I-Hielscher Ultrasound Technology

Ultrasonic Phosphor Ukubuyiselwa kusuka Sewage Sludge

  • Isidingo somhlaba wonke se-phosphor siyakhula, ngenkathi ukulethwa kwemithombo yemithombo ye-phosphorous kusilela.
  • I-sewage sludge kanye ne-sewage sludge ash zicebile ku-phosphorus ngakho-ke zingasetshenziswa njengomthombo wokubuyisa ifosforasi.
  • Ukucutshungulwa kwe-ultrasonic okumanzi namakhemikhali kuthuthukisa ukubuyiselwa kwe-phosphate kusuka emgodini wokukhucululwa kwendle kanye nakuwo umlotha we-sludge engashisi futhi kwenza ukutakula kube nomnotho ngokwengeziwe.

Iphosphorus

I-sewage sludge inothile nge-phosphorus. Ukukhishwa kwe-Ultrasonic kanye nemvula kuqinisa inqubo yokutakula ye-phosphor.I-phosphorus (phosphor, P) ingumthombo ongavuseleleki, osetshenziswa kakhulu kwezolimo nomanyolo kanye nasezimboni eziningi, lapho i-phosphorus iyisengezo esibalulekile (isb. Amapende, izithambisi zokuwasha, ukubuyiselwa kwemililo, ukudla kwezilwane). Amapayipi okuhambisa indle, umquba wokugcwala kwendle ongashisi (i-ISSA), umquba kanye nemikhiqizo yobisi kucebile nge-phosphorus, okubenza babe ngumthombo wokubuyiselwa kwe-phosphor mayelana nomthombo ophansi we-phosphorus kanye nokukhathazeka kwemvelo.
Izinga lokubuyisa i-phosphorus lisuka emifudlaneni engamanzi yedoti engamanzi lifinyelela ku-40 kuya ku-50%, kuyilapho amanani okubuyisa kusuka ku-sewage sludge kanye nomlotha wokukhuculula indle angafika ku-90%. I-phosphorus inganikezwa ngezindlela eziningi, enye yazo ukuthi ibe yi-struvite (ibaluleke kakhulu njengomanyolo osezingeni eliphakeme, futhi okhipha kancane). Ukuze kwenziwe kabusha i-phosphorus ngokwezomnotho, inqubo yokutakula kufanele yenziwe ngcono. I-Ultrasonication inqubo eqinisa indlela esheshisa inqubo futhi ikhuphula isivuno samaminerali abuyiselwe.

Ultrasonic Phosphorus Lokubuyisela

I-Sonication iqinisa ukucubungula okumanzi namakhemikhali ngesikhathi sokubuyiselwa kwe-phosphorus kusuka kumanzi okuhambisa indle.Ngaphansi kwe-sonication, izinto ezibalulekile ezifana ne-struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP)), i-calcium phosphate, i-hydroxyapatite (HAP) / calcium hydroxyapatite, i-octacalcium phosphate, i-trical calcium phosphate, ne-dical calcium phosphate dihydrate Ukwelashwa kwe-ultrasonic kuthuthukisa isizinda esimanzi samakhemikhali kanye nokuhanjiswa kwezulu (i-sono-crystallization) zezinto ezibalulekile ezivela ezindlini zokukhuculula indle nasekuqothulweni komlotha ongashisi.
Ngenkathi okuqukethwe phosphorus (8-10%), iron (10-15%), kanye ne-aluminium (5-10%) ku-ash of mono-incinerated sewage sludge kuphezulu kakhulu, futhi kuqukethe izinsimbi ezinobuthi ezifana nomthofu, i-cadmium, yethusi, ne-zinc.

Biogas Anaerobic Digester

Isicelo solwazi




Qaphela kwethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


Ukubuyiselwa Kwe-Phopshorus – Inqubo Yezinyathelo Ezimbili

  1. isizinda se-asidi
  2. Isinyathelo sokuqala sokubuyiselwa kwe-phosphor ukukhishwa noma ukuhanjiswa kwe-phosphorus kusuka emgodini wokukhucululwa kwendle noma umlotha we-sewage sludge (i-ISSA) usebenzisa i-acid efana ne-sulfuric acid noma i-hydrochloric acid. Ukuxubana kwe-Ultrasonic kukhuthaza ukulethwa kwamakhemikhali amanzi ngokwandisa ukudluliselwa kweningi phakathi kwe-acid ne-ISSA ukuze ukugcwala okugcwele kwe-phosphorus kutholakale ngokushesha. Isinyathelo sangaphambi kokwelashwa sisebenzisa i-ethylenediaminetetraacetatic acid (EDTA) singasetshenziselwa ukwenza ngcono inqubo yokukhishwa.

  3. Ukuzikiswa kwePhosphorus
  4. I-Ultrasonic crystallisation ithuthukisa ukuhanjiswa kwe-phosphates kakhulu ngokwandisa amaphuzu wokutshala futhi isheshise i-adsorption kanye nokuhlangana kwama-molecule ukuze kwakhiwe i-crystal. Ukuhanjiswa kwe-Ultrasonic kwe-phosphorus kusuka ku-segege sluge ne-ISSA kungatholwa isib., Ngokusebenzisa i-magnesium hydroxide ne-ammonium hydroxide. I-precipitate evelayo yi-struvite, ikhemikhali eyenziwe nge-magnesium, ammonium, phosphorus ne-oxygen.

Sonocrystallization of Struvite

Ukusabalalisa kwe-Ultrasonic kukhuthaza ukudluliselwa kwesisindo phakathi kwezigaba futhi kuqale ukukhula kwe-nucleation nokukhula kwe-crystal phosphates (isib. Struvite / MAP).
I-Ultrasonic inline precipitation kanye ne-crystallisation ye-struvite ivumela ukwelashwa kwemithambo emikhulu yemisindo esikalini sezimboni. Udaba lokucubungula umfudlana omkhulu wamanzi okugcwala indle ungaxazululwa ngenqubo eqhubekayo ye-ultrasonic, esheshisa i-crystallization ye-struvite futhi ithuthukise usayizi wekristalu ekhiqiza izinhlayiya ezincane, ezifanelana ze-phosphate. Ukusatshalaliswa kosayizi kwezinhlayiya ezinqunyelwe kunqunyelwe isilinganiso se-nucleation kanye nesilinganiso sokukhula kwekristalu esilandelayo. Ama-nucleation asheshisiwe nokukhula okungavimbeleki kuyizinto ezibalulekile ekuwohlokeni kwezinhlayiya ze-cristalline phosphate, okuyi-struvite, kusisombululo samanzi. I-Ultrasonication inqubo eyandayo ethuthukisa ukuxubana ukuze kutholakale ukusatshalaliswa kwe-homo native kwama-ion asebenzayo.
Ukuhanjiswa kwemvula kwe-Ultrasonic kuyaziwa ukunika usayizi omncane wezinhlayiyana zokusabalalisa, usayizi omncane wekristalu, i-morphology enokuguquguquka kanye nesilinganiso se-nucleation esheshayo.

Amakristalu e-Struvite angahle atholwe kusuka kusikilidi lokukhuculula indle. I-Sonication ithuthukisa inqubo yokutakula.

Izinhlayiya ze-Struvite zitholakala kusuka kumanzi engulube (umthombo: Kim et al. 2017)

Imiphumela emihle yezulu yomoya ingatholakala njengesibonelo ne-Po3-4 : NH+4 : Mg2+ ngesilinganiso esingu-1: 3: 4. Uhla lwe-pH olungu-8 kuye ku-10 luholela ekukhishweni kwe-phosphate P ephezulu

I-Ultrasonication inqubo ephumelela kakhulu yokuqinisa ukuhanjiswa kwezimpahla ezibalulekile njenge-calcium phosphate, i-magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) ne-hydroxyapatite (HAP), i-calcium hydroxyapatite, i-octacalcium phosphate, i-tricalcium phosphate, ne-dical calcium phosphate. Amapayipi amanzi okuhambisa indle, umquba kanye nemikhiqizo yobisi yaziwa ngokuthi amanzi amdaka aqukethe izakhi zomzimba, ofanelekile ukukhiqizwa kwezinto ezibalulekile ngokusebenzisa kwezulu elenziwa ngosizo.

Ukwakheka kwekristalu ye-Struvite:
Isig2+ + NH+4 + I-HPO2-4 + H2O –> MgNH4PO4 ∙ 6H2O + H+

I-Hielscher Ultrasonics ikhiqiza ama-ultrasonicators aphezulu ekusebenzeni kwezicelo ze-sonochemical.

Amaprosesa aphezulu aphezulu e-ultrasonic kusukela ebhuthini kuya ku-pilot nesilinganiso sezimboni.

Izimboni Zokusebenza Zezimboni zeLeaching ne-Precipitation

UIP4000hdT flow flow cell for sonication inline esikalini ezimboniniIzinhlelo ezisezingeni eliphakeme ezisebenza ngokuphezulu kwe-ultrasonic kanye nama-reactors ziyadingeka ukuphatha umlotha we-sewage sludge ash (we-ISSA) ongafakwanga namanzi asolwandle ngezinga lezimboni. I-Hielscher Ultrasonics ikhethekile ekwakhiweni nasekukhiqizweni kwemishini ephezulu kakhulu ye-Ultrason – ukusuka kwelebhu nebhentshi-phezulu kuya kuyunithi yezimboni ngokugcwele. I-Hielscher ultrasonicators ingamandla futhi yakhelwe ukusebenza kwe-24/7 ngaphansi komthwalo ophelele ezindaweni ezifunwayo. Izesekeli ezinjengama-flow cell reactor anama-geometri ahlukahlukene, ama-sonotrodes (ama-phenyl ultrasonic) nezimpondo ze-booster zivumela ukuzivumelanisa kahle kohlelo lwe-ultrasonic kuya kuzidingo zenqubo. Ukuze ucubungule imifudlana emikhulu yevolumu, iHielscher inikeza amayunithi e-4kW, 10kW ne-16kW, angahlanganiswa kalula ngokuhambisana namaqoqo e-ultrasonic.
Ama-ultrasonicators ama-Hielscher asezingeni eliphakeme afaka isibonisi sokuthinta sedijithali sokusebenza okulula nokulawula okuqondile kwemingcele yenqubo.
Ubungani bomsebenzisi kanye nokusebenza okulula, okuphephile yizici ezibalulekile ze-Hielscher ultrasonicators. Ukulawulwa kwesiphequluli okukude kuvumela ukusebenza nokulawulwa kohlelo lwe-ultrasonic nge-PC, ifoni ehlakaniphile noma ithebhulethi.
Ithebula elingezansi linikeza isibonakaliso somthamo wokucubungula we-ultrasonicators wethu:

Iqoqwana Ivolumu flow Rate Amadivayisi ezinconyiwe
10 kuya ku-2000mL 20 kuya ku-400mL / min UP200Ht, UP400St
0.1 kuya ku-20L 0.2 kuya ku-4L / min I-UIP2000hdT
10 kuya ku-100L 2 kuya ku-10L / iminithi I-UIP4000hdT
na 10 kuya ku-100L / iminithi UIP16000
na sikhulu yinhlanganisela UIP16000

Xhumana nathi! / Cela Us!

Cela ulwazi oluthe xaxa

Sicela usebenzise ifomu elingezansi, uma ufisa ukucela ulwazi oluthe xaxa mayelana ne-homogenization yama-ultrasonic. Sizojabula ukukunikeza uhlelo lwe-ultrasonic ukuhlangabezana nezidingo zakho.









Sicela uqaphele wethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


Izincwadi / Izinkomba

  • AmaDodds, uJohn A .; I-Espitalier, Fabienne; ULouisnard, u-Olivier; IGrossier, iRomain; UDavid, uRene; IHasoun, iMyriam; Baillon, Fabien; Gatumel, Cendrine; I-Lyczko, Nathalie (2007): Umphumela we-ultrasound ezinqubweni zezimvula ze-crystallisation: Ezinye izibonelo kanye nemodeli entsha yokuhlukaniswa. Uhlobo Lokufana Nobuhlakani Bamasistimu, Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2007, 24 (1), iphe.18-28
  • Kharbanda, A .; Prasanna, K. (2016): Ukukhishwa kwezondlayo ezivela eDairy Wastewater ngendlela ye-MAP (Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate) no-HAP (Hydroxyapatite). I-Rasayan Journal ye-Chemistry Vol. 9, No. 2; 2016. 215-221.
  • Kim, D .; UJin Min, K.; Isitshalo esihlobene no-anyanisi.; Yu, MS :; Ipaki, i-KY (2017): Imiphumela ye-pH, isilinganiso se-molar kanye nokwelashwa kwangaphambi kokubuyiselwa kwe-phosphorus ngokusebenzisa i-struvite crystallization kusuka kumbi wamanzi wokungcola we-anaerobically kugaywe. Ucwaningo Lobunjiniyela Bezemvelo 22 (1), 2017. 12-18.
  • URahman, uM., USalleh, uM., Ahsan, A., uHoussain, uM., URa, uC. (2014): Ukukhiqizwa komanyolo wokukhipha kancane we-crystal emanzini omdaka ngokusebenzisa i-struvite crystallization. UmArab. J. Chem. 7, 139–155.


Amaqiniso Okufanele Ukwazi

Ngabe isebenza kanjani i-Ultrasonic Precipitation?

I-Ultrasonication inethonya i-nucleation nokukhula kwe-crystal, inqubo eyaziwa ngokuthi sonocrystallization.
Okokuqala, ukusetshenziswa kwe-ultrasound kuvumela ukuthonya inani le-nucleation, lapho kunezinhlobo eziqinile zamakhristali kusuka kusisombululo soketshezi. I-ultrasond enamandla anamandla aphezulu yakha i-cavitation, okuwukukhula nokufakwa kwama-bubu we-vacuum endaweni ephakathi nendawo. Ukufakwa kwamabhamu we-vacuum kungenisa amandla ohlelweni futhi kunciphisa amandla amakhulu wamahhala. Ngaleyo ndlela, amaphuzu wokutshala kanye ne-nucleation aqaliswa ngesilinganiso esiphakeme futhi ngesikhathi sokuqala. Ekuxhumaneni phakathi kwe-bubble ye-cavitation nesisombululo, ingxenye yesimo semolekyulu ixazululwa yi-solvent, kuyilapho enye ingxenye yengxenye yamamolekyuli imbozwe yi-bubble ye-cavitation, ukuze izinga lokuncipha kwehle. Ukuchithwa kabusha kwe-molecule ye-solute kuvinjelwe, kuyilapho ukuqina kwamamolekyulu kusisombululo kukhula.
Okwesibili, i-sonication ikhuthaza ukukhula kwe-crystal. Ukuhlanganiswa kwe-Ultrasonic kuthuthukisa ukukhula kwamakristalu ngokufaka amandla okudluliselwa kwesisindo nokuhlanganiswa kwama-molecule.
Imiphumela etholwe yi-sonication ingalawulwa ngemodi ye-sonication:
Sonication okuqhubekayo:
Ukwelashwa okuqhubekayo kwe-ultrasonic kwesisombululo kukhiqiza amasayithi amaningi e-nation, ukuze inani elikhulu lamakristalu amancane lakhiwe
I-sonication eqhutshwayo:
Ukusetshenziswa kwe-sonication e-pulsed / cycled ivumela ukulawula okuqondile kwesayizi sekristalu
Sonication ukuqala i-nucleation:
Lapho i-ultrasound isetshenziswa kuphela ekuqaleni kwenqubo ye-crystallization, kwakheka inani lama-nuclei alingene, abese ekhule waba ngosayizi omkhulu.

Ngokusebenzisa i-ultrasonication ngesikhathi sekristallallization, isilinganiso sokukhula, usayizi, nokwakheka kwezakhiwo zekristalu kungathonywa futhi kulawulwe. Izinketho ezahlukahlukene ze-sonication zenza izinqubo ze-sono-crystallization zilawuleke kahle futhi ziphindeke.

cavitation ultrasonic

Lapho ubukhulu be-ultrasound ephezulu buwela i-liquid ephakathi nendawo, amagagasi aphezulu (ingcindezi) kanye namagagasi amancane (i-rarefaction) aguqukela kulolo ketshezi. Lapho ingcindezi engemihle ebangelwe yigagasi le-ultrasonic ewela uketshezi inkulu ngokwanele, ibanga phakathi kwama-molecule we-ketshezi lidlula ibanga elincane lamamolekyuli adingekayo ukubamba i-liquid intact, bese kuthi ketshezi luqhekeke phansi ukuze kudaleke ama-bubu vacuum noma voids . Lawo ma-bubu vacuum ayaziwa nangokuthi cavitation amabhamuza.
Ama-Bubble we-cavitation asetshenziselwa izinhlelo zokusebenza ze-ultrasonic ezinjengokuxuba, Ukuhlakazeka, Ukukhokha, Ukukhipha njll. kwenzeka ngaphansi kwe-ultrasound intensities ephakeme kune-10 Wcm2. Amabhamuza we-cavitation akhula ngaphezu kwemijikelezo eminingi ye-acoustic low-pressure / high-pressure mpaka aze afinyelele kubungako lapho angakwazi ukudonsa khona amandla amaningi. Lapho i-bubble ye-cavitation isifinyelele usayizi wayo omkhulu, ifakwa ngobudlova ngesikhathi somjikelezo wokucindezela. Ukuwa okunobudlova kwe-bubble yesikhashana ye-cavitation kudala izimo ezibucayi njengokushisa okuphezulu kakhulu nezingcindezi, ingcindezi ephezulu kakhulu kanye nokwehluka kwezinga lokushisa namajethi kagesi. Lawo mandla angumthombo wemiphumela yamakhemikhali neyokulwa esetshenziswa kuzinhlelo ze-ultrasonic. I-bubble ngayinye ewela phansi ingabhekwa njenge-microreactor lapho amazinga okushisa anamazinga athile ayisithupha kanye nezingcindezi eziphakeme zedlula inkulungwane eyodwa zakhiwa khona manjalo [Suslick et al 1986].

I-ultrasonic / acoustic cavitation idala amabutho amakhulu kakhulu avula izindonga zeseli eziziwa ngokuthi i-lysis (Chofoza ukuze ukhulise!)

Isizinda se-ultrasonic sisekelwe ku-cavitation yama-acoustic namandla ayo we-hydrodynamic shear

Iphosphorus

I-phosphorus ingumthombo obalulekile, ongaphindaphindeki futhi ochwepheshe sebevele babikezela ukuthi umhlaba uzoshaya “phosphor isihloko”, ie isikhathi lapho okuhlinzekwayo kungabe kusakwazi ukuhlangabezana nesidingo esikhuphukayo, cishe. Iminyaka engama-20. I-European Commission isivele ihlukanise i-phosphorus njengempahla eluhlaza ebucayi.
I-sewage sludge ivame ukusetshenziswa njengesiqalo somquba esatshalaliswa emasimini. Kodwa-ke, njengoba ukuthuthwa kwendle akugcini nje ngokuqukethe i-phosphate ebalulekile kodwa futhi nezinsimbi ezisindayo nokungcola okuphathelene nezinto eziphilayo, amazwe amaningi anjengeJalimane, akhawulelwe ngumthetho ukuthi kungakanani umsele wamanzi okuhambisa indle ongasetshenziswa njengomanyolo. Amazwe amaningi anjengeJalimane anemithetho yomquba eqinile, ekhawulela ukungcoliswa kwezinsimbi ezisindayo ngokuqinile. Njengoba i-phosphorus ingumthombo wokugcina, isiGerman Sewage Sludge Regulation kusukela ngo-2017 sidinga ukuthi abasebenza ngokuhambisa indle baphinde baphinde basebenzise ama-phosphates.
I-phosphorus ingatholakala emanzini amdaka, ezindlini zokukhuculula indle, kanye nakuwo umlotha wokuthuthwa kwendle ongashisi.

phosphate

I-phosphate, amakhemikhali angaphili, usawoti we-phosphoric acid. Ama-phosphates angaphiliwe ahlelwa ukuthola i-phosphorus ukuze isetshenziswe kwezolimo nakwezimboni. Kumakhemikhali eziphilayo, i-phosphate, noma i-organophosphate, iyi-ester ye-phosphoric acid.
Musa ukudida igama phosphorous ne element phosphorus (uphawu lwamakhemikhali P). Yizinto ezimbili ezihlukile. I-phosphorous etholakala ngamanani amaningi eqembu le-nitrogen, ivame ukutholakala emadwaleni we-phosphate.
Ama-phosphates e-organic abalulekile ku-biochemistry kanye ne-biiohemochemistry.
I-Phosphate igama le-ion Po43-. I-phosphorous acid, ngakolunye uhlangothi, igama le-triprotic acid H3PO3. Lokhu kuyinhlanganisela ye-3 H+ ama-ion ne-phosphite eyodwa (PO33-) i-ion.
IPhosphorus iyinto yamakhemikhali enophawu u-P kanye ne-athomu 15. Izithako ze-phosphorus nazo zisetshenziswa kabanzi kweziqhumane, ama-nerve agents, imidlalo yokufrasha, iziqhumane zomlilo, izibulala-zinambuzane, izinyo lokuhlanza amazinyo nezinsizi.

struvite

IStruvite, ebizwa nangokuthi yi-magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP), iyiminerali ye-phosphate enefomula yamakhemikhali i-NH4MgPO4· 6H2I-O. Struvite iconsa ohlelweni lwe-orthorhombic njengombala omhlophe ophuzi noma ophuzi onsundu we-pyramidal noma ngezindlela ezinjenge-platlet-like. Ukuba yisimbiwa esithambile, i-struvite inobulukhuni beMohs engu-1.5 kuye ku-2 kanye namandla aphansi athile we-1.7. Ngaphansi kwezimo ezingathathi hlangothi ne-alkaline i-struvite ayixazuluki kalula, kepha ingahlakazeka kalula ku-acid. Ifomu lezinhlansi ze-Struvite lapho kukhona imvukuzane yokulinganiselwa ku-mole isilinganiso (1: 1: 1) se-magnesium, ammonia ne-phosphate emanzini amdaka. Zonke izinto ezintathu – i-magnesium, i-ammonia ne-phosphate – kuvame ukubakhona emanzini amdaka: i-magnesium ivela ikakhulu enhlabathini, emanzini olwandle nasemanzini okuphuza, i-ammonia iphulwe i-urea emanzini amdaka, kanti ne-phosphate ivela ekudleni, emasosheni naseziseleni emanzini angcolile. Ngalezi zinto ezintathu ezikhona, i-struvite inethuba lokuba ngamanani aphezulu we-pH, ukuqhutshwa okuphezulu, amazinga okushisa aphansi, nokugxila okuphezulu kwe-magnesium, ammonia ne-phosphate. Ukuvuselelwa kwe-phosphorus emithonjeni yamanzi emdaka njenge-struvite nokuphinda kusetshenziswe kabusha lezo zakhi zomzimba njengoba kuthembisa umanyolo wezolimo.
I-Struvite ngumanyolo wamaminerali obamba kancane odonsa kancane osetshenziswa kwezolimo, onezinzuzo zokuba ngubhuqu, okulula ukusetshenziswa, kanye nephunga.