Isikhuhlu Sogwayi Sombumbulu
Ukukhishwa kwe-alkaloids okusizwa yi-ultrasonically kusuka kugwayi kungahanjiswa kusetshenziswa amanzi noma izithambisi ezinobunzima kwinqubo esheshayo yemizuzu embalwa. Ama-alkaloid akhishwa yi-ultrasonically anjenge nicotine kagwayi akhishwa ngenqubo esheshayo nephumelela kakhulu, enikeza ukutholakala okuphezulu kokukhishwa okugcwele (okuqukethe i-nicotine, i-nornicotine, i-chlorogenic acid (i-5-caffeoylquinic acid), i-rutin, i-caffeic acid ne-scopoletin, i-solanesol njll.).
Isizinda se-Ultrasonic kagwayi
Isizinda se-Ultrasonic-esiza (i-UAE) siyindlela esheshayo, esebenzayo, futhi elula yokususa, esekelwe ekusebenziseni kwamandla-ultrasound. Amagagasi amakhulu e-ultrasonic akhiqiza ukuhamba okusheshayo kwe-micro-ukunyakaza kanye ne-acoustic cavitation ezinhlelweni eziqinile ze-ketshezi (isib. Izinto zezitshalo ezikhiqizwayo, isb. Amaqabunga kagwayi ku-ethanol), okuholela ekwandeni kokudluliselwa kwenqwaba kanye nenqubo yokukhishwa okusheshayo. Uma uqhathanisa namanye amasu asuswayo wokukhipha njengokususwa kwe-supercritical fluid kanye ne-ion-pair isizinda, isizinda esisizwa yi-ultrasonically-assist kuphephile kakhulu kwezomnotho, kubungani bemvelo, kuphephile futhi kulula ukuyisebenzisa. Ngakho-ke, ukukhishwa kwe-ultrasonic kuyindlela ekhethekile yokukhipha isizinda yokukhipha amakhompiyutha we-bioactive kusuka ku-botanicals.
Ukukhishwa kwe-Ultrasonic kuholela ekukhiqizweni okubanzi okubanzi, okuqukethe i-nicotine, okuyi-alkaloid eyinhloko kagwayi ene-94-98% yokuqukethwe okuphelele kwe-alkaloid, kanye ne-alkaloids nornicotine, i-anabasine, i-anatabine, i-cotinine ne-myosmine.
Izicucu Ezigcwele Zokubhema Okugcwele zeSpectrum nge-Sonication
Ama-alkaloid anjenge-nicotine ne-nornicotine, i-chlorogenic acid, ama-phenolics, i-solanesol nezinye izinhlanganisela ze-bioactive angakwazi ukushesha, asebenzele futhi aphephe ukuhlala yedwa esebenzisa isizinda se-ultrasonic. Ukukhishwa kukagwayi ojwayelekile kufaka ukusetshenziswa kwezinsimbi ezinobuthi ezinjenge-heptane emazingeni okushisa aphezulu, oguqula inqubo yokukhipha inqubo inqubo eyingozi. Yonke inqubo yokususa evamile ithatha i-approx. 24h futhi ngalesosikhathi sichitha isikhathi esiningi.
Ukukhishwa kwe-Ultrasonic kungenziwa njengokukhishwa kwamanzi abandayo noma kusetshenziswe izithambisi ezinobuncane ezinjenge-ethanol noma ingxube ye-ethanol-water at lokushisa kwasekamelweni noma amazinga okushisa aphakeme kancane. I-sonication ithatha imizuzu embalwa, eguqula ukukhishwa kube inqubo esheshayo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukusebenzisa amanzi noma i-solvents emnene inqubo iphephile ngokuphelele futhi elula.
Ama-extracts akhiqizwe ngokuphelele we-ultrasonic aqukethe i-alkaloid nicotine eyinhloko kanye ne-alkaloids yesibili noma emincane efana ne-anabasine noma i-3- (2-piperidinyl) pyridine, anatabine noma i-3- (2-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridyl) pyridine , i-machinine noma i-1-methyl-5- (3-pyridyl) -2-pyrrolidinone), 2,3'-dipyridyl noma isonicoteine, N-formylnornicotine noma 2- (3-pyridyl) pyrrolidinecarbaldehyde, myosmine noma 3- (1-pyrrolin -2-yl) i-pyridine, i-nornicotine noma i-3- (pyrrolidin-2-yl) i-pyridine, kanye 𝛽-nicotyrine or 3-(1-methylpyrrol-2-yl)pyridine. The content of these alkaloids varies depending on tobacco species and tobacco products. While nicotine is the primary alkaloid with 94–98% of the total alkaloid content, nornicotine and anatabine are the two most abundant secondary alkaloids, each accounting for approx. 2% to 6% of the total alkaloid content of tobacco.
- Higher Yield
- High Quality
- Rapid Extraction
- Mild, Non-thermal Process
- Water or Solvent
- Simple & Safe Operation
Choose from a Broad Selection of Solvents
Using ultrasonic extraction, you can select from various solvents, including water, alcohol, ethanol, methanol, ethanol-water mixtures or strong solvents such as heptane or hexane. All of the former named solvents have been already successfully tested and shown to be effective for the isolation of bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics and solanesol from tobacco plant materials. Sonication can be used in solvent-free cold-water extraction (e.g. to prepare organic extracts) or can be combined with a solvent of your choice.
Learn more about solvents for the ultrasonic extraction from botanicals!
High-Performance Ultrasound Extractors
Hielscher’s ultrasonic equipment is a commonly extraction tool for the isolation of bioactive compounds from botanicals. Supplying ultrasonic extractors for all process scales, Hielscher is able to recommend you the most suitable ultrasonic system for your needs. Starting with compact, yet powerful lab systems for analysis and feasibility testing, Hielscher offers the full range from lab and pilot plant ultrasonicators up to fully industrial ultrasound reactors. Offering the full band width of ultrasonic processors, Hielscher has the ideal setup for your extraction process. Depending on your process volume and goal, ultrasonic extraction can be performed in batch or continuous flow mode. Manifold accessories such as sonotrodes, booster horns, flow cells and reactors allow to equip the ultrasonic processor to fulfil the process targets ideally.
Hielscher’s ultrasonic processors can be precisely controlled and process data are automatically recorded on the integrated SD-card of our digital ultrasonic systems. The reliable control over the process parameters ensure a consistently high product quality. The automatic data recording of the process parameters allow for an easy process standardization and the fulfilment of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP).
The robustness of Hielscher’s ultrasonic equipment allows for 24/7 operation at heavy duty and in demanding environments. Easy and safe operation as well as low maintenance make Hielscher’s ultrasonic systems the reliable work horse in your production.
The table below gives you an indication of the approximate processing capacity of our ultrasonicators:
|Batch Volume||Flow Rate||Recommended Devices|
|0.5 to 1.5mL||n.a.||VialTweeter|
|1 to 500mL||10 to 200mL/min||UP100H|
|10 to 2000mL||20 to 400mL/min||UP200Ht, UP400St|
|0.1 to 20L||0.2 to 4L/min||UIP2000hdT|
|10 to 100L||2 to 10L/min||UIP4000|
|n.a.||10 to 100L/min||UIP16000|
|n.a.||larger||cluster of UIP16000|
Contact us now for further information! Our well-trained staff will be glad to discuss your extraction process with you!
Contact Us! / Ask Us!
- Vinatoru, M. (2001): An overview of the ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from herbs. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 8(3):303-13.
- Chen, P.X.; Qian, N.; Burton, H.R.; Moldoveanu, S.C. (2005): Analysis of Minor Alkaloids in Tobacco: A Collaborative Study. Contributions to Tobacco Research, Vol.21 / No.7; October 2005.
Facts Worth Knowing
Why is Ultrasonic Extraction so Effective?
Ultrasonically-assisted extraction (UAE) is based on coupling highly intense ultrasound waves (acoustic waves) into a liquid or slurry. The acoustic waves create alternating high pressure / low pressure cycles, which result in the phenomenon of acoustic cavitation. The phenomenon of ultrasonic or acoustic cavitation is characterized by extreme, locally confined conditions of very high pressures, temperatures and shear forces. In proximity of the imploding cavitation bubbles, temperatures of up to 5000K, pressures of 1000 atmosphere, heating-cooling rate above 1010 K/s and liquids jets with up to 280m/s velocity, which appear as very high shear force and turbulences in the cavitational zone, can be measured. The combination of these factors (pressure, heat, shear and turbulence) disrupt cells (lysis) and intensify mass transfer during the extraction process. Thereby, the liquid-solid extraction of phytoconstituents from plant cells is promoted. The ultrasonic extraction technique is widely applied for the successful and efficient extraction of flavonoids, polysaccharides, alkaloids, phytosterols, polyphenols, and pigments from plants.
Various plants in the Nicotiana genus and the Solanaceae (nightshade) family are known as tobacco plants. Besides being the commonly used term for the plant, tobacco describes also the products prepared from the cured leaves of the tobacco plant. Whilst Nicotiana tabacum is the main crop use for tobacco and nicotine production, there are over 70 plant species of tobacco. N. tabacum is the dominant species used for tobacco products, however the more potent variant N. rustica can be found around the world and is used for.
Tobacco contains the stimulant alkaloid nicotine as well as harmala alkaloids. Dried and cured tobacco leaves are mainly used for smoking in cigarettes, cigars, pipes, shishas as well as e-cigarettes, e-cigars, e-pipes and vaporizers. Alternatively, they can be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco and snus.
The tobacco plant family contains various (sub-)species, which exhibit different alkaloid and flavour profiles.
Oriental tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is a species of tobacco grown mainly in Turkey, Greece, and neighboring areas, which is used for the commercial production of cigarettes, cigars and chewing tobacco. It has a strong characteristic flavor, is relatively low in nicotine and high in reducing sugars, acids, and volatile flavor oil, which gives the tobacco products an intense aroma.
There are 67 natural species of tobacco known. Below the most common species are listed:
- Nicotiana acuminata (Graham) Hook. – manyflower tobacco
- Nicotiana africana Merxm.
- Nicotiana alata Link & Otto – winged tobacco, jasmine tobacco, tanbaku (Persian)
- Nicotiana attenuata Torrey ex S. Watson – coyote tobacco
- Nicotiana benthamiana Domin
- Nicotiana clevelandii A. Gray
- Nicotiana glauca Graham – tree tobacco, Brazilian tree tobacco, shrub tobacco, mustard tree
- Nicotiana glutinosa L.
- Nicotiana langsdorffii Weinm.
- Nicotiana longiflora Cav.
- Nicotiana occidentalis H.-M. Wheeler
- Nicotiana obtusifolia M. Martens & Galeotti – desert tobacco, punche, “tabaquillo”
- Nicotiana otophora Griseb.
- Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv.
- Nicotiana quadrivalvis Pursh
- Nicotiana rustica L. – Aztec tobacco, mapacho
- Nicotiana suaveolens Lehm. – Australian tobacco
- Nicotiana sylvestris Speg. & Comes – South American tobacco, woodland tobacco
- Nicotiana tabacum L. – commercial tobacco grown for the production of cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, etc.
- Nicotiana tomentosiformis Goodsp.
The three species below are man-made hybrids:
- Nicotiana × didepta N. debneyi × N. tabacum
- Nicotiana × digluta N. glutinosa × N. tabacum
- Nicotiana × sanderae Hort. ex Wats. N. alata × N. forgetiana
Types of Tobacco
The curing and subsequent aging process of tobacco leaves induces a slow oxidation and degradation of the present carotenoids in tobacco leaf. Due to the oxidation, certain compounds in the tobacco leaves are synthesized, which result in sweet hay, tea, rose oil, or fruity aromatic flavors, which contribute to the “smoothness” of the smoke. Starches are converted into sugars, which subsequently glycate proteins, and are oxidized into advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). This is a caramelization process that also gives the smoke its flavor.
The preparation and curing method of tobacco influences its final aroma characteristics. Curing can be achieved by air-, fire-, flue-, and sun-curing. For example, flue-cured tobacco (e.g. from France) contains only low levels of alkaloids, whilst air-cured Burley tobacco (e.g. sourced from Guatemala) is known for its high content of alkaloids.