonication emnene
  • Ukwenza ngcono inqubo yokusebenza kahle ngama-slurries aphezulu

Ukuhlolwa okulula, ukukhiqizwa kabusha nokufakwa kalula (futhi kumikhakha ekhona kakade yokukhiqiza) kwenza i-ultrasonics itheknoloji enenzuzo futhi ephumelelayo. Amaphrosesa asethembekile e-industrial ultrasonic for processing processing ayatholakala futhi akwazi ukukhulisa cishe amavolumu amakhemikhali angenamkhawulo.

UIP1000hd Bench-Top Ultrasonic Homogenizer

I-Picure 4 - Isethaphu ngeprosesa ye-ultrasonic engu-1000W I-UIP1000hd, flow flow cell, tank kanye nepompo

Xhumana Nathi / Cela Ukwaziswa Olwengeziwe

Khuluma nathi mayelana nezidingo zakho zokucubungula. Sizosikisela ukusetha nokulungiswa kwemingcele efanele yephrojekthi yakho.





Sicela uqaphele wethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


Izincwadi / Izinkomba

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  • Jomdecha, C .; I-Prateepasen, A. (2006): Ucwaningo lwe-Low-Ultrasonic Energy luthinta ukukhushulwa kwesisindo se-Fermentation Process. Ku: 12th I-Asia-Pacific Conference on NDT, 5.-10.11.2006, Auckland, eNew Zealand.
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  • Mokkila, M., Mustranta, A., Buchert, J., Poutanen, K. (2004): Ukuhlanganisa amandla e-ultrasound ane-enzyme ekucubungulweni kwamanzi. Ku: Int Intathu. I-Conf. Biocatalysis Yokudla Neziphuzo, 19.-22.9.2004, Stuttgart, eJalimane.
  • UMüller, i-MRA; Ehrmann, MA; I-Vogel, i-RF (2000): i-PCR eminingi ye-Detection ye-Lactobacillus pontis kanye nezinhlobo ezimbili ezihlobene nezitshalo ezibizwa nge-Sourdough Fermentation. Kusetshenzisiwe & Microbiology Environmental. 66/5 2000. iphe. 2113-2116.
  • I-Nikolic, iS .; Mojovic, L .; Rakin, M .; I-Pejin, D .; I-Pejin, J. (2010): Ukukhiqizwa kwe-ultrasound okusizwa nge-bioethanol ngokusatshalaliswa okufanayo kanye nokuvutshelwa kokudla kommbila. Ku: Ukudla Kemistri 122/2010. iphe. 216-222.
  • I-Sulaiman, i-AZ; I-Ajit, A .; Yunus, RM; Cisti, Y. (2011): Ukuvuthwa okusizwa nge-ultrasound kwandisa umkhiqizo we-bioethanol. I-Biochemical Engineering Journal 54/2011. k. 141-150.
  • USuslick, KS (1998): uKirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th u-ed. Wiley & Amadodana: New York, 1998. iphe. 517-541.
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