Isikhuhlu Sogwayi Sombumbulu

Ukukhishwa kukagwayi ojwayelekile kuyinqubo ethatha isikhathi, ethatha isikhathi, ebandakanya ukusetshenziswa kwezithako ezinobuthi emazingeni okushisa aphakeme, okwenza inqubo ibe yingozi.

Ukukhishwa kwe-alkaloids okusizwa yi-ultrasonically kusuka kugwayi kungahanjiswa kusetshenziswa amanzi noma izithambisi ezinobunzima kwinqubo esheshayo yemizuzu embalwa. Ama-alkaloid akhishwa yi-ultrasonically anjenge nicotine kagwayi akhishwa ngenqubo esheshayo nephumelela kakhulu, enikeza ukutholakala okuphezulu kokukhishwa okugcwele (okuqukethe i-nicotine, i-nornicotine, i-chlorogenic acid (i-5-caffeoylquinic acid), i-rutin, i-caffeic acid ne-scopoletin, i-solanesol njll.).

Isizinda se-Ultrasonic kagwayi

Isizinda se-Ultrasonic-esiza (i-UAE) siyindlela esheshayo, esebenzayo, futhi elula yokususa, esekelwe ekusebenziseni kwamandla-ultrasound. Amagagasi amakhulu e-ultrasonic akhiqiza ukuhamba okusheshayo kwe-micro-ukunyakaza kanye ne-acoustic cavitation ezinhlelweni eziqinile ze-ketshezi (isib. Izinto zezitshalo ezikhiqizwayo, isb. Amaqabunga kagwayi ku-ethanol), okuholela ekwandeni kokudluliselwa kwenqwaba kanye nenqubo yokukhishwa okusheshayo. Uma uqhathanisa namanye amasu asuswayo wokukhipha njengokususwa kwe-supercritical fluid kanye ne-ion-pair isizinda, isizinda esisizwa yi-ultrasonically-assist kuphephile kakhulu kwezomnotho, kubungani bemvelo, kuphephile futhi kulula ukuyisebenzisa. Ngakho-ke, ukukhishwa kwe-ultrasonic kuyindlela ekhethekile yokukhipha isizinda yokukhipha amakhompiyutha we-bioactive kusuka ku-botanicals.
Ukukhishwa kwe-Ultrasonic kuholela ekukhiqizweni okubanzi okubanzi, okuqukethe i-nicotine, okuyi-alkaloid eyinhloko kagwayi ene-94-98% yokuqukethwe okuphelele kwe-alkaloid, kanye ne-alkaloids nornicotine, i-anabasine, i-anatabine, i-cotinine ne-myosmine.

Ukukhishwa kwe-Ultrasonic kusetshenziselwa kabanzi ukukhiqizwa kokukhishwa kwe-botanical njenge-CBD kusuka ku-cannabis ne-hemp. I-Ultrasonication isebenza kahle futhi iyashesha.

Isizinda se-Ultrasonic of Botanicals njenge-CBD kusuka ku-Cannabis

I-Hielscher Ultrasonics 'SonoStation iyisethi elula yokusebenzisa i-ultrasonic yezinga lokukhiqiza. (Chofoza ukuze wandise!)

SonoStation – uhlelo lwe-ultrasonic nge-2x ultrasonicators 2kW, Ithangi zishukunyiswe futhi uthando futha – iyisistimu enomsebenzisi-friendly for isizinda.

Isicelo solwazi




Qaphela kwethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


Izicucu Ezigcwele Zokubhema Okugcwele zeSpectrum nge-Sonication

Ama-alkaloid anjenge-nicotine ne-nornicotine, i-chlorogenic acid, ama-phenolics, i-solanesol nezinye izinhlanganisela ze-bioactive angakwazi ukushesha, asebenzele futhi aphephe ukuhlala yedwa esebenzisa isizinda se-ultrasonic. Ukukhishwa kukagwayi ojwayelekile kufaka ukusetshenziswa kwezinsimbi ezinobuthi ezinjenge-heptane emazingeni okushisa aphezulu, oguqula inqubo yokukhipha inqubo inqubo eyingozi. Yonke inqubo yokususa evamile ithatha i-approx. 24h futhi ngalesosikhathi sichitha isikhathi esiningi.
Ukukhishwa kwe-Ultrasonic kungenziwa njengokukhishwa kwamanzi abandayo noma kusetshenziswe izithambisi ezinobuncane ezinjenge-ethanol noma ingxube ye-ethanol-water at lokushisa kwasekamelweni noma amazinga okushisa aphakeme kancane. I-sonication ithatha imizuzu embalwa, eguqula ukukhishwa kube inqubo esheshayo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukusebenzisa amanzi noma i-solvents emnene inqubo iphephile ngokuphelele futhi elula.

Amaqabunga kagwayi atholakala ngokuphelele ahlukaniswa ngamakhompiyutha akhishwe ku-solvent.

Izicucu ezikhiqizwa ngokugcwele ze-ultrasonically ziqukethe i-alkaloid nicotine eyinhloko kanye ne-alkaloid yesibili noma encane efana ne-anabasine noma i-3- (2-piperidinyl) pyridine, anatabine noma i-3- (2-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridyl) pyridine , i-cotinine noma i-1-methyl-5- (3-pyridyl) -2-pyrrolidinone), i-2,3'-dipyridyl noma i-isonicoteine, i-N-formylnornicotine noma i-2- (3-pyridyl) pyrrolidinecarbaldehyde, i-myosmine noma i-3- (1-pyrrolin -2-yl) pyridine, nornicotine noma 3- (pyrrolidin-2-yl) pyridine, ne-beta-nicotyrine noma i-3- (1-methylpyrrol-2-yl) pyridine.

Okuqukethwe yilawa ma-alkaloid kuyehluka kuya ngohlobo lwegwayi nemikhiqizo kagwayi. Ngenkathi i-nicotine iyi-alkaloid eyinhloko eno-94-98% wokuqukethwe okuphelele kwe-alkaloid, i-nornicotine ne-anatabine yilawa ma-alkaloid amabili amaningi kakhulu, ngalinye libala i-approx. 2% kuya ku-6% wokuqukethwe okuphelele kwe-alkaloid kagwayi.

Izinzuzo Zokukhishwa Kogwayi we-Ultrasonic:

  • isivuno esiphezulu
  • Ikhwalithi ephezulu
  • Ukukhipha okusheshayo
  • Inqubo Ebukhali, Engekho Eyashisayo
  • Amanzi noma Isixazululo
  • Okulula & Ukusebenza okuphephile
Ukukhishwa kukagwayi we-Ultrasonic nge-ultrasonicator UP400St (400W) kanye ne-probe S24d20L2 ukuthola isivuno se-nicotine esiphezulu ngesikhathi esifushane sokucubungula. Ukukhishwa kukagwayi we-Ultrasonic kungaqhutshwa ngamakhemikhali awuketshezi amancane futhi ngaleyo ndlela kuyindlela eluhlaza, evikela imvelo.

Isikhombi se-Ultrasonic UP400ST sokukhishwa kwe-nicotine kusuka emaqabeni kagwayi

Khetha kusuka ekukhethweni okubanzi kwama-solvents

Usebenzisa isizinda se-ultrasonic, ungakhetha kusuka kuma-solvents ahlukahlukene, kufaka phakathi amanzi, utshwala, i-ethanol, i-methanol, izingxube zamanzi we-ethanol noma ama-solvents aqinile njenge-heptane noma i-hexane. Onke ama-solvents angaphambilini aqanjwe ngempumelelo asevele ahlolwe ngempumelelo futhi akhonjiswa ukuthi ayasebenza ekuhlukanisweni kwamakhemikhali e-bioactive afana ne-alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics kanye ne-solanesol ezintweni zezitshalo zikagwayi. I-Sonication ingasetshenziselwa ukukhipha amanzi abandayo angenamanzi (isb. Ukulungiselela ukukhishwa kwezinto eziphilayo) noma kungahlanganiswa ne-solvent oyithandayo.
Funda kabanzi mayelana nezixazululo zesitoreji se-ultrasonic kusuka ku-botanicals!

Hielscher ultrasonicator UP400St with sonotrode S24d22L2 for extraction of nicotine and harmala from tobacco leaves.

I-Ultrasonic Processor I-UP400St (400 Watts) ukukhishwa kwama-alkaloid afana ne-nicotine ne-harmala emaqabungeni kagwayi.

Izinga eliphezulu Lokwenza i-Ultrasound Extractors

UIP4000hdT (4kW) iprosesa ye-ultrasonic ye-extraction yama-pectin kuhlelo lokusebenza olusezingeni eliphezulu.Imishini ye-ultrasonic ye-Hielscher iyithuluzi elikhishwa njalo lokuhlukaniswa kwamakhemikhali e-bioactive kuma-botanicals. Ukuhlinzeka nge-ultrasonic extractors kuzo zonke izilinganiso zenqubo, i-Hielscher iyakwazi ukukuncoma uhlelo olufanele kakhulu lwe-ultrasonic ngezidingo zakho. Iqala nge-compact, kepha inamandla izinhlelo zebhu Ukuhlaziywa nokuhlolwa kokungenzeka, i-Hielscher inikeza ububanzi obugcwele kusuka kubhu kanye ne-pilot plant ultrasonicators kuze kufike i-industrial ultrasound ngokugcwele ophendulayo. Ukunikeza ububanzi bebhendi ephelele yamaprosesa we-ultrasonic, i-Hielscher inokusetha okuhle kwenqubo yakho yokukhipha. Ngokuya ngevolumu yenqubo yakho kanye nomgomo, ukukhishwa kwe-ultrasonic kungenziwa nge-batch noma imodi yokugeleza eqhubekayo. Izesekeli ezininginingi ezifana ne-sonotrode, izimpondo ze-booster, amaseli wokugeleza nama-reactor avumela ukuhlomisa iprosesa le-ultrasonic ukufeza izinhloso zenqubo kahle.
Amaprosesa we-Hielscher's ultrasonic angalawulwa ngokunembile futhi idatha yenqubo iqoshwa ngokuzenzakalela ekhadini le-SD elihlanganisiwe lezinhlelo zethu ze-digital ultrasonic. Ukulawulwa okuthembekile kwemingcele yenqubo kuqinisekisa ikhwalithi yomkhiqizo ephezulu ngokungaguquki. Ukurekhodwa kwedatha okuzenzakalelayo kwamapharamitha enqubo kuvumela inqubo elula yokumiswa kwenqubo kanye nokugcwaliseka kwemikhuba emihle yokukhiqiza (GMP).
Ukuqina kwemishini ye-ultrasonic ye-Hielscher kuvumela ukusebenza komsebenzi we-24/7 emsebenzini obuthakathaka nasezindaweni ezinzima. Ukusebenza okulula futhi okuphephile kanye nesondlo esincane kwenza ama-ultrasonic ama-Hielscher amahhashi womsebenzi othembekile ekukhiqizeni kwakho.

Ithebula elingezansi linikeza isibonakaliso somthamo wokucubungula we-ultrasonicators wethu:

Iqoqwana Ivolumu flow Rate Amadivayisi ezinconyiwe
0.5 kuya ku-1.5mL na I-VialTweeter
1 kuya ku-500mL 10 kuya ku-200mL / min UP100H
10 kuya ku-2000mL 20 kuya ku-400mL / min UP200Ht, UP400St
0.1 kuya ku-20L 0.2 kuya ku-4L / min I-UIP2000hdT
10 kuya ku-100L 2 kuya ku-10L / iminithi UIP4000
na 10 kuya ku-100L / iminithi UIP16000
na sikhulu yinhlanganisela UIP16000

Thintana nathi manje ukuze uthole olunye ulwazi! Abasebenzi bethu abaqeqeshwe kahle bayokujabulela ukuxoxa ngenqubo yakho yokukhipha nawe!

Xhumana nathi! / Cela Us!

Cela ulwazi oluthe xaxa

Sicela usebenzise ifomu elingezansi, uma ufisa ukucela ulwazi oluthe xaxa mayelana ne-homogenization yama-ultrasonic. Sizojabula ukukunikeza uhlelo lwe-ultrasonic ukuhlangabezana nezidingo zakho.









Sicela uqaphele wethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


I-Hielscher Ultrasonics ikhiqiza ama-ultrasonicators aphezulu ekusebenzeni kwezicelo ze-sonochemical.

Amaprosesa aphezulu aphezulu e-ultrasonic kusukela ebhuthini kuya ku-pilot nesilinganiso sezimboni.

I-UIP2000hdT yezimboni yezimboni endaweni ekhethekile

I-UIP2000hdT, i-2kW enamandla amakhulu okusebenza kwe-ultrasonicator



Amaqiniso Okufanele Ukwazi

Kungani ukukhishwa kwe-Ultrasonic kuphumelela kangaka?

Isizinda esisizwa yi-Ultrasonically-assisted (UAE) sisekelwe ekuxhumaniseni amagagasi amakhulu kakhulu e-ultrasound (amagagasi e-acoustic) abe uketshezi noma i-slurry. Amagagasi e-acoustic adala ukushintshana kwemijikelezo ephezulu yengcindezi / yengcindezi ephansi, okuholela esimweni se-acoustic cavitation. Isimo se-ultrasonic noma i-acoustic cavitation sibonakala ngezimo ezeqile, ezivalelwe endaweni zezingcindezi eziphakeme kakhulu, amazinga okushisa namandla okugunda. Eseduze kwamabhulebhu wokufaka we-cavitation, amazinga okushisa afinyelela ku-5000K, izingcindezi zomoya we-1000, izinga lokushisa-lokushisa elingaphezu kwe-1010 K / s kanye nezindiza zamanzi ezinama-280m / s velocity, abonakala njengamandla amakhulu kakhulu e-shear kanye ne-turbulences ku indawo yokubamba, ingalinganiswa. Ukuhlanganiswa kwalezi zinto (ingcindezi, ukushisa, i-shear kanye ne-turbulence) kuphazamisa amaseli (i-lysis) futhi kuqinise ukudluliswa okukhulu ngesikhathi senqubo yokukhipha. Ngaleyo ndlela, ukukhushulwa okuqinile oketshezi kwama-phytoconstituents kumaseli ezitshalo kuyakhuthazwa. Inqubo yokukhipha i-ultrasonic isetshenziselwa kabanzi ukukhishwa okuphumelelayo nokusebenza kahle kwama-flavonoids, ama-polysaccharides, ama-alkaloids, ama-phytosterol, ama-polyphenols, kanye nezingulube ezivela ezitshalweni.

Iziphazamisi ze-Ultrasonic zisetshenziselwa ukuchithwa okuvela emithonjeni ye-phyto (isb. Izitshalo, i-algae, isikhunta)

Isizinda se-Ultrasonic esivela kumaseli esitshalo: isigaba esincane esithintekayo (TS) sibonisa indlela yokwenza phakathi kwesikhumba se ultrasonic kusuka kumangqamuzana (ukukhulisa 2000x) [isisetshenziswa: Vilkhu et al. 2011]

Ugwayi

Izitshalo ezahlukahlukene zohlobo lukaNicotiana kanye nomndeni wakwaSolanaceae (nightshade) zaziwa njengezitshalo zikagwayi. Ngaphandle kokuba yigama elisetshenziswa kakhulu kulesi sitshalo, ugwayi uchaza nemikhiqizo elungiselelwe kusuka emaqabungeni aphulukisiwe esitshalo sogwayi. Ngenkathi iNicotiana tabacum kungukusetshenziswa okuyisisekelo kwezitshalo ekukhiqizeni ugwayi kanye ne-nicotine, kunezinhlobo ezingaphezu kuka-70 zezitshalo zikagwayi. I-N.Tabacum yizinhlobo ezivelele ezisetshenziselwa imikhiqizo kagwayi, kepha okuhlukile okunamandla kakhulu N. rustica kungatholakala emhlabeni jikelele futhi kusetshenziselwa.
Ugwayi uqukethe i-alkaloid nicotine evuselelayo kanye ne-harmala alkaloids. Amaqabunga kagwayi omisiwe naphilisiwe asetshenziselwa ukubhema osikilidi, u-cigar, amapayipi, ama-shisha kanye nama-e-cigarettes, ama-e-cigar, ama-e -ipeip kanye nama-vaporizer. Ngenye indlela, zingadliwa njengesinemfu, ugwayi ohlafunwayo, ukucuba ugwayi kanye nesnus.

Umndeni wezitshalo zikagwayi uqukethe izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene (ezingaphansi), ezibonisa amaphrofayli ahlukile e-alkaloid ne-flavour.
Ugwayi waseMpumalanga (uNicotiana tabacum L.) wuhlobo lukagwayi olinywa kakhulu eTurkey, eGrisi nasezindaweni ezingomakhelwane, ezisetshenziselwa ukukhiqiza osikilidi, osikilidi nogwayi ohlafunwayo. Inokunambitheka okuqinile kwesici, iphansi kakhulu ku-nicotine futhi iphezulu ekwehliseni ushukela, ama-acid, kanye namafutha okunambitheka okungaziphathi kahle, okunikeza imikhiqizo kagwayi iphunga elinamandla.

Kunezinhlobo ezingama-67 zemvelo kagwayi ezaziwayo. Ngezansi kwezinhlobo ezivame kakhulu kubalwe:

  • UNicotiana acuminata (Graham) Hook. - ugwayi omningi wezimbali
  • UNicotiana africana Merxm.
  • Nicotiana alata Xhumanisa & Ugwayi onamaphiko ka-Otto, ugwayi wejasmine, i-tanbaku (Persian)
  • UNicotiana attenuata Torrey ex S. Watson - ugwayi wecoyote
  • UNicotiana benthamiana Domin
  • UNicotiana clevelandii A. Mpunga
  • UNicotiana glauca Graham - ugwayi wesihlahla, ugwayi wesihlahla saseBrazil, ugwayi we-shrub, umuthi wesinaphi
  • UNicotiana glutinosa L.
  • UNicotiana langsdorffii Weinm.
  • UNicotiana longiflora Cav.
  • UNicotiana occidentalis H.-M. Isondo
  • UNicotiana obtusifolia M. Martens & IGaleotti - ugwayi ogwadule, i-punche, “tabaquillo”
  • UNicotiana otophora Griseb.
  • UNicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv.
  • UNicotiana quadrivalvis Pursh
  • UNicotiana rustica L. - ugwayi wama-Aztec, imapacho
  • UNicotiana suaveolens Lehm. - Ugwayi wase-Australia
  • UNicotiana sylvestris Speg. & Iza - ugwayi waseNingizimu Melika, ugwayi wasezinkuni
  • UNicotiana tabacum L. - ugwayi wezentengiselwano okhuliselwe ukukhiqizwa kukagwayi, ugwayi, ugwayi ohlafunwayo, njll.
  • UNicotiana tomentosiformis Goodsp.

Lezi zinhlobo ezintathu ezingezansi ziyizinhlamvu ezenziwe ngabantu:

  • UNicotiana × didepta N. debneyi × N. tabacum
  • UNicotiana × digluta N. glutinosa × N. tabacum
  • UNicotiana × sanderae Hort. ex Wats. N. alata × N. ukhohlwa

Izinhlobo Zogwayi
Inqubo yokwelapha nokuguga okwalandela kwamaqabunga kagwayi kubangela uketshezi okwehlisa umoya nokucekelwa phansi kwama-carotenoid akhona egqabeni logwayi. Ngenxa yoketshezi oketshezi oluthambile, izinhlanganisela ezithile zamaqabunga kagwayi zihlanganiswa, okuholela otshanini obumnandi, itiye, uwoyela wama-rose, noma ukunambitheka okunephunga elinuka, okunomthelela “bushelelezi” wentuthu. Isitashi siguqulwa sibe ushukela, okwathi ngemuva kwalokho sabamba amaprotheni e-glycate, futhi sahlanganiswa saba yimikhiqizo ye-glycation endproducts (AGEs) ethuthukile. Le yinqubo ye-caramelization enikeza nentuthu ukunambitheka kwayo.
Ukulungiswa nokuphulukiswa kwendlela kagwayi kuthonya izici zayo zokugcina zephunga. Ukwelapha kungafinyelelwa ngokuphulukiswa komoya, umlilo-, ukuphefumula, nokupholisa ilanga. Isibonelo, ugwayi opholisiwe (isib ovela eFrance) uqukethe amazinga aphansi kuphela ama-alkaloid, ngenkathi ugwayi ophulukiswe ngomoya we-Burley (isb. Osuselwe eGuatemala) waziwa ngokuqukethwe kwawo okuphezulu kwama-alkaloids.