I-Hielscher Ultrasound Technology

Ultrasonic Synthesis yamaNanodiamond

  • Ngenxa yamandla alo amakhulu, amandla e-ultrasound iyindlela yokuthembisa ukukhiqiza idayimani ezincane nezisisindo kusuka ku-graphite.
  • Amadayimane amancane-nano-crystalline angahle ahlanganiswe ukuveza ukumiswa kwamagrafite emanzini anohlobo olunezinkinga zomkhathi kanye nokushisa kwekamelo.
  • I-Ultrasonic iyithuluzi eliwusizo lokuthunyelwa komsebenzi we-nano amadayimani ahlanganisiwe, njengoba i-ultrasonication ihlakazeka, i-deaggomerom futhi isebenza kahle nge-nano izinhlayiyana eziphumelela kakhulu.

I-Ultrasonics ye-Nanodiamond Treatment

Ama-nanodiamonds (okubizwa nangokuthi idayimane yokuqothula (i-DND) noma idayimani elise-ultradispersed (UDD) yiyona ndlela ekhethekile ye-carbon nanomaterials ehlukaniswe izici eziyingqayizivele - njengalezi i-lattice isakhiwo, esikhulu sayo ubuso, kanye nokuhlukile optical futhi magnetic izakhiwo - nezinhlelo ezihlukile. Izakhiwo zezinhlayiya ze-ultradispersed zenza lezi zinto zokwakha izinto ezintsha zokudala izinto zokwaziswa nemisebenzi engavamile. Ubukhulu bezinhlayiyana ze-diamond ku-soot cishe ngo-5nm.

Ultrasonic Synthesis yamaNanodiamond

Ngaphansi kwamandla amakhulu, njenge-sonication noma i-detonation, i-graphite ingashintshwa ibe idayimane.

Ama-Nanodiamond esebenzisa ama-ultrasonically

Ukuhlanganiswa kwedayimane kuyinkinga ebalulekile yokucwaninga mayelana nezithakazelo zesayensi nezentengiselwano. Inqubo evame ukusetshenziselwa ukuhlanganiswa kwezinhlayiyana zamadayimane ezincane-crystalline ne-nano-crystall yindlela yokuphakama ephakeme kakhulu yokushisa (HPHT). Ngale ndlela, inqubo edingekayo ingcindezi yamashumi ezinkulungwane zama-atmospheres kanye namazinga okushisa angaphezulu kuka-2000K akhiqizwa ukukhiqiza ingxenye enkulu yokunikezwa kwedayimane yezimboni emhlabeni jikelele. Ukuze ushintsho lwe-graphite ibe idayimane, ngokucindezela okuvamile kanye nokushisa okuphezulu kuyadingeka, futhi kusetshenziselwa ama-catalyst ekwandiseni isivuno sedayimane.
Lezi zidingo ezidingekayo ekuguqulweni zingenziwa ngokuphumelelayo kakhulu ngokusebenzisa I-High Power Ultrasound (= imvamisa ephansi, high intensity ultrasound):

cavitation ultrasonic

I-Ultrasound ezinxenyeni ezidakayo kubangela imiphumela embi kakhulu endaweni yangakini. Lapho ukuphuza utshwala ngokweqile, amagagasi omsindo asakaze emithonjeni yamanzi ashukumisela ukushintsha ukucindezela okuphezulu (ukucindezela) nokujikeleza okuncane (ukungavamile), namazinga kuye ngokuthi imvamisa. Ngesikhathi umjikelezo ophansi ocindezelayo, amagagasi aphakeme kakhulu e-ultrasonic enza ama-bubbles amancane avulekile noma aphuma emanzini. Lapho ama-bubbles athola umthamo lapho bengakwazi khona ukuwuthola amandla, awela phansi ngesihluku phakathi nomjikelezo ophezulu wokucindezela. Lesi simo sibizwa cavitation. Phakathi nokushisa okuphezulu kakhulu (cishe 5,000K) kanye nezingcindezi (cishe 2,000atm) kufinyelelwe endaweni yangakini. I-implosion ye-bubble cavitation nayo ibangele ama-jets ahlanzekile angama-280m / s velocity. (Suslick 1998) Kusobala ukuthi micro- futhi i-nano-crystalline idayimani ingenziwa isetshenziswe emkhakheni we-ultrasonic cavitation.

Isicelo solwazi




Qaphela kwethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


Inqubo ye-Ultrasonic ye-Synthesis yamaNanodiamond

De facto, ukutadisha Khachatryan et al. (2008) kubonisa ukuthi i-diamond microcrystals ingabuye yenziwe yi-ultrasonication yokumiswa kwe-graphite ku-liquid liquid endaweni yengcindezi yasemkhathini nokushisa kwekamelo. Njengoba i-cavitation ewuketshezi, i-oligomers enamakha ekhethiwe ikhethiwe ngenxa yomshoshaphansi wayo ophansi we-vapor kanye nokushisa okuphezulu okubilisayo. Kulesi sakhiwa, i-pure ekhethekile ye-graphite powder – nezinhlayiyana eziphakathi kuka-100-200 μm - imiswe okwesikhashana. Ekuhlolweni kwe-Kachatryan et al., Isilinganiso esiqinile-isisindo samanzi sasiyi-1: 6, ukuphakama kwamanzi kagesi kwakungu-1.1g cm-3 ngo-25 ° C. Ukuphakama okukhulu kwe-ultrasonic ku-sonoreactor sekuyi-75-80W cm-2 ehambelana nomshini wokucindezela umsindo we-bar 15-16.
Kuye kwafinyelelwa cishe ukuguquguquka kwe-graphite-to-diamond engu-10%. Amadayimane ayeseduze i-mono-yahlakazeka ngotshani obukhali kakhulu, owenzelwe kahle ebangeni elingu-6 noma 9μm ± 0.5μm, ne-cubic, i-crystalline morphology kanye ukuhlanzeka okukhulu.

Amadayimane akhiqizwa nge-ultrasonically (izithombe ze-SEM): Amandla aphezulu aphezulu anika amandla adingekayo ukudala ama-nanodiamonds' i-synthsis

Izithombe ze-SEM zamadayimane akhiqiza ama-ultrasonically: izithombe (a) no (b) zibonisa uchungechunge lwesampula 1, (c) no (d) isampula 2. [Khachatryan et al. 2008]

I izindleko wezinyunithi ezincane kanye ne-nanodiamond ezikhiqizwa yile ndlela zilinganisiwe ukuncintisana ne-high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) inqubo. Lokhu kwenza i-ultrasound ibe enye indlela entsha yokuqalwa kwe-micro- kanye ne-nano-diamonds (iKhachatryan et al. 2008), ikakhulukazi njengoba inqubo yokukhiqiza yama-nanodiamonds ingenziwa ngcono ngokuphenya okuqhubekayo. Amaphaketheni amaningi anjalo, ukucindezela, izinga lokushisa, i-cavitation fluid, kanye nokuhlushwa kufanele kuhlolwe ngokunembile ukuthola indawo enhle ye-ultrasonic nanodiamond synthesis.
Ngemiphumela etholakalayo ekwenzeni ama-nananoamamondi, okwenziwa nge-ultrasonically cavitation unikeza ithuba lokuhlanganiswa kwamanye amakhemikhali abalulekile, njenge-cubic boron nitride, i-carbon nitride njll (Khachatryan et al. 2008)
Ngaphezu kwalokho, kubonakala sengathi kungenzeka ukudala i-diamond nanowires nama-nanorods avela ku-carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) amaningi ngaphansi kwe-ultrasonic irradiation. I-diamond nanowires yilezi zilinganiso ezilodwa zomzimba we-diamond eningi. Ngenxa ye-modulus yayo ephakeme, amandla-kuya-isisindo isilinganiso, futhi lula kalula lapho izindawo zayo zingasebenza khona, idayimane itholakale ibe yinto enhle yezinkampani ze-nanomechanical. (Sun no-al. 2004)

Ukuxoshwa kwe-Ultrasonic kwamaNanodiamond

Njengoba sekushiwo kakade, ukuguqulwa kwesisindo kanye nokusabalalisa usayizi wezinhlayiyana phakathi kubalulekile ekusetshenzisweni okuphumelelayo kwezici ezihlukile ze-nanodiamonds.
ukuhlakazeka futhi i-deagglomeration by ultrasonication kukhona umphumela ultrasonic cavitation. Lapho ubeka izidakamizwa ku-ultrasound amaza omsindo asakaze emkhakheni wetshezi ekushintsheni imijikelezo ephakeme kakhulu nokucindezela okuphansi. Lokhu kusebenza ngokucindezeleka komshini ekukhulekeni phakathi kwezinhlayiya zomuntu ngamunye. I-cavitation ye-ultrasonic ezitsheni zidala ijubane elikhulu le-jets liquid kuze kube ngu-1000km / hr (cishe 600mph). Ama-jets anjalo agxilisa amanzi ngokucindezela okukhulu phakathi kwezinhlayiyana futhi uwahlukanise nomunye nomunye. Izinhlayiya ezincane ziyasheshisa nge-jet zetshezi futhi ziqhuma ngesivinini esiphezulu. Lokhu kwenza i-ultrasound izindlela eziphumelelayo zokuhlakazeka kodwa futhi Ukukhokha ka Micron-usayizi kanye sub Micron-usayizi izinhlayiyana.
Isibonelo, ama-nanodiamonds (usayizi wesilinganiso esingu-4nm) futhi i-polystyrene ingahlakazeka ku-cyclohexane ukuthola inhlanganisela ekhethekile. Esifundweni sabo, Chipara et al. (2010) baye balungiselela izingxenye ze-polystyrene ne-nanodiamonds, equkethe ama-nanodiamonds ebangeni eliphakathi kuka-0 no-25% isisindo. Ukuze uthole ngisho ukuhlakazeka, banikeze isixazululo samaminithi angu-60 no-Hielscher I-UIP1000hd (1kW).

Ukusebenza ngokusebenza nge-ultrasonically kwe-Nanodiamonds

Ukuze kusetshenziswe indawo ephelele yezinhlayiya ze-nano-size, ubuso be-particle kufanele butholakale ekusebenzeni kwamakhemikhali. Lokhu kusho ukuthi ukusabalalisa ngisho nokuhle kudingekile njengoba izinhlayiya ezihlakazekile zizungezwe ngqimba lomngcele wama-molecule akhangwe ku-particle surface. Ukuze uthole amaqembu amasha asebenzayo phezulu kwendawo ye-nanodiamonds, lolu hlu lwedingcele kufanele luphulwe noma lususwe. Le nqubo yokwaphulwa nokususwa komngcele ongasemngceleni ungenziwa yi-ultrasonics.
I-Ultrasound eyethulwa eketsheni idala imiphumela ehlukahlukene kakhulu efana nalokhu cavitation, izinga lokushisa eliphakeme kakhulu lendawo kuze kufike ku-2000K kanye nama-jets e-liquid afika ku-1000km / hr. (Suslick 1998) Ngalokhu ukucindezeleka izimbangela ezihehayo (isib. Amandla ase-Van-der-Waals) zinganqotshwa futhi ama-molecule asebenzayo aqhutshelwa phezulu kwe-particle ukusebenza, isib.

Under powerful ultrasonic irradiation (e.g. with Hielscher's UIP2000hdT) it becomes possible to synthesis, deagglomerate and functionalize nanodiamonds efficiently.

I-Scheme 1: I-Graphic ye-situ-deagglomeration nokusebenza komzimba kwama-nanodiamonds (Liang 2011)

Ukuhlolwa kwe-Bead-Assisted Sonic Disintegration (BASD) ukwelashwa kubonise imiphumela ethembisayo yokuhlelwa kwemisebenzi yama-nanodiamond kanye. Ngalokho, ubuhlalu (isb. Ubukhulu be-ceramic ububanzi obufana nobuhlalu be-ZrO2) busetshenziselwe ukuphoqelela i-ultrasonic cavitational ukuphoqelela izinhlayiya ze-nanodiamond. I-deagglomeration yenzeka ngenxa yokushayisana okungafani phakathi kwezinhlayiya ze-nanodiamond ne-ZrO2 ubuhlalu.
Ngenxa yokutholakala okungcono kwezinhlayiyana zezinhlayiyana, ukubhekana nokusebenza kwamakhemikhali njengokunciphisa kwe-Boran, i-arylation noma i-silanization, i-ultrasonic noma i-BASD (ukuxoshwa kwe-sonic ukuxilongwa). Nge-ultrasonic Ukuhlakazeka futhi i-deagglomeration ukuphendula kwamakhemikhali kungaqhubeka nokunye okuningi.

Lapho i-high-power, i-low-frequency ultrasound isingenisa emkhatsini wamanzi, i-cavitation ikhiqizwa.

I-ultrasonic caviatation iphumela ekushiseni okukhulu nokucindezela okuhlukile kanye nejubane elikhulu le-jets liquid. Ngalokho, amandla i-ultrasound yindlela ephumelelayo yokucubungula kwezicelo zokuxuba nokwenza imali.

Xhumana Nathi / Cela Ukwaziswa Olwengeziwe

Khuluma nathi mayelana nezidingo zakho zokucubungula. Sizosikisela ukusetha nokulungiswa kwemingcele efanele yephrojekthi yakho.





Sicela uqaphele wethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


Izincwadi / Izinkomba

  • I-Chipara, i-AC et al: Izakhiwo ezishisayo zama-nanodiamond izinhlayiya zihlakazekile kwi-polystyrene. HESTEC 2010.
  • I-El-Say, i-KM: Ama-Nanodiamonds njengendlela yokulethwa kwezidakamizwa: Isicelo kanye nalabo abazoba khona. KuJ Appl Pharm Sci 01/06, 2011; k. 29-39.
  • Khachatryan, A. Kh. futhi al .: Izinguquko zeGraphite-to-diamond ezibangelwa i-cavitation ye-ultrasonic. Ku: Idayimane & Izinto ezihlobene 17, 2008; pp931-936.
  • I-Krueger, A: Isakhiwo nokusebenza kabusha kwe-diamond ye-nanoscale. Ku: J Mater Chem 18, 2008; amakhasi 1485-1492.
  • Liang, Y .: Deagglomerierung und Oberflächenfunktionalisierung von Nanodiamant mittels thermochemischer und mechanochemischer Methoden. Ukudumala uJulius-Maximilian-Universität Würzburg 2011.
  • Osawa, E: Monodisperse single nanodiamond particulates. Ku: Pure Appl Chem 80/7, 2008; amakhasi 1365-1379.
  • Pramatarova, L. et al .: Inzuzo yama-Polymer Composites ne-Detonation Nanodiamond Particles for Applications Medical. Ku: Ku-Biomimetics; iphe. 298-320.
  • Ilanga, uL .; I-Gong, J .; I-Zhu, D .; I-Zhu, i-Z .; Yena, uS .: Diamond Nanorods kusuka ku-Carbon Nanotubes. Ku: Izinto Zokuthuthukiswa Okuthuthukisiwe 16/2004. amakhasi 1849-1853.
  • USuslick, KS: i-Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia ye-Chemical Technology. I-4th ed. J. Wiley & Amadodana: eNew York; 26, 1998; pp. 517-541.

Ama-Nanodiamonds – Sebenzisa kanye nezicelo

Izinhlamvu ze-nanodiamond azizinzile ngenxa ye-zeta-ezingenzeka. Ngaleyo ndlela, bathambekele kakhulu ukuze benze ama-aggregates. Ukusetshenziswa okuvamile kwe-nanodiamonds kuyisisetshenziswa kuma-abrasives, amathuluzi wokusika nokupholisa nokushisa okushisa. Enye indlela engasetshenziswa ngayo ukusetshenziswa kwe-nanodiamonds njengendlela yokuphatha izidakamizwa zezingxenye ezisebenzayo zemithi (cf. Pramatarova). Ngu ultrasonication, okokuqala ama-nanodiamond angenziwa isakhiwe kusukela ku-graphite futhi okwesibili, ama-nanodiamonds ahlose ukujula kakhulu zahlakazeka emithonjeni yamanzi (isib. ukwakha i-agent yokupholisa).