I-Hielscher Ultrasound Technology

Ultrasonic Graphene Ukulungiselela

I-Graphene

I-graphite yenziwa ngamashidi amabili asayizi we-sp2-hybridised, a-hexagonally ahlelwe ama-athomu e-carbon - i-graphene - evame ukufakwa. Ama-sheets-thin thin sheets, akha ama-graphite ngokusebenzisana okungewona okubambisene nawo, abonakala ngendawo ebanzi kakhulu. I-Graphene ibonisa amandla angavamile nokuqina ngokuhambisana namazinga ayo asezingeni elifinyelela ku-approx. I-GPa ye-1020 cishe inani lamandla ledayimani.
I-graphene iyisici esiyisisekelo esakhiweni samanye ama-allotropes kuhlanganise, ngaphandle kwe-graphite, ne-carbon nanotubes nama-fullerenes. Isetshenziswe njengokwengeza, i-graphene ingathuthukisa ngokuphawulekayo izindawo zamandla kagesi, zomzimba, nezindlela zokuvimbela izingxenye ze-polymer ngokulayisha okuphansi kakhulu. (Xu, Suslick 2011)
Ngezindawo zalo, i-graphene iyinhlangano yezinto ezinhle kakhulu futhi ngaleyo ndlela ithembisa izimboni ezikhiqiza izingxenye, izembatho noma ama-microelectronics. I-Geim (2009) ichaza i-graphene njenge-supermaterial ngokuqondile esigabeni esilandelayo:
"Yiyona into eyinhloko ye-thinnest endaweni yonke futhi inamandla kunazo zonke esake ilinganisiwe. Izithuthi zayo ezihamba phambili zibonisa ukuhamba okuhamba phambili ngaphakathi, zibe nomthamo omncane kunabo bonke (kungu-zero) futhi zingahamba amabanga ama-micrometer-eside ngaphandle kokuhlakazeka ekamelweni lokushisa. I-Graphene ingase isekele ukucindezeleka kwamanje oku-6 okuphakeme kunoketshezi, ikhombisa irekhodi yokushisa okuqinile nokuqina, ayikwazi ukungena kumagesi futhi ivumelanisa izimfanelo ezinjalo eziphikisanayo njengobuntu britter and ductility. I-Electron yokuthutha ku-graphene ichazwa yi-equation efana ne-Dirac, evumela uphenyo lwezehlakalo eziphathelene ne-relativistic esenzweni se-bench-top. "
Ngenxa yalezi zici ezibonakalayo ezibonakalayo, i-graphene ingenye yezinto ezithembisayo kakhulu futhi igxile ekucwaningweni kwe-nanomaterial.

Graphene consists in carbon atoms which are arranged in a regular hexagonal pattern. i

Ngenxa yamandla alo okubonakalayo nokuqina, i-graphene yizinto ezithembisayo kakhulu kwisayensi ye-nano. © 2010AlexanderAIUS CreativeCommons

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I-High Power Ultrasound

Lapho ukuphuza utshwala ngokweqile, amagagasi omsindo asakaze emithonjeni yamanzi ashukumisela ukushintsha ukucindezela okuphezulu (ukucindezela) nokujikeleza okuncane (ukungavamile), namazinga kuye ngokuthi imvamisa. Ngesikhathi umjikelezo ophansi ocindezelayo, amagagasi aphakeme kakhulu e-ultrasonic enza ama-bubbles amancane avulekile noma aphuma emanzini. Lapho ama-bubbles athola umthamo lapho bengakwazi khona ukuwuthola amandla, awela phansi ngesihluku phakathi nomjikelezo ophezulu wokucindezela. Lokhu kwenzeka kuthiwa yi-cavitation. Phakathi nokushisa okuphezulu kakhulu (cishe 5,000K) kanye nezingcindezi (cishe 2,000atm) kufinyelelwe endaweni yangakini. Implosion of the cavitation I-bubble iphinde iholele ku-jets oketshezi ofika ku-280m / s velocity. (Suslick 1998) I-cavitation eyenziwe nge-ultrasonically ibangela imiphumela yamakhemikhali nempilo, engasetshenziswa ezinkambisweni.
I-cavitation-induced Sonochemistry inikeza ukuxhumana okuyingqayizivele phakathi kwamandla nendaba, ngezindawo ezishisayo phakathi kwamabhulethi angu- ~ 5000 K, izingcindezi ze ~ ~ 1000 bar, ukushisa nokushisa kwamazinga >I-1010K s-1; lezi zimo ezingavamile zivumela ukutholakala kwendawo ehlukahlukene yokusabela kwamakhemikhali ngokuvamile engatholakali, okuvumela ukuhlanganiswa kwezinhlobonhlobo zezinto ezingavamile ezakhiwe. (Bang 2010)

High power ultrasound generates intense cavitational forces in liquid

I-cavitation ye-Ultrasonic eketshezi

Ultrasonic Ukulungiselela Graphene

Njengoba izici ezingavamile ze-graphite ziyaziwa, kuye kwaqalwa izindlela eziningi zokulungiselela. Ngaphandle kokukhiqizwa kwamakhemikhali we-graphenes kusuka ku-graphene oxide ezinyathelweni eziningi, okwakudingeka khona ama-oxidizing and aduction agents. Ukwengeza, i-graphene elungiselelwe ngaphansi kwalezi zimo zamakhemikhali ezinzima ngokuvamile iqukethe inani eliningi leziphambeko ngisho nangemva kokunciphisa uma kuqhathaniswa nama-graphenes atholakala kwezinye izindlela. Noma kunjalo, i-ultrasound iyindlela efakazelwe yokukhiqiza i-high quality graphene, futhi iningi elikhulu. Abacwaningi baye bahlakulela izindlela ezahlukene ngezindlela zokusebenzisa i-ultrasound, kodwa ngokujwayelekile ukukhiqizwa kwe-graphene kuyindlela elula yokuyisebenzisa.
Ukuze unikeze isibonelo somzila othile wokukhiqiza we-graphene: I-Graphite yengezwe ngengxube ye-asidi ephilayo, utshwala, namanzi, bese kuthi ingxube ibonakale kwi-ultrasonic irradiation. I-asidi isebenza njenge “umcengezi wamangqamuzana” okuyinto ehlukanisa amashidi e-graphene avela ku-graphite yomzali. Ngalolu hlelo olulula, inqwaba ye-graphene ephezulu engakahleleki, ephakeme kakhulu ehlakazekile emanzini yenziwa. (An et al., 2010)

Hielscher covers the full range from compact lab ultrasonicators to bench-top size and full commercial production size systems.

Imishini esebenzayo futhi enokwethenjelwa ye-ultrasonic yezinhlelo eziningi, njenge-homogenization, isizinda, isisetshenziswa se-nano, noma i-sonochemistry.

Exfoliation Direct Graphene

I-Ultrasound ivumela ukulungiswa kwama-graphenes ezinqumeni eziphilayo, izixazululo ze-surfactants / amanzi, noma iziphuzo ze-ionic. Lokhu kusho ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwamakhemikhali aqinile noma okuncipha kungagwenywa. Stankovich et al. (2007) yakhiqiza i-graphene nge-exfoliation ngaphansi kwe-ultrasonication.
Imifanekiso ye-AFM ye-graphene oxide exfoliwe ukwelashwa kwe-ultrasonic ekugxileni kwe-1 mg / mL emanzini ihlale ibonisa ukutholakala kwamashidi ngobuningi obufanayo (~ 1 nm; isibonelo siboniswa kumfanekiso 1 ngezansi). Lezi amasampuli kahle exfoliated of graphene oxide ayinakho amashidi noma amancane kunamaphesenti angu-1, okuholela esiphethweni sokuthi ukugcwalisa ukukhipha i-graphene oxide kuze kube yizicabha ze-graphene oxide ngayinye kwafezwa ngempela ngaphansi kwalezi zimo. (IStankovich et al. 2007)

Hielscher's High Power Ultrasound Devices are the ideal tool to prepare graphene - both in lab scale as well as in full commercial process streams

Umdwebo 1: Isithombe se-AFM sezinguquko ezihamba phambili ze-GO amaphrofayili amaphoyinti amathathu okuphakama athola ezindaweni ezahlukene (iStankovich et al. 2007)

Ukulungiselela amaSpredishithi e-Graphene

Stengl et al. baye babonisa ukulungiswa okuphumelelayo kwamaphepha amhlophe e-graphene amaningi ngesikhathi sokukhiqizwa kwe-nonstoichiometric TiO2 graphene nanocomposit yi-hydrolysis esebenzayo yokumiswa nge-graphene nanosheets ne-titania peroxo complex. Ama-nanosheets ahlanzekile asetshenziselwa i-graphite yemvelo esebenzisa insimu ephakeme ye-cavitation eyakhiwe ngu-Hielscher's ultrasonic processor I-UIP1000hd kwi-reactor ephezulu yokucindezela i-ultrasonic ku-5 bar. Ama-graphene amashidi atholakala, anezindawo eziphezulu eziphezulu nezakhiwo ezihlukile ze-elekthronikhi, angasetshenziswa njengesekela elihle le-TiO2 ukuthuthukisa umsebenzi we-photocatalytic. Iqembu lokucwaninga lithi izinga le-graphene e-ultrasonically elungisiwe liphakeme kakhulu kune-graphene etholakala indlela ka-Hummer, lapho i-graphite iqhutshwa khona futhi ixutshwe. Njengoba izimo zomzimba ezitholakala kwi-reactor ultrasonic zingalawulwa ngokunembile futhi ngokucabanga ukuthi ukuhlushwa kwe-graphene njenge-dopant kuzohluka kuhlu luka-1 – 0.001%, ukukhiqizwa kwe-graphene ohlelweni oluqhubekayo isamba semali kungenzeka.

Ukulungiselela nge-Ultrasonic Treatment ye-Graphene Oxyde

Oh et al. (2010) zibonise umzila wokulungiselela usebenzisa i-ultrasonic irradiation ukukhiqiza izendlalelo ze-graphene oxide (GO). Ngakho-ke, bamisa ama-milligram angu-25 we-graphene oxide powder ku-200 ml wamanzi a-ionized. Ngokugqugquzela bathola ukumiswa okumnyama okungajwayelekile. Ukumiswa okwakumphumela kwabekwe indodana (30 min, 1.3 × 105J), futhi ngemva kokumiswa (ku-373 K) i-graphhene oxide eyakhiwe nge-ultrasonically. I-spectroscopy ye-FTIR ibonise ukuthi ukwelashwa kwe-ultrasonic akuzange kushintshe amaqembu asebenzayo we-graphene oxide.

Ultrasonically exfoliated graphene oxide nanosheets

Umdwebo 2: isithombe se-SEM yamanosheetets we-graphene atholakala ngu-ultrasonication (Oh et al. 2010)

Ukusebenza kwamaSpredishithi e-Graphene

U-Xu no-Suslick (2011) bachaza indlela elula yokwenza isilungiselelo se-polystyrene esebenzayo i-graphite. Esifundweni sabo, basebenzisa ama-flakes ama-flakes kanye ne-styrene njengezinto eziyisisekelo ezisetshenziswayo. Ngokuveza ama-graphite ama-flakes ku-styrene (i-monomer esebenzayo), i-ultrasound irradiation yabangela ukukhishwa kwe-grachite e-mechanochemical ibe ngama-graphene amashidi angama-single layer. Ngesikhathi esifanayo, ukusebenza komshini we-graphene namaketanga e-polystyrene kuye kwafezwa.
Inqubo efanayo yokusebenza ingenziwa namanye ama-vinyl monomers ngezinhlanganisela ezisekelwe ku-graphene.

Ukulungiselela ama-Nanoribbons

Iqembu lokucwaninga le-Hongjie Dai nabalingani bakhe baseStanford University bathola inqubo yokulungisa ama-nanoribbons. Ama-Ribbon we-graphene yizingxenye ezincane ze-graphene ezingase zibe nezici eziwusizo nakakhulu kunama-graphene amashidi. Kububanzi obungaba ngu-10 nm noma obuncane, ukuziphatha kwezibhebhe ze-graphene kufana nesimiso semiconductor njengoba ama-electron aphoqeleka ukuba ahambe ngobude. Ngakho-ke, kungaba mnandi ukusebenzisa ama-nanoribhoni ngemisebenzi ye-semiconductor e-elekthronikhi (isb. Amancane amakhophi wekhompuyutha amancane).
Dai et al. ukulungiselela ama-nanoriboni ama-graphene ngezinyathelo ezimbili: okokuqala, akhulula izingxube ze-graphene kusuka ku-graphite ngomuthi wokushisa we-1000ºC ngomzuzu owodwa ku-3% i-hydrogen e-argon gas. Khona-ke, i-graphene yaphulwa yaba yimichilo isebenzisa i-ultrasonication. Ama-nanoribhoni atholakale ngale nqubo abonakala 'elula kakhulu’ emaphethelweni kunalawo awenziwe ngezindlela ezivamile zelithographic. (Jiao et al. 2009)

Ukulungiselela i-Carbon Nanoscrolls

I-Carbon Nanoscrolls ifana ne-carbon nanotubes enezinhlangothi eziningi. Umehluko kuma-MWCNTs amathiphu avulekile kanye nokufinyelela okugcwele kwezindawo zangaphakathi kuya kwamanye ama-molecule. Zingenziwa zokwenziwa ngamakhemikhali amanzi ngamacrophite ahlanganisana ne-potassium, exfoli emanzini kanye nokumiswa kwe-colloidal ukumiswa. (bheka u-Viculis et al. 2003) I-ultrasonication isiza ukuqhutshwa kwama-graphhene monolayers zibe yi-carbon nanoscrolls (bheka umkhiwane 3). Ukuphumelela okuphezulu kokuguqulwa kwama-80% kuye kwafinyelelwa, okwenza ukukhiqizwa kwe-nanoscrolls kuthokozise izicelo zokuthengisa.

Ultrasonically assisted synthesis of carbon nanoscrolls

I-Fig.3: I-ultrasonic synthesis ye-Carbon Nanoscrolls (i-Viculis et al. 2003)

I-Graphene Dispersions

Ukusabalalisa ibanga le-graphene ne-graphene oxide kubaluleke kakhulu ukusebenzisa amandla okugcwele we-graphene nezici zayo ezithile. Uma i-graphene ingahlakazeka ngaphansi kwezimo ezilawulwayo, i-polydispersity yokusabalalisa i-graphene ingaholela ekuziphatheni okungenakulinganiswa noma okungenasidingo uma ihlanganiswa kumadivayisi kusukela lapho izindawo ze-graphene zihluka njengemisebenzi yemingcele yayo yokwakha. I-Sonication iyindlela yokwelashwa eqinisekisiwe yokunciphisa amandla amabutho okuxhumana kanye nokuvumela ukulawulwa okunembile kwemigomo yokubaluleka ebalulekile.
"I-graphene oxide (GO), evame ukuxhunyaniswa njengama-single-layer sheets, enye yezinselele ezinkulu ze-polydispersity ezivela ekuhlukeni kwendawo ehamba phambili yama-flakes. Kuye kwaboniswa ukuthi usayizi we-lateral wesimo se-GO ungashintshwa kusuka ku-400 nm kuya ku-20 μm ngokuguqula izinto zokuqala ze-graphite nezimo ze-sonication. "(UGreen et al. 2010)
I-ultrasonic Ukuhlakazeka ye-graphene eholele ama-slurries amahle ngisho nama-colloidal kuye kwaboniswa kwezinye izifundo ezihlukahlukene. (Liu et al. 2011 / Baby et al. 2011 / Choi et al. 2010)
Zhang et al. (2010) baye babonisa ukuthi ngokusebenzisa ukusetshenziswa kwe-ultrasonication ukusabalalisa kwe-graphene ukusabalalisa nge-1 mg · mL-1 kanye nama-graphene amaphepha amancane ahlanzekile, futhi amashidi e-graphene asalungisiwe abonisa ukuqhutshwa kwegesi eliphezulu ka-712 S · m-1. Imiphumela ye-infrared spectra kanye ne-Raman spectra test ibonise ukuthi indlela yokulungiselela i-ultrasonic inomonakalo omncane kumakhemikhali namakhemikhali e-graphene.

Izicelo ezingenzeka

Izicelo zezinto eziphilayo: Isibonelo sokulungiswa kwe-ultrasonic graphene nokusetshenziswa kwayo kwezinto eziphilayo kunikezwa ekutheni "Ukuhlanganiswa kwe-Graphene-Gold Nanocomposites nge-Sonochemical Reduction" yiPark et al. (2011), lapho i-nanocomposite kusuka ekunciphiseni i-graphene oxide (Au) nanoparticles yenziwe ngokwenziwa ngesikhathi esifanayo ukunciphisa i-ion zegolide nokubeka i-nanoparticles yegolide phezu kwe-graphene oxide encishisiwe ngesikhathi esisodwa. Ukuze kutholakale ukunciphisa ion igolide kanye nokukhiqizwa kwemisebenzi ye-oksijeni yokuhlanganisa i-nanoparticles yegolide kwi-graphene oxide encishisiwe, ukuxiliswa kwe-ultrasound kwasetshenziselwa ingxube ye-reactants. Ukwenziwa kwe-biomolecules eguqulwe ngegolide-yokubopha-i-peptide kubonisa ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi i-ultrasonic irradiation ye-graphene ne-graphene composites. Ngakho-ke, i-ultrasound ibonakala iyithuluzi elifanele ukulungiselela ezinye i-biomolecules.
I-elekthoni: I-Graphene iyisici esisebenza kahle kakhulu emkhakheni we-elekthronikhi. Ngokuhamba okuphezulu kwabathwali bezindleko ngaphakathi kwegridi ye-graphene, i-graphene inesithakazelo esiphezulu ekuthuthukiseni izingxenye ze-elektroniki ezisheshayo ku-high-frequency-technology.
Izinzwa: I-graphhene ye-ultrasonically exfoliated ingasetshenziselwa ukukhiqizwa kwezinzwa ezibucayi kakhulu nezikhethiwe zokuziphatha (okuphi ukumelana kwazo ngokushesha >10 000% ku-vapor ethanol egcwele), kanye nama-ultracapacitors anekhono eliphakeme kakhulu (120 F / g), amandla omzimba (105 kW / kg), namandla we-9.2 Wh / kg). (An et al., 2010)
Utshwala: Ukukhiqizwa kotshwala: Isicelo esingaseceleni singase sibe ukusetshenziswa kwe-graphene ekukhiqizeni utshwala, lapho kutholakala khona izibilini ze-graphene ukuze ziphuze utshwala futhi zenze kanjalo utshwala obuqinile.
Njengomshini onamandla kunawo wonke, owenziwe kagesi futhi owodwa wezinto ezilula kakhulu neziguquguqukayo, i-graphene yinto ethembisayo yamaseli elanga, i-catalysis, izibonisi ezibonakalayo ezibonakalayo nezibonakalayo, ama-resonator ama-micromechanical, ama-transistors, njenge-cathode kuma-lithium-air batteries, ama-ultrasensitive detectors , ukugqoka okuqhutshwayo kanye nokusetshenziswa njengokwengeza kwamakhemikhali.

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Ultrasonically basiza ukulungiselela graphene

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