I-Hielscher Ultrasound Technology

Ultrasonic Ukwelashwa of Nanoparticles for Pharmaceuticals

I-Ultrasound iyinhlangano yobuchwepheshe obusha esetshenziselwa ngempumelelo ukuze i-sonochemical Ukusebenzisana, i-deagglomeration, ukuhlakazeka, Emulsifying, ukusebenza kanye nokusebenza kwezinhlayiyana. Ikakhulukazi ku-nanotechnology, i-ultrasonication iyindlela yokubaluleka ekusetshenzisweni kokuqala kanye nokusetshenziselwa kwezinsiza zokusetshenziswa kwe-nano-size. Njengoba i-nanotechnology isizuze isithakazelo esivelele sesayensi, izinhlayiya ezincane zisezingeni ziyasetshenziswa emikhakheni eminingi engokwesayensi nesibhizinisi. Igatsha le-pharma liye labona amandla aphezulu alokhu okuguquguqukayo nokuguquguqukayo, futhi. Ngenxa yalokho, ama-nanoparticles ahileleke ekusebenzeni okuhlukahlukene kokusebenza embonini yezokwelapha, lokhu kufaka:

  • ukulethwa kwezidakamizwa (othwala)
  • imikhiqizo yokuxilonga
  • ukufakelwa komkhiqizo
  • ukutholakala kwe-biomarker

Ama-Nanomaterials ku-Pharmaceuticals

Ikakhulukazi, ukulethwa kwezidakamizwa nge-nanoparticles sekuvele indlela eqinisekisiwe yokuletha ama-agent asebenzayo asetshenziswe ngaphambi komlomo noma ngomjovo. (Bawa 2008) Izidakamizwa ezenziwe nge-Nano zingadliwa futhi zinikezwe ngendlela ephumelelayo kangcono njengoba amasu amasha avuleka izindlela ezintsha zokwelashwa. Lobuchwepheshe obunamandla obukhulu bungasiza ukuletha izidakamizwa, ukushisa, noma ezinye izinto ezisebenzayo kumaseli athile, okusho amangqamuzana anesifo. Ngokulethwa kwezidakamizwa ngokuqondile, amangqamuzana aphilile aphethwe yimiphumela yezidakamizwa. Enye insimu, kulezo zidakamizwa ezenziwe ngamanothi kakade zibonise imiphumela yabo ethembisa yindlela yokwelapha umdlavuza. Emtholampilo we-cancer kuyinzuzo enkulu yezinto ezincane ezithinta izidakamizwa ezidakamizwa zingahanjiswa ngqo kumangqamuzana omzimba ukuze kube nemiphumela emihle ngenkathi kunciphisa imiphumela emibi kwezinye izitho. (Liu et al.2008) Lokhu kuzuzisa kubangelwa ubukhulu be-nano ngoba izinhlayiya zikwazi ukudlulisa izindonga zamaseli namagundane futhi zikhulule ama-agent asebenzayo ngokuqondile emangqamuzaneni ahlosiwe.

Ukucubungula ama-Nanomaterials

Njengoba ama-nanomaterials echazwa njengezinhlayiya ezincane ezingaphansi kuka-100nm lokhu kusho ukuthi ukukhiqizwa nokucubungula kwalezi zinto kudinga imizamo ephakeme.
Ukwakha nokucubungula ama-nanoparticles, ama-agglomerate kufanele aphulwe futhi ahlanganiswe amabutho kufanele anqobe. cavitation ultrasonic ubuchwepheshe obuziwa kakhulu ukuguqula nokusabalalisa nanomaterials. Ukuhlukahluka kwama-nanomaterials kanye namafomu kuvula izinguquko eziningi ngokucwaninga ngemithi. ngama-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) inevolumu enkulu ngaphakathi evumela ukuthi ezinye izimolamokhali ezidakamizwa zifakwe ngaphakathi, futhi zinezindawo zangaphakathi nezingaphandle zokusebenza. (Hilder et al. 2008) Ngaleyo ndlela, i-CNTs ikwazi ukuthwala ama-molecule ahlukahlukene njengama agent asebenzayo, i-DNA, amaprotheni, ama-peptide, okubhekiswe kumigines njll kumaseli. I-CNTs iye yabhekwa njengama-nanomaterials we-quintessential futhi ithola isimo sesinye sezizinda ezisebenzayo kakhulu ze-nanoscience ne-nanotechnology. I-MWCNT inamakhemikhali angu-2-30 acacile, ama-diameter ayo kusuka ku-10 kuya ku-50 nm nobude obungaphezulu kuka-10 μm. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, i-SWCNT ilula kakhulu, ibe nobubanzi kusukela ku-1.0 ukuya ku-1.4 nm. (Srinivasan 2008) Nanoparticles kanye nama-nanotubes angangena amangqamuzana futhi angathathwa yiwo ngokuphelele. Ikakhulukazi i-Nanotubes yeCarbon (f-CNTs) ehlongozwayo eyaziwa ngokuthuthukisa ukuxazululwa kwemvelo futhi ivumela ukubhekela okunamandla kokulonda. Ngalokho, i-f-CNTs, i-SWNTs ne-MWNTs ivinjelwe ekubeni yi-cytotoxic (= i-toxic kuya amangqamuzana) nokushintsha ukusebenza komzimba wokuzivikela. Ngokwesibonelo, I-carbon nanotubes eneklamu eyodwa (SWCNTs) yokuhlanzeka okukhulu kungenziwa ngendlela ehambisana ne-sonochemical: I-SWCNTs ephakeme kakhulu ingatholakala kwisisombululo sokwephuza nge-sonicating silica powder ngamaminithi angu-20. ekamelweni lokushisa nokucindezela okukhulu. (I-Srinivasan 2005)

I-sonochemically ilungiselelwe i-carbon nanotubes ene-single-walled (SWNTs / SWCNTs)

Umdwebo 1: Ukukhiqizwa kwe-Sonochemical ye-SWCNTs. I-silica powder esisombululo se-ferrocene-xylene ingxube iye yanikezwa nge-min min 20. ekamelweni lokushisa nangaphansi kokucindezela okukhulu. I-Sonication ikhiqiza i-SWCNTS ephakeme kakhulu ebusweni buka-silica powder. (Jeong et al. 2004)

I-Nanotubes ye-Carbon Nanotubes esebenza kahle (f-CNTs) ingasebenza njengezinhlelo zokulethwa kwezigciwane. Umqondo oyinhloko ukuxhumanisa i-antigen ne-carbon nanotubes ngenkathi igcina ukuguqulwa kwayo, ngaleyo ndlela, ekunciphiseni impendulo ye-antibody ngokuqondile.
Ama-nanoparticles e-Ceramic, okusho ukuthi atholakala Silica, i-titania noma i-alumina, ifaka ubuso bezinhlayiya ezinobuthi obenza kube yilabo abasebenzisa izidakamizwa.

Ultrasonic Synthesis kanye nokwehliswa kweNanoparticles

I-nanoparticles ingakhiwa ngezansi-up nge-synthesis noma imvula. Sonochemistry ingenye yezindlela zokuqala ezisetshenziselwa ukulungisa ama-nanosize compounds. USuslick emsebenzini wakhe wokuqala, i-sonicated Fe (CO) 5 efana ne-liquid ehlanzekile noma isisombululo se-deaclin futhi athola ama-nanoparticles amaminerali angu-10 kuya kwangu-20. Ngokuvamile, ingxube ye-supersaturated iqala ukwakha izinhlayiya eziqinile ngaphandle kwezinto ezigxile kakhulu. I-Ultrasonication ithuthukisa ukuxubana kwezi-pre-cursors futhi kwandisa ukuhambisa-ukuhamba endaweni yezinhlayiyana. Lokhu kuholela ekutheni usayizi wezinhlayiyana ezincane nokulingana okuphakeme.

I-homogenizers ye-Ultrasonic ivumela ukuhlakazeka, ukuguqulwa kwamandla nokusebenza okungasebenzi kahle kwezinto zokusebenza ze-nano.

Khetha. 1: Idivayisi yebhu ye-Hielscher UP50H ukunikezwa kweminye imiqulu encane, isib. ukuhlakaza ama-MWNTs.

Ultrasonic ukusebenza kahle kweNanoparticles

Ukuze uthole nanoparticles ngezici ezithile kanye nemisebenzi, ubuso bezinhlayiya kufanele bushintshe. Ama-nanosystems ahlukene njengama-nanoparticles e-polymeric, ama-liposomes, ama-dendrimers, i-carbon nanotubes, amachashazi we-quantum njll angasebenza ngokuphumelelayo ukuze asebenzise kahle imithi.
Ukuze kusetshenziswe indawo ephelele yezinhlayiya ngayinye, indlela efanele yokusabalalisa iyadingeka. Uma ihlakazekile, izinhlayiyana zivame ukuzungezwa ngqimba lomngcele wama-molecule akhangwa ku-particle surface. Ukuze amaqembu amasha asebenzayo afinyelele ku-particle surface, lokhu kungqimba komngcele kufanele kuphulwe noma kususwe. I-jets ye-liquid ephumela ku-cavitation ye-ultrasonic ingafinyelela ngesivinini se-1000km / hr. Lokhu ukucindezeleka kusiza ukunqoba ukukhanga futhi kuthwale ama-molecule asebenzayo kuze kube yi-particle surface. Ku-sonochemistry, lokhu kusetshenziselwa ukuthuthukisa ukusebenza kwe-catalysts ehlakazekile.

Isibonelo esiwusizo:

Ukusebenza kwe-Ultrasonic ye-SWCNTs nge-PL-PEG: Zeineldin et al. (2009) yabonisa ukuthi ukuhlakazeka kwe-carbon nanotubes ene-walled (SWNTs) ebizwa ngokuthi i-ultrasonication ne-phospholipid-polyethylene glycol (PL-PEG) ihlukanisa ngakho, ngaleyo ndlela iphazamise ikhono layo lokuvimba ukutholakala okungafani kwamaseli. Kodwa-ke, i-PL-PEG engaxhunyiwe ikhuthaza ukutholakala kwamaselula okuqondile kwe-SWNTs okuhlosiwe kumakilasi amabili ahlukene we-receptors ezichazwe ngamangqamuzana omdlavuza. Ukwelashwa kwe-ultrasonic phambi kwe-PL-PEG kuyindlela evamile esetshenziselwa ukusabalalisa noma ukusebenza i-carbon nanotubes nobuqotho be-PEG kubalulekile ekukhuthazeni ukutholakala kwamangqamuzana athile we-ligand-functionalized nanotubes. Njengoba ukuhlukaniswa kungenxa ye-ultrasonication, inqubo evame ukusetshenziswa ukusabalalisa i-SWNTs, lokhu kungenzeka ukukhathazeka kwezicelo ezithile ezifana nokulethwa kwezidakamizwa.

Imishini yokuhlakaza i-Ultrasonic efana ne-ultrasonicator UP400S iyithuluzi eliphelele lokusabalalisa kanye ne-fclement SWCNTs ukuze kulungiselelwe izinto zokwelapha.

Umdwebo 2: Ukuhlakazeka kwe-Ultrasonic ye-SWCNTs nge-PL-PEG (Zeineldin et al. 2009)

Formation Ultrasonic Liposome

Okunye ukusetshenziswa okuphumelelayo kwe-ultrasound ukulungiselela ama-liposomes kanye ne-nano-liposomes. Izidakamizwa ezisekelwe e-Liposome kanye nezindlela zokwelapha izakhi zofuzo zidlala indima ebalulekile emithini eminingi yokwelashwa, kodwa futhi nasezicwilweni nasekunomsoco. I-Liposomes yizithwala ezinhle, njengoba ama-agent asebenzayo angenawo amanzi angeniswa ngaphakathi kwe-liposomes 'aqueous centre noma, uma i-ejenti enamafutha ahlaziyekile, engxenyeni ye-lipid. I-liposomes ingenziwa ngokusetshenziswa kwe-ultrasonics. Izinto eziyisisekelo zokwabiwa kwe-liposome yizimvukuzane ze-amphilic ezithathwe noma ezisekelwe ku-membrane lipids. Ukuze kwakhiwe ama-vesicle amancane angaphansi kwe-unilamellar (SUV), ukusabalalisa kwe-lipid kuhanjiswa ngomusa – isib nge-ultrasonic device ephathekayo UP50H (50W, 30kHz), i I-VialTweeter noma i-reactor ultrasonic UTR200 – ebhodini lokugeza. Ubude bendlela yokwelapha olunjalo lwe-ultrasonic luhlala ngo-approx. Imizuzu engu-5 kuya kwemi-15. Enye indlela yokukhiqiza ama-vesicles angama-unilamellar amancane yi-sonication we-multi-lamellar vesicles liposomes.
UDinu-Pirvu et al. (2010) ubika ukutholakala kwama-transfosomes nge-Sonicating MLVs ekamelweni lokushisa.
I-Hielscher Ultrasonics inikeza amadivaysi ahlukahlukene e-ultrasonic, i-sonotrodes nezesekeli ukuhlangabezana nemfuneko yazo zonke izinhlobo zezinqubo.

I-ultrasonic encapsulation yama-agent ku-liposomes

I-Liposomes isebenza njengabathwali bama agent asebenzayo. I-Ultrasound iyithuluzi eliphumelelayo lokulungiselela nokwakha i-liposomes yokufaka ama-agent asebenzayo. Ngaphambi kokufakwa kwe-encapsulation, i-liposomes ijwayele ukudala amaqoqo ngenxa yesikhala sokukhokha-ukusebenzisana kwenkokhelo yamakhanda e-phospholipid polar (Míckova et al. 2008), futhi kufanele avuleke. Ngomzekelo, uZhu et al. (2003) uchaza ukufakwa kwe-biotin powder kuma-liposomes nge-ultrasonication. Njengoba i-biotin powder yanezelwa kwisisombululo sokumiswa kwe-vesicle, isixazululo sithunyelwe nge-approx. Ihora eli-1. Ngemva kwalokhu ukwelashwa, i-biotin yayibanjwe yi-liposomes.

Liposomal Emulsions

Ukuze kuthuthukiswe umphumela wokondla we-cremes noma anti-aging cremes, ama-lotions, ama-gel kanye nezinye izinhlobo zokwenziwa kwe-cosmeceutical, i-emulsifier yengezwe kuma-liperomal dispersions ukuze kuqinisekiswe inani eliphakeme le-lipids. Kodwa uphenyo luye lwabonisa ukuthi ikhono lama-liposomes ngokuvamile alinganiselwe. Ngokungeziwe kwama-emulsifiers, lo mphumela uzovela ngaphambi kwesikhathi futhi ama-emulsifiers angeziwe abangela ukwehlisa amandla okubambisana kwe-phosphatidylcholine. Nanoparticles – eyakhiwe i-phosphatidylcholine ne-lipids - iyimpendulo yale nkinga. Lezi nanoparticles zakhiwa yi-droplet ye-oyile ehlanganiswa umxhwele we-phosphatidylcholine. Ukusetshenziswa kwe-nanoparticles kuvumela ukuhlanganiswa okukwazi ukuzuza amap lipids amaningi futhi uhlale uzinzile, ukuze amanye ama-emulsifiers angadingeki.
Ultrasonication iyindlela eqinisekisiwe yokukhiqizwa kwe-nanoemulsions ne-nanodispersions. I-ultrasound enamandla kakhulu inikeza amandla adingekayo ukusabalalisa isigaba samanzi (isigaba esasakazekile) ngamaconsi amancane esigabeni sesibili (isigaba esiqhubekayo). Endaweni yokuhlakazeka, ukufaka ama-bubble cavitation kubangele ukushaqeka okukhulu kwamanzi okuzungezile futhi kubangele ukubunjwa kwamanzi ahlanzekile e-liquid velocity. Ukuze kuqiniswe ama-droplets asanda kuhlanganiswa kwesigaba sokuhlakazeka ngokumelene ne-coalescence, ama-emulsifiers (izinto ezibonakalayo ezibonakalayo, ama-surfactants) kanye nokuqiniswa okungeziwe ku-emulsion. Njengoba u-coalescence wamaconsi ngemuva kokuphazanyiswa kuthinta ukusatshalaliswa kokusatshalaliswa kokusakaza kwe-droplet, kusetshenziselwa ukusimama kokugcina kwe-droplet esezingeni elilingana nokusatshalaliswa ngokushesha ngemuva kokuphazanyiswa kwe-droplet endaweni ye-dispersing ultrasonic.

Liposomal Dispersions

Ama-liposomal dispersions, asekelwe ku-phosphatidylchlorine engaxhunyiwe, engenakho ukuzinza ngokumelene ne-oxidation. Ukuqiniswa kokusabalalisa kungafinyelelwa ngama-antioxidants, njenge-complex of vitamin C no-E.
U-Ortan et al. (2002) bazuze esifundweni sabo mayelana nokulungiswa kwe-ultrasonic ka-Anethum graveolens amafutha abalulekile kuma-liposomes imiphumela emihle. Ngemuva kokubeletha, ubukhulu bama-liposomes babuphakathi kuka-70-150 nm, kanye ne-MLV phakathi kuka-230-475 nm; lezi zimiso zazihlala njalo njalo emva kwezinyanga ezimbili, kodwa zingakapheli inyanga engu-12, ikakhulukazi ekusakazeni kwe-SUV (bheka i-histograms ngezansi). Ukulinganiswa kokuzinza, ngokuphathelene nokulahlekelwa kwamafutha okubalulekile nokusabalalisa usayizi, kubonise nokuthi ama-liposomal dispersions agcina okuqukethwe kwamafutha ashubile. Lokhu kusikisela ukuthi ukufakwa kwamafutha ebalulekile kuma-liposomes kwandise ukuzinza kwamafutha.

Ama-vesicle ama-multi-lamellar (i-MLV) ne-unique uni-lamellar vesicles (SUV) e-ultrasonically ekhombisa ukuqina okuhle mayelana nokulahlekelwa kwamafutha okubalulekile nokusabalalisa usayizi wezinhlayiyana.

Isibalo 3: Ortan et al. (2009): Ukuzinza kwe-MLV ne-SUV ukuhlakazeka ngemva konyaka owodwa. Ukubunjwa kwe-Liposomal kwagcinwa ku-4 ± 1 ºC.

Chofoza lapha ukuze ufunde kabanzi mayelana nokulungiselela i-ultrasonic liposome!

Imiphumela ye-Ultrasonic

Eceleni komkhiqizo we-ultrasonic we-nanoparticles, ukucubungula kwalezi zinto kuyinkambu ebanzi yokusetshenziswa kwe-ultrasonication. Ama-agglomerate kufanele aphulwe, izinhlayiya kufanele zihlanjululwe futhi / noma zihlakazeke, izindawo ezimele zifanele ziqaliswe noma zisebenze, futhi ama-nano-gxobhothi kumele asuswe emulsified. Kuzo zonke lezi zinyathelo zokucubungula, i-ultrasound iyindlela eqinisekisiwe yokubaluleka. I-high-power ultrasound idala imiphumela embi. Lapho ukuphuza utshwala ngokweqile, amagagasi omsindo asakaze emithonjeni yamanzi ashukumisela ukushintsha ukucindezela okuphezulu (ukucindezela) nokujikeleza okuncane (ukungavamile), namazinga kuye ngokuthi imvamisa. Ngesikhathi umjikelezo ophansi ocindezelayo, amagagasi aphakeme kakhulu e-ultrasonic enza ama-bubbles amancane okugcoba noma aphuma emanzini. Lapho ama-bubbles athola umthamo lapho bengasakwazi ukuwuthola khona amandla, awela phansi ngesihluku ngesikhathi somjikelezo ophezulu wokucindezela. Lesi simo sibizwa cavitation.
I-implosion ye-bubble cavitation iholela ezincane-turbulences kanye ne-micro-jets ezifika ku-1000km / hr. Izinhlayiya ezinkulu zincike ekukhuphukeni kwamanzi (nge-cavitation ewela emoyeni ozungezile) noma ukunciphisa usayizi wezinhlayiyana (ngenxa ye-fission ngokusebenzisa ukushayisana kwe-inter-particle noma ukuwa kwe-bubble cavitation eyenziwe phezulu). Lokhu kuholela ekusheshiseni okusheshayo kokusabalalisa, izinqubo zokudluliswa kwamandla kanye nokusebenza kwesigaba esiqinile ngenxa yobukhulu bekristall kanye nesakhiwo sokushintsha. (Suslick 1998)

Izinsiza zokucubungula ze-Ultrasonic

U-Hielscher ungumhlinzeki ophezulu wekhwalithi ephakeme kanye nezinqubo eziphezulu zokusebenza ze-ultrasonic ze-lab ne-application zezimboni. Amadivaysi aphezulu ukusuka Ama-watts angu-50 kuya ku Ama-watts angu-16,000 vumela ukuthola inqubo efanele ye-ultrasonic yonke ivolumu nayo yonke inqubo. Ngokusebenza kwabo okuphezulu, ukwethembeka, ukuqina nokusebenza okulula, ukwelashwa kwe-ultrasonic kuyindlela edingekayo yokulungiselela nokucubungula kwama-nanomaterials. Ehlomekile nge-CIP (ehlanzekile-indawo) kanye ne-SIP (inzalo-endaweni), amadivaysi ase-Hielscher ase-ultrasonic aqinisekisa ukukhiqizwa okuphephile nangokuphumelelayo ngokuvumelana namazinga wezokwelapha. Zonke izinqubo ezicacile ze-ultrasonic zingahlolwa kalula ku-lab noma ebhentshini eliphezulu. Imiphumela yalezi zivivinyo iyakhiwe kabusha, ngakho-ke lokhu okulandelayo okulinganayo kuhambisana ngokulinganayo futhi kungenziwa kalula ngaphandle kwemizamo eyengeziwe mayelana nokuhlelwa kwenqubo.

I-Sono-synthesis ingenziwa njenge-batch noma njengenqubo eqhubekayo.

Khetha. 2: I-Ultrasonic flow cell reactor ivumela ukuqhutshwa okuqhubekayo.

Izincwadi / Izinkomba

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Xhumana Nathi / Cela Ukwaziswa Olwengeziwe

Khuluma nathi mayelana nezidingo zakho zokucubungula. Sizosikisela ukusetha nokulungiswa kwemingcele efanele yephrojekthi yakho.





Sicela uqaphele wethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.