I-Ultrasonic Nano-Structuring Yokukhiqiza Izitsha Ezimbi

Sonochemistry iyithuluzi eliphumelelayo kakhulu lobunjiniyela kanye nokusebenza kwezinsiza ze-nano. E-metallurgy, i-irradiation ye-ultrasonic ikhuthaza ukwakheka kwezinsimbi ezimbi. Iqembu lokucwaninga likaDkt. Daria Andreeva lakhiqiza inqubo ephumelelayo yokusiza i-ultrasound ukusiza ukukhiqiza izinsimbi ezingasetshenzisiwe.

Izitshalo ezinamandla ziheha isithakazelo esikhulu samagatsha amaningi kwezobuchwepheshe ngenxa yezici zabo ezivelele ezifana nokumelana nokushisa, ukuqina kwamakhambi nokukwazi ukumelana nokushisa okukhulu kakhulu. Lezi zakhiwo zisekelwe ezintweni ezingenalutho ezinama-pores ezilinganisa ama-nanometer ambalwa kuphela. Izinto zokwahlukumezeka zibhekwa ngobukhulu obuphakathi kuka-2 kuya ku-50 nm, kanti izinto ezincane ezincane zine-pore usayizi ongaphansi kwe-2nm. Ithimba lokucwaninga lomhlaba wonke elibandakanya uDkt. Daria Andreeva waseYayreuth University (uMnyango weZemvelo eKhemistry II) uye wakhula ngokuphumelelayo inqubo eyinkimbinkimbi yokusebenza kanye neyezindleko ze-ultrasound yokuklama nokukhiqizwa kwezinhlaka ezinjalo zensimbi.

Kule nqubo, izitshalo ziphathwa ngesisombululo se-aqueous ngendlela yokuthi izikhala ze-nanometer ezimbalwa ziguquke, ngezikhala ezichazwe ngokuqondile. Kulezi zakhiwo ezenziwe kahle, sekukhona kakade inqwaba yezicelo ezintsha, kuhlanganise nokuhlanza umoya, isitoreji samandla noma ubuchwepheshe bezokwelapha. Okuthembisayo ikakhulukazi ukusetshenziswa kwezinsimbi ezinamapulangwe ku-nanocomposites. Lezi yikilasi elisha lezinto ezihlanganisiwe, lapho isakhiwo esihle samatrikhi sigcwele izinhlayiya ezilingana nosayizi kuze kufike kuma-nanometer angu-20.

I-UIP1000hd iyisetshenziswa esinamandla se-ultrasonic, esetshenziselwa ubuchwepheshe bokusebenza, i-nano structuring ne-particle modification. (Chofoza ukuze ukhulise!)

UDkt. D. Andreeva ubonisa inqubo yokunikezwa kwezinhlayiya eziqinile ngokumiswa kwamanzi ngokusebenzisa i-the I-UIP1000hd i-ultrasonicator (i-20 kHz, i-1000W). Isithombe ngu-Ch. Wißler

Le nqubo entsha isebenzisa inqubo ye-ultrasonically eyenziwe nge-bubble form formation, ebizwa ngokuthi i-cavitation in physics (etholakala lat. “cavus” = “ezingenalutho”). Ngolwandle, lolu hlelo luyesaba ngenxa yomonakalo omkhulu ongabangela ukuthumela ama-propellers nama-turbines. Ngokuba ngesivinini esikhulu sokujikeleza, ama-bubbles e-steam akha ngaphansi kwamanzi. Ngemva kwesikhashana ngaphansi kwengcindezi ephakeme ngokweqile ama-bubbles awela ngaphakathi, ngaleyo ndlela aqhekeze izakhiwo zensimbi. Inqubo ye cavitation ingabuye yenziwe ngokusebenzisa i-ultrasound. I-Ultrasound yenziwa ngamagagasi okucindezelayo ngama frequencies ngaphezu kwezinga elizwakalayo (20 kHz) futhi lidala amabhulogi angenayo emanzini nezixazululo ezinomsoco. Ukushisa kwama-degrees angama-degrees centigrade kanye nezingcindezi eziphezulu kakhulu kuze kufike ku-1000 bar zivela lapho lezi zibhamu zincenga.

Idivayisi ye-ultrasonic u-UIP1000hd isetshenziselwe ukuvuselelwa kwezinsimbi ezinamandla kakhulu. (Chofoza ukuze ukhulise!)

Isethulo sesimiso semiphumela ye-acavtic cavitation ekuguqulweni kwezinhlayiya zensimbi.
Isithombe sikaDkt. D. Andreeva

I-scheme ngenhla ibonisa imiphumela ye-acoustic cavitation ekuguqulweni kwezinhlayiya zensimbi. Amaminerali aphethe iphuzu eliphansi (MP) njengoba i-zinc (Zn) ihlanganiswa ngokuphelele; insimbi enephuzu eliphakeme lokuqubuka njenge-nickel (Ni) kanye ne-titanium (Ti) ibonisa ukuguqulwa kwendawo ngaphansi kwe-sonication. I-Aluminium (Al) ne-magnesium (Mg) yakha izakhiwo ezingenasidingo. Izinsimbi zakwaNobel ziphikisana ne-ultrasound irradiation ngenxa yokuzinza kwazo ngokumelene ne-oxidation. Amaphuzu okuqhakaziza ensimbi ashiwo ngamadigri Kelvin (K).

Ukulawulwa okuqondile kwalolu hlelo kungaholela ekuqinisekiseni insimbi ekhonjisiwe yensimbi emiswe ngesisombululo se-aqueous - esinikezwe izici ezithile zomzimba nezamakhemikhali zensimbi. Ukwenzela izinsimbi zithinta kakhulu uma kutholakala ku-sonication okunjalo, njengoba uDkt. Daria Andreeva kanye nabasebenza naye eGolm, eBerlin naseMinsk bebonise. Ezinsimbi zine-reactivity ephezulu njenge-zinc, i-aluminium ne-magnesium, isakhiwo se-matrix senziwe kancane kancane, siqiniswe ngengubo ye-oxide. Lokhu kubangela izinsimbi ezimbi ezingasetshenziswa ngokucubungula ngezinto zokwakha. Izinsimbi ezihloniphekile ezifana negolide, i-platinum, isiliva ne-palladium, kodwa ziziphatha ngokuhlukile. Ngenxa yokuthambekela kwe-oxidation yabo ephansi, bayamelana nokuphathwa kwe-ultrasound futhi bagcina izakhiwo zabo zokuqala nezakhiwo.

Nge-sonication, i-polyelectrolyte yokugqoka ingakhiwa evikela ukubola. (Chofoza ukuze ukhulise!)

Ukuvikelwa kwe-ultrasonic yama-aluminium alloys ngokumelene nokubola. [© Skorb et al. 2011]

Isithombe esingenhla sibonisa ukuthi i-ultrasound ingasetshenziselwa ukuvikelwa kwama-aluminium alloys ngokumelene nokubola. Ngakwesobunxele: Isithombe se-aloyi aluminium esixazululo esinamandla kakhulu, ngezansi kwesithombe esinqunyiwe sombuso, lapho - ngenxa ye-sonication - i-polyelectolyte yokugqoka isakhiwe. Lesi sigqoko sinikeza isivikelo ngokumelene nokubola kwezinsuku ezingu-21. Ngakwesokudla: I-aluminium efanayo ye-aluminium ngaphandle kokuba ivuliwe ngomsindo. Ubuso buphelile ngokuphelele.

Iqiniso lokuthi izinsimbi ezihlukahlukene zithinta ngezindlela ezihlukahlukene kakhulu zokuthi indodanaication ingaqhutshwa kanjani ngezinqubo ezintsha ezenzweni zesayensi. I-alloys ingaguqulwa ngendlela efana ne-nanocomposites lapho izinhlayiya zezinto ezizinzile zigcinwa ematrix enesibindi esakhiweni esincane. Izindawo eziningi eziphezulu kakhulu ezivela endaweni enomkhawulo kakhulu, ezivumela lezi zingu-nanocomposites ukuthi zisetshenziswe njengezinto zokucubungula. Zenza ukuphendula kwamakhemikhali okusheshayo nangokuphumelelayo.

Kanye noDkt. Daria Andreeva, abacwaningi uProf. Andreas Fery, uDkt. Nicolas Pazos-Perez noJana Schäferhans, kanye nomnyango wePhysical Chemistry II, banomthelela emiphumeleni yocwaningo. Ngabo abasebenza nabo eMax Planck Institute of Colloids nase-Interfaces eGolm, i-Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH kanye neBelarusian State University eMinsk, baye banyathelisa imiphumela yabo yakamuva kuyi-intanethi kulo magazini “Nanoscale”.

Hielscher's ultrasonicator UIP1000hd was successfully used for the formation of mesoporous metals. (Click to enlarge!)

I-Ultrasonic Processor I-UIP1000hd for Nano-Structuring of Metals

Xhumana Nathi / Cela Ukwaziswa Olwengeziwe

Khuluma nathi mayelana nezidingo zakho zokucubungula. Sizosikisela ukusetha nokulungiswa kwemingcele efanele yephrojekthi yakho.





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Inkomba:

  • I-Skorb, i-Ekaterina V .; Lungisa, Dimitri; Shchukin, uDmitry G .; UMöhwald, u-Helmuth; Sviridov, uDmitry V.; UMussa, uRami; I-Wanderka, Nelia; I-Schäferhans, i-Jana; UPazos-Perez, uNicolas; Umsindo, Andreas; U-Andreeva, u-Daria V. (2011): ukwakheka kwe-sonochemical kweziponji zensimbi. Nanoscale – Ngaphambi kokuqala ngomhla ka-3/3, 2011. 985-993.
  • Wißler, Christian (2011): Nanostructuring ecacile ngokusebenzisa i-ultrasound: inqubo entsha yokukhiqiza izinsimbi ezimbi. Blick ku-Forschung yokufa. Mitteilungen der Universität Bayreuth 05, 2011.

Ukuze uthole olunye ulwazi oluphathelene nesayensi, sicela uxhumane noDkt. Daria Andreeva, uMnyango Wezolimo Zomzimba II iBayreuth University, 95440 Bayreuth, eJalimane – ifoni: +49 (0) 921 / 55-2750
i-imeyili: daria.andreeva@uni-bayreuth.de



Amaqiniso Okufanele Ukwazi

I-ultrasonic izicubu ze-homogenizers ngokuvamile ibizwa ngokuthi i-sonicator yesondlo, i-lyser ye-sonic, i-ultrasound ephazamisayo, i-grinder ye-ultrasonic, i-sono-ruptor, i-sonifier, i-sonic dismembrator, i-cell disrupter, i-ultrasonic disperser noma i-dissolver. Amagama ahlukene avela ezinhlobonhlobo zokusebenza ezingagcwaliseka nge-sonication.