I-Hielscher Ultrasound Technology

Ukuhlanganiswa okungcono nge-Ultrasonics

  • I-Ultrasonication ibangela ukusabela okusheshayo kwe-saponification nasekuguqulweni okuphelele ngokwengeziwe.
  • I-Saponification yi-ultrasonication inqubo yamakhemikhali esetshenziswa kakhulu ukukhiqiza insipho kumafutha noma emafutheni nasezisekelweni.
  • I-saponification esizwa nge-Ultrasonically igwema ukusetshenziswa okweqile kwe-catalyst ithuthukisa ukusebenza kahle kwamandla

I-Ultrasonically Promoted Saponification

I-Saponification yindlela yokwenza amakhemikhali okwenza isobho. Kuyindlela yokusabela lapho amafutha noma amafutha (triglycerides) asabela ngayo nge-reactant alkali ukuze enze isepha. I-Ultrasonication ikhuthaza ukuhanjiswa kwesigaba se-catalysis okubangelwa ukunyuka kwesisindo sokuphendula, ukuguqulwa okuphelele okuphelele futhi kugweme ukusetshenziswa okudlulele kwama-base reagents njenge-potassium hydroxide (KOH) noma i-sodium hydroxide (i-NaOH). I-ultrasonically i-alkaline hydrolysis eqalisiwe ingasetshenziswa kalula kwi-soap yokuhweba yokukhiqiza ukuze ikhiqize ukukhiqizwa okuphakeme ngesikhathi esifushane ngaphandle kokusebenzisa noma yikuphi ukuguqula noma ukunciphisa inani le-catalyst elisetshenzisiwe.

Izinzuzo ze-Ultrasonic Saponification

  • Ukusabela okusheshayo
  • Ukuguqulwa okuphakeme
  • Akukho ukusetshenziswa ngokweqile kwama-reagents esisekelo
  • Akukho ukusetshenziswa ngokweqile kwe-catalyst
  • Ukusabela okuphelele okuphelele
  • inqubo eluhlaza

Ucwaningo lwe-Case of Ultrasonic Saponification

Ucwaningo oluthile luye lwabonisa ukuthi indodanaication ikhuthaza i-saponification ye-triglycerides ibe isepha. I-ultrasonic saponification iyasheshisa futhi yandisa ukuguqulwa ngenkathi igcina noma igwema ukusetshenziswa kwe-catalyst. Lokhu kwenza i-ultrasonic saponification indlela ephumelelayo yokukhiqiza.

I-UIP2000hdT - 2kW ultrasonicator yokucubungula okuketshezi.

I-UIP2000hdT (2kW) for saponification

Isicelo solwazi




Qaphela kwethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


Ukuqaliswa kwe-Ultrasonic ye-Alkaline Hydrolysis ye-Triglycerides (i-Saponification) Ngaphandle kwesigaba se-Catalyst

I-UP400St i-Ultrasonic Homogenizer 400 ama-watts we-batch sonicationI-Mercantili et al. (2013) wafunda imiphumela ye-ultrasonication kwi-alkali hydrolysis ye-triglycerides, eyaziwa ngokuthi i-saponification. Babesebenzisa i-sonication ukuze baqale i-alkaline hydrolysis yamafutha we-sunflower. I-potassium hydroxide (KOH) isetshenziswe njengesisekelo se-alkali. Kuboniswe ukuthi i-ultrasound iphumelela njengomthombo wamandla ukuqala futhi ukushayela ukusabela, ukuthi ukuphendula okuphezulu ukufinyeleleka kufinyeleleka kumaminithi angu-15 kuphela wesisindo samandla ngenkathi isebenza ekushiseni okuphezulu, nokuthi akukho mkhiqizo ongenakuthola owenziwe ngesikhathi ukusabela. Ukuqhathaniswa kobhuku lwe-ultrasonic kanye ne-probe-uhlobo lwe-ultrasonocator lubonisa ukuthi i-probe ye-ultrasonic ibe yindlela ephakeme kakhulu. Ucwaningo lubonisa ukuthi i-ultrasonic saponification isivuno ekuguqulweni okuhle ngaphandle kwesidingo sokwedlula ngokwe-alkali noma kwesigaba sokudlulisa i-catalysis.

I-ultrasonic saponification inqubo elula ye-sonochemical esheshisa ukusabela futhi ithuthukise ukuguqulwa.

I-alkaline hydrolysis ye-triacylglycerol

Ukuthathwa Kwendlela Yokudluliswa Kwezinyathelo Ze-Ultrasonically Promotion for Saponification

Bhatkhande et al. (1998) yabonisa ukuthi ukuhanjiswa kwamafutha emifino njengamafutha e-soya kungaphathwa kahle ngokusebenzisa i-KOH enamafutha kanye nama-PTC ahlukile ekamelweni lokushisa. Izinga lokususwa kwe-saponification lihlolisiswe ngokusebenzisa inani le-saponification njengoba libhekisela. Ukulungiswa kwemingcele ehlukahlukene njengesikhathi, ukukhethwa kwezakhi zokudlulisa izigaba, ubuningi bezinto ezisetshenziswayo, ubuningi be-KOH kanye nenani lamanzi lenziwa ngokusebenzisa i-sonication futhi ivuselela. Ukuze ufunde umphumela we-ultrasound, i-saponification nayo yenziwa ngo-35ºC ngaphansi kwezimo ezihlukene, okungukuthi ukuvuselela, ukuvuthisa, ukuvusa nokuvutha, nokushisa ngo-100ºC. Kutholakale ukuthi uketshezi oluthile lwamakhemikhali oluthile lwamanzi asemifino olusetshenziswa ngama-KOH / CTAB olunamandla olusheshayo lwalukhuphuka kakhulu ngo-35ºC ngaphasi kwe-sonication nokugqugquzela.

Xhumana nathi! / Cela Us!

Cela ulwazi oluthe xaxa

Sicela usebenzise ifomu elingezansi, uma ufisa ukucela ulwazi oluthe xaxa mayelana ne-homogenization yama-ultrasonic. Sizojabula ukukunikeza uhlelo lwe-ultrasonic ukuhlangabezana nezidingo zakho.









Sicela uqaphele wethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


Ukusebenza okuphezulu kwe-Ultrasonicators

I-Hielscher Ultrasonics inikeza imishini yokusebenza ephezulu ye-ultrasonic yebhu, yokushayela kanye nokukhiqizwa kwezimboni. Ama-ultrasonicators anamandla futhi athembekile asetshenziselwa ukusabela okuhlukahlukene kwe-sonochemical njenge-saponification. I-ultrasonicators ye-probe ye-Hielscher ingasetshenziswa ku-batch ne-inline mode. Yonke imigomo yenqubo ebalulekile – amplitude, ingcindezi, izinga lokushisa – ingalawulwa ngokunembile futhi iqinisekise imiphumela yokukhiqiza.
Ukuboniswa kombala we-colored we-hdT uchungechunge lwe-ultrasonicators yezimboni ze-HielscherUkulawulwa kwedijithali ngokuzenzakalelayo kubhalwa imingcele yenqubo bese uyigcina ekhadini le-SD elididiyelwe. Izilungiselelo zangaphambili nokulawula kwesiphequluli esikude kwenza inqubo ye-sonication ilula kakhulu futhi isebenzise umsebenzisi.
Ngenxa yokuphendula okuningi kwe-sonochemical izinga lokushisa elithile kufanele ligcinwe, ngakho ukulawula ukushisa kubalulekile. I-ultrasonicator ye-Hielscher yedijithali ivela ne-thermo-umbhangqwana nomlawuli wokushisa. I-jetet flow cell isebenza ngokushisa kokushisa.
Ukuqina kwemishini ye-ultrasonic ye-Hielscher kuvumela ukusebenza komsebenzi we-24/7 emsebenzini obuthakathaka nasezindaweni ezinzima.
Ithebula elingezansi linikeza isibonakaliso somthamo wokucubungula we-ultrasonicators wethu:

Iqoqwana Ivolumu flow Rate Amadivayisi ezinconyiwe
1 kuya ku-500mL 10 kuya ku-200mL / min UP100H
10 kuya ku-2000mL 20 kuya ku-400mL / min UP200Ht, UP400St
0.1 kuya ku-20L 0.2 kuya ku-4L / min I-UIP2000hdT
10 kuya ku-100L 2 kuya ku-10L / iminithi I-UIP4000hdT
na 10 kuya ku-100L / iminithi UIP16000
na sikhulu yinhlanganisela UIP16000
I-Hielscher Ultrasonics ikhiqiza ama-ultrasonicators aphezulu ekusebenzeni kwezicelo ze-sonochemical.

Amaprosesa aphezulu aphezulu e-ultrasonic kusukela ebhuthini kuya ku-pilot nesilinganiso sezimboni.

Izincwadi / Izinkomba

  • I-Bhatkhande, BS; I-Samant, i-Shriniwas D. (1998): i-Ultrasound eyasizwa i-PTC yenze i-saponification ye-oliva yemifino esetshenziswa ngama-alkali aqueous. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Vol. 5, Issue 1, 1998. 7-12.
  • I-Mercantili, uLaura; USeamus, uFrank Davis; Higson, PJ (2014): Ukuqaliswa kwe-ultrasonic ye-alkaline Hydrolysis ye-Triglycerides (i-Saponification) ngaphandle kwesigaba se-Catalysis. I-Journal ye-Surfactant ne-Detergents Vol. 17, Isssue 1, Jan 2014. 133-141.


Amaqiniso Okufanele Ukwazi

Sonochemistry

I-Power ultrasound isetshenziselwa izinqubo zamakhemikhali ezinjenge-synthesis and catalysis (okubizwa nangokuthi yi-sono-synthesis ne-sono-catalysis, ngokulandelana) ukuze kuqalwe futhi kuqiniswe ukusabela. Izicelo ezahlukahlukene zokufakelwa kwe-ultrasonic ku-organic synthesis ziphenywe ngokujulile futhi zenzelwe ukukhiqizwa kwezimboni. Ukwelashwa nge-Sonochemical kungakhuphula izinga lokuphendula, isivuno kanye nokukhethwa kwemikhiqizo efiselekayo ngaphansi kwesimo esihle kakhulu. Lokhu kwenza ukwelashwa kwe-ultrasonic kube inqubo ephumelelayo nenobungani bemvelo. I-Ultrasonically wasiza isigaba sokudlulisa i-catalysis (i-PTC) kufakazelwa ukuthi iyindlela ephumelelayo futhi ephumelelayo yokusabela kwe-organic kuqhathaniswa nokuphendula okufanayo esimweni sokuthula. Isibonelo, ukusabela kweCannizarro okukhubazeke yi-catalysis yesigaba sokusiza esidluliswa ngamandla kusakazwe kakhulu kuholela ekuguqukeni okusheshayo. Esinye isibonelo esivelele ukuthungwa kwama-triglycerides (ie amafutha emifino, amafutha wezilwane) kanye ne-methanol phambi kwe-KOH njenge-catalyst namandla e-ultrasound. I-ultrasonic transesterification ithela ku-biodiesel esezingeni eliphakeme ekhiqizwa ekuguqulweni okusheshayo nenqubo esebenza kahle kakhulu, enomnotho.

I-ultrasonic / acoustic cavitation idala amabutho amakhulu kakhulu avula izindonga zeseli eziziwa ngokuthi i-lysis (Chofoza ukuze ukhulise!)

Isizinda se-ultrasonic sisekelwe ku-cavitation yama-acoustic namandla ayo we-hydrodynamic shear

I-Saponification

I-Saponification ichaza ukusabela kwamakhemikhali okwenza isepha. Esikhathini senqubo ye-saponification, amafutha yemifino noma amafutha wezilwane aguqulwa abe ama-salty acid usawoti – "insipho" – kanye ne-glycerol, okuyinto utshwala. Ukusabela kudinga isixazululo sesisekelo se-alkali (isb., NaOH noma i-KOH) emanzini kanye nokushisa ukuqala ukusabela.
Izinyathelo zokuphendula ze-saponification yizinto ezilandelayo:

  1. Ukuhlaselwa kwe-nucleophilic yama-fatty acid esters yi-hydroxide
  2. Ukushiya ukususwa kweqembu
  3. Ukuxoshwa

Ukusabela kwe-saponification kusetshenziselwa ukuhweba ukukhiqiza insipho namafutha.
Nakuba insipho enamandla yesobhodi ne-potassium hydroxide isobho esithambile isetshenziselwa ukuhlanza nsuku zonke, kunezinsipho ezikhethekile ezikhiqizwa zisebenzisa ezinye izinsimbi zensimbi. Isibonelo, amasobho we-lithium kanye ne-calcium asetshenziswa njengamafutha okugcoba. Kukhona futhi “izinsipho eziyinkimbinkimbi” ehlanganisa inhlanganisela yesobho lensimbi.

i-hydrolysis

I-Hydrolysis ihilela ukusabela kwamakhemikhali ephilayo ngamanzi ukwakha izinto ezimbili noma ngaphezulu futhi ngokuvamile kusho ukuhlanzwa kwezibopho zamakhemikhali ngokufaka amanzi. Ama-Esters angafakwa emuva ku-acid carboxylic kanye no-utshwala ngokuphendula ngamanzi nesisekelo. Insipho ikhiqizwa yi-hydrolysis yama-esters amafutha noma amafutha.

I-Alkaline Base

Ama-reactants base-alkaline base-alkaline (lyes) ayadingeka ukuze kutholakale i-saponification yamafutha namafutha. I-triglyceride isabela ngesisekelo – i-sodium noma i-potassium hydroxide – ukuze kuvezwe i-glycerol kanye nosawoti wamanoni amafutha, okuthiwa "insipho". I-potassium hydroxide iyinhlanganisela engahleliwe ne-formula KOH, futhi ivame ukubizwa ngokuthi i-potash caustic. I-sodium hydroxide (NaOH) yinye isisekelo esiqinile esiyisisekelo. Lapho kusetshenzwa i-sodium hydroxide, insipho enzima ikhiqizwa, kanti ukusebenzisa i-potassium hydroxide kubangela isobho elithambile.

I-Reactant vs Reagent

I-reactant iyisisetshenziswa esisetshenzisiwe phezulu noma esetshenziselwa ukusabela kwamakhemikhali. Uma kuqhathaniswa ne-reagent, i-reactant iyadingeka ngemali emikhulu. I-reagent iyisisetshenziswa esisetshenziselwa ukuqala ukusabela, ukusekela ukusabela futhi kudliwe ekuphenduleni, ngokungafani nalokho okungahambisani nokuphendula.