I-Hielscher Ultrasound Technology

Ultrasonic Graphene Production

I-Ultrasonic synthesis ye-graphene nge-graphite exfoliation iyindlela ethembekile futhi enenzuzo yokukhiqiza amashidi wekhwalithi ephezulu ye-graphene ngesilinganiso sezimboni. Ama-processor aphezulu we-Hielscher's high-performance processors an controll kahle futhi angakhiqiza ama-amplopes aphezulu kakhulu ekusebenzeni kwe-24/7. Lokhu kuvumela ukulungiselela umthamo omkhulu we-pristine graphene ngendlela efanelekile nosayizi onokwehliseka.

Ultrasonic Ukulungiselela Graphene

Ishidi le-grapheneNjengoba izici ezingavamile ze-graphite ziyaziwa, kuye kwaqalwa izindlela eziningi zokulungiselela. Ngaphandle kokukhiqizwa kwamakhemikhali we-graphenes kusuka ku-graphene oxide ezinyathelweni eziningi, okwakudingeka khona ama-oxidizing and aduction agents. Ukwengeza, i-graphene elungiselelwe ngaphansi kwalezi zimo zamakhemikhali ezinzima ngokuvamile iqukethe inani eliningi leziphambeko ngisho nangemva kokunciphisa uma kuqhathaniswa nama-graphenes atholakala kwezinye izindlela. Noma kunjalo, i-ultrasound iyindlela efakazelwe yokukhiqiza i-high quality graphene, futhi iningi elikhulu. Abacwaningi baye bahlakulela izindlela ezahlukene ngezindlela zokusebenzisa i-ultrasound, kodwa ngokujwayelekile ukukhiqizwa kwe-graphene kuyindlela elula yokuyisebenzisa.
Ukuze unikeze isibonelo somzila othile wokukhiqiza we-graphene: I-Graphite yengezwe ngengxube ye-asidi ephilayo, utshwala, namanzi, bese kuthi ingxube ibonakale kwi-ultrasonic irradiation. I-asidi isebenza njenge “umcengezi wamangqamuzana” okuyinto ehlukanisa amashidi e-graphene avela ku-graphite yomzali. Ngalolu hlelo olulula, inqwaba ye-graphene ephezulu engakahleleki, ephakeme kakhulu ehlakazekile emanzini yenziwa. (An et al., 2010)

Hielscher's High Power Ultrasound Devices are the ideal tool to prepare graphene - both in lab scale as well as in full commercial process streams

Umdwebo 1: Isithombe se-AFM sezinguquko ezihamba phambili ze-GO amaphrofayili amaphoyinti amathathu okuphakama athola ezindaweni ezahlukene (iStankovich et al. 2007)

I-UIP2000hdT - 2kW ultrasonicator yokucubungula okuketshezi.

I-UIP2000hdT – I-2kW enamandla i-ultrasonicator ye-graphene exfoliation

Isicelo solwazi




Qaphela kwethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


Exfoliation Direct Graphene

I-Ultrasound ivumela ukulungiswa kwama-graphenes ezinqumeni eziphilayo, izixazululo ze-surfactants / amanzi, noma iziphuzo ze-ionic. Lokhu kusho ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwamakhemikhali aqinile noma okuncipha kungagwenywa. Stankovich et al. (2007) yakhiqiza i-graphene nge-exfoliation ngaphansi kwe-ultrasonication.
Imifanekiso ye-AFM ye-graphene oxide exfoliwe ukwelashwa kwe-ultrasonic ekugxileni kwe-1 mg / mL emanzini ihlale ibonisa ukutholakala kwamashidi ngobuningi obufanayo (~ 1 nm; isibonelo siboniswa kumfanekiso 1 ngezansi). Lezi amasampuli kahle exfoliated of graphene oxide ayinakho amashidi noma amancane kunamaphesenti angu-1, okuholela esiphethweni sokuthi ukugcwalisa ukukhipha i-graphene oxide kuze kube yizicabha ze-graphene oxide ngayinye kwafezwa ngempela ngaphansi kwalezi zimo. (IStankovich et al. 2007)

Ukulungiselela amaSpredishithi e-Graphene

Stengl et al. baye babonisa ukulungiswa okuphumelelayo kwamaphepha amhlophe e-graphene amaningi ngesikhathi sokukhiqizwa kwe-nonstoichiometric TiO2 graphene nanocomposit yi-hydrolysis esebenzayo yokumiswa nge-graphene nanosheets ne-titania peroxo complex. Ama-nanosheets ahlanzekile asetshenziselwa i-graphite yemvelo esebenzisa insimu ephakeme ye-cavitation eyakhiwe ngu-Hielscher's ultrasonic processor I-UIP1000hd kwi-reactor ephezulu yokucindezela i-ultrasonic ku-5 bar. Ama-graphene amashidi atholakala, anezindawo eziphezulu eziphezulu nezakhiwo ezihlukile ze-elekthronikhi, angasetshenziswa njengesekela elihle le-TiO2 ukuthuthukisa umsebenzi we-photocatalytic. Iqembu lokucwaninga lithi izinga le-graphene e-ultrasonically elungisiwe liphakeme kakhulu kune-graphene etholakala indlela ka-Hummer, lapho i-graphite iqhutshwa khona futhi ixutshwe. Njengoba izimo zomzimba ezitholakala kwi-reactor ultrasonic zingalawulwa ngokunembile futhi ngokucabanga ukuthi ukuhlushwa kwe-graphene njenge-dopant kuzohluka kuhlu luka-1 – 0.001%, ukukhiqizwa kwe-graphene ohlelweni oluqhubekayo isamba semali kungenzeka.

Ukulungiselela nge-Ultrasonic Treatment ye-Graphene Oxyde

Oh et al. (2010) zibonise umzila wokulungiselela usebenzisa i-ultrasonic irradiation ukukhiqiza izendlalelo ze-graphene oxide (GO). Ngakho-ke, bamisa ama-milligram angu-25 we-graphene oxide powder ku-200 ml wamanzi a-ionized. Ngokugqugquzela bathola ukumiswa okumnyama okungajwayelekile. Ukumiswa okwakumphumela kwabekwe indodana (30 min, 1.3 × 105J), futhi ngemva kokumiswa (ku-373 K) i-graphhene oxide eyakhiwe nge-ultrasonically. I-spectroscopy ye-FTIR ibonise ukuthi ukwelashwa kwe-ultrasonic akuzange kushintshe amaqembu asebenzayo we-graphene oxide.

Ultrasonically exfoliated graphene oxide nanosheets

Umdwebo 2: isithombe se-SEM yamanosheetets we-graphene atholakala ngu-ultrasonication (Oh et al. 2010)

I-Ultrasonic synthesis ye-graphene ene-Hielscher UIP4000hdT

I-UIP4000hdT – I-4 kW ephezulu kakhulu i-ultrasonicator

Ukusebenza kwamaSpredishithi e-Graphene

U-Xu no-Suslick (2011) bachaza indlela elula yokwenza isilungiselelo se-polystyrene esebenzayo i-graphite. Esifundweni sabo, basebenzisa ama-flakes ama-flakes kanye ne-styrene njengezinto eziyisisekelo ezisetshenziswayo. Ngokuveza ama-graphite ama-flakes ku-styrene (i-monomer esebenzayo), i-ultrasound irradiation yabangela ukukhishwa kwe-grachite e-mechanochemical ibe ngama-graphene amashidi angama-single layer. Ngesikhathi esifanayo, ukusebenza komshini we-graphene namaketanga e-polystyrene kuye kwafezwa.
Inqubo efanayo yokusebenza ingenziwa namanye ama-vinyl monomers ngezinhlanganisela ezisekelwe ku-graphene.

Ukulungiselela ama-Nanoribbons

Iqembu lokucwaninga le-Hongjie Dai nabalingani bakhe baseStanford University bathola inqubo yokulungisa ama-nanoribbons. Ama-Ribbon we-graphene yizingxenye ezincane ze-graphene ezingase zibe nezici eziwusizo nakakhulu kunama-graphene amashidi. Kububanzi obungaba ngu-10 nm noma obuncane, ukuziphatha kwezibhebhe ze-graphene kufana nesimiso semiconductor njengoba ama-electron aphoqeleka ukuba ahambe ngobude. Ngakho-ke, kungaba mnandi ukusebenzisa ama-nanoribhoni ngemisebenzi ye-semiconductor e-elekthronikhi (isb. Amancane amakhophi wekhompuyutha amancane).
Dai et al. ukulungiselela ama-nanoriboni ama-graphene ngezinyathelo ezimbili: okokuqala, akhulula izingxube ze-graphene kusuka ku-graphite ngomuthi wokushisa we-1000ºC ngomzuzu owodwa ku-3% i-hydrogen e-argon gas. Khona-ke, i-graphene yaphulwa yaba yimichilo isebenzisa i-ultrasonication. Ama-nanoribhoni atholakale ngale nqubo abonakala 'elula kakhulu’ emaphethelweni kunalawo awenziwe ngezindlela ezivamile zelithographic. (Jiao et al. 2009)

Ukulungiselela i-Carbon Nanoscrolls

I-Carbon Nanoscrolls ifana ne-carbon nanotubes enezinhlangothi eziningi. Umehluko kuma-MWCNTs amathiphu avulekile kanye nokufinyelela okugcwele kwezindawo zangaphakathi kuya kwamanye ama-molecule. Zingenziwa zokwenziwa ngamakhemikhali amanzi ngamacrophite ahlanganisana ne-potassium, exfoli emanzini kanye nokumiswa kwe-colloidal ukumiswa. (bheka u-Viculis et al. 2003) I-ultrasonication isiza ukuqhutshwa kwama-graphhene monolayers zibe yi-carbon nanoscrolls (bheka umkhiwane 3). Ukuphumelela okuphezulu kokuguqulwa kwama-80% kuye kwafinyelelwa, okwenza ukukhiqizwa kwe-nanoscrolls kuthokozise izicelo zokuthengisa.

Ultrasonically basiza synthesis synthesis carbon carbon nanoscrolls

I-Fig.3: I-ultrasonic synthesis ye-Carbon Nanoscrolls (i-Viculis et al. 2003)

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Qaphela kwethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


I-Graphene Dispersions

Ukusabalalisa ibanga le-graphene ne-graphene oxide kubaluleke kakhulu ukusebenzisa amandla okugcwele we-graphene nezici zayo ezithile. Uma i-graphene ingahlakazeka ngaphansi kwezimo ezilawulwayo, i-polydispersity yokusabalalisa i-graphene ingaholela ekuziphatheni okungenakulinganiswa noma okungenasidingo uma ihlanganiswa kumadivayisi kusukela lapho izindawo ze-graphene zihluka njengemisebenzi yemingcele yayo yokwakha. I-Sonication iyindlela yokwelashwa eqinisekisiwe yokunciphisa amandla amabutho okuxhumana kanye nokuvumela ukulawulwa okunembile kwemigomo yokubaluleka ebalulekile.
"I-graphene oxide (GO), evame ukuxhunyaniswa njengama-single-layer sheets, enye yezinselele ezinkulu ze-polydispersity ezivela ekuhlukeni kwendawo ehamba phambili yama-flakes. Kuye kwaboniswa ukuthi usayizi we-lateral wesimo se-GO ungashintshwa kusuka ku-400 nm kuya ku-20 μm ngokuguqula izinto zokuqala ze-graphite nezimo ze-sonication. "(UGreen et al. 2010)
I-ultrasonic Ukuhlakazeka ye-graphene eholele ama-slurries amahle ngisho nama-colloidal kuye kwaboniswa kwezinye izifundo ezihlukahlukene. (Liu et al. 2011 / Baby et al. 2011 / Choi et al. 2010)
Zhang et al. (2010) baye babonisa ukuthi ngokusebenzisa ukusetshenziswa kwe-ultrasonication ukusabalalisa kwe-graphene ukusabalalisa nge-1 mg · mL-1 kanye nama-graphene amaphepha amancane ahlanzekile, futhi amashidi e-graphene asalungisiwe abonisa ukuqhutshwa kwegesi eliphezulu ka-712 S · m-1. Imiphumela ye-infrared spectra kanye ne-Raman spectra test ibonise ukuthi indlela yokulungiselela i-ultrasonic inomonakalo omncane kumakhemikhali namakhemikhali e-graphene.

Ukusebenza okuphezulu kwe-Ultrasonicators

Ukuze kwenziwe umkhiqizo wekhwalithi ephezulu ye-graphene nano-amashidi, kudingeka imishini yokusebenza ephezulu ye-ultrasonic ephezulu. Amplitude, ingcindezi kanye nokushisa ngamapharamitha abalulekile, aqakathekile ekukhiqizweni nekhwalithi yomkhiqizo engaguquki. Hielscher Ultrasonics’ Amaphrosesa we-ultrasonic ayizinhlelo ezinamandla futhi ezinqunyelwe ngokuqondile, ezivumela ukuhlelwa ngqo kwamapharamitha wenqubo kanye nokuphuma okuphezulu kwamandla okuphezulu kwe-Ultra. Hielscher Ultrasonics’ ama-processor ultrasonic ama-industriel angaletha ama-amplitudes aphakeme kakhulu. Amplitudes angafika ku-200μm angaqhutshwa kalula ngokuqhubekayo ku-24/7 ukusebenza. Nge-amplitudes ephakeme nakakhulu, i-sonotrode e-ultrasonic eyenziwe ngezifiso iyatholakala. Ukuqina kwemishini ye-ultrasonic ye-Hielscher kuvumela ukusebenza komsebenzi we-24/7 emsebenzini obuthakathaka nasezindaweni ezinzima.
Amakhasimende ethu anelisekile ngokuqina okuqinile nokuthembeka kwezinhlelo zikaHielscher Ultrasonic. Ukufakwa emikhakheni yesicelo esisebenza kanzima, izindawo ezifunwayo kanye nokusebenza kwe-24/7 kuqinisekisa ukucutshungulwa okusebenzayo nokunempilo. Ukuqina kwenqubo ye-Ultrasonic kunciphisa isikhathi sokucubungula futhi kufinyelela imiphumela engcono, ie izinga eliphakeme, isivuno esiphakeme, imikhiqizo emisha.
Ithebula elingezansi linikeza isibonakaliso somthamo wokucubungula we-ultrasonicators wethu:

Iqoqwana Ivolumu flow Rate Amadivayisi ezinconyiwe
0.5 kuya ku-1.5mL na I-VialTweeter
1 kuya ku-500mL 10 kuya ku-200mL / min UP100H
10 kuya ku-2000mL 20 kuya ku-400mL / min UP200Ht, UP400St
0.1 kuya ku-20L 0.2 kuya ku-4L / min I-UIP2000hdT
10 kuya ku-100L 2 kuya ku-10L / iminithi I-UIP4000hdT
na 10 kuya ku-100L / iminithi UIP16000
na sikhulu yinhlanganisela UIP16000

Xhumana Nathi / Cela Ukwaziswa Olwengeziwe

Khuluma nathi mayelana nezidingo zakho zokucubungula. Sizosikisela ukusetha nokulungiswa kwemingcele efanele yephrojekthi yakho.





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Landa indaba ephelele njenge-PDF lapha:
Ultrasonically basiza ukulungiselela graphene


I-Hielscher Ultrasonics yenza ama-homogenizer aphezulu we-ultrasonic wokuhlakazeka, i-emulsation kanye nokukhishwa kweseli.

Ama-homogenizer amakhulu anamandla aphezulu kusuka kwelebhu ukuya kumshayeli wezindiza nezindawo zezimboni.

Izincwadi / Izinkomba

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Amaqiniso Okufanele Ukwazi

Yini iGraphene?

I-graphite yenziwa ngamashidi amabili asayizi we-sp2-hybridised, a-hexagonally ahlelwe ama-athomu e-carbon - i-graphene - evame ukufakwa. Ama-sheets-thin thin sheets, akha ama-graphite ngokusebenzisana okungewona okubambisene nawo, abonakala ngendawo ebanzi kakhulu. I-Graphene ibonisa amandla angavamile nokuqina ngokuhambisana namazinga ayo asezingeni elifinyelela ku-approx. I-GPa ye-1020 cishe inani lamandla ledayimani.
I-graphene iyisici esiyisisekelo esakhiweni samanye ama-allotropes kuhlanganise, ngaphandle kwe-graphite, ne-carbon nanotubes nama-fullerenes. Isetshenziswe njengokwengeza, i-graphene ingathuthukisa ngokuphawulekayo izindawo zamandla kagesi, zomzimba, nezindlela zokuvimbela izingxenye ze-polymer ngokulayisha okuphansi kakhulu. (Xu, Suslick 2011)
Ngezindawo zalo, i-graphene iyinhlangano yezinto ezinhle kakhulu futhi ngaleyo ndlela ithembisa izimboni ezikhiqiza izingxenye, izembatho noma ama-microelectronics. I-Geim (2009) ichaza i-graphene njenge-supermaterial ngokuqondile esigabeni esilandelayo:
"Yiyona into eyinhloko ye-thinnest endaweni yonke futhi inamandla kunazo zonke esake ilinganisiwe. Izithuthi zayo ezihamba phambili zibonisa ukuhamba okuhamba phambili ngaphakathi, zibe nomthamo omncane kunabo bonke (kungu-zero) futhi zingahamba amabanga ama-micrometer-eside ngaphandle kokuhlakazeka ekamelweni lokushisa. I-Graphene ingase isekele ukucindezeleka kwamanje oku-6 okuphakeme kunoketshezi, ikhombisa irekhodi yokushisa okuqinile nokuqina, ayikwazi ukungena kumagesi futhi ivumelanisa izimfanelo ezinjalo eziphikisanayo njengobuntu britter and ductility. I-Electron yokuthutha ku-graphene ichazwa yi-equation efana ne-Dirac, evumela uphenyo lwezehlakalo eziphathelene ne-relativistic esenzweni se-bench-top. "
Ngenxa yalezi zici ezibonakalayo ezibonakalayo, i-graphene ingenye yezinto ezithembisayo kakhulu futhi igxile ekucwaningweni kwe-nanomaterial.

Izicelo ezingaba khona zeGraphene

Izicelo zezinto eziphilayo: Isibonelo sokulungiswa kwe-ultrasonic graphene nokusetshenziswa kwayo kwezinto eziphilayo kunikezwa ekutheni "Ukuhlanganiswa kwe-Graphene-Gold Nanocomposites nge-Sonochemical Reduction" yiPark et al. (2011), lapho i-nanocomposite kusuka ekunciphiseni i-graphene oxide (Au) nanoparticles yenziwe ngokwenziwa ngesikhathi esifanayo ukunciphisa i-ion zegolide nokubeka i-nanoparticles yegolide phezu kwe-graphene oxide encishisiwe ngesikhathi esisodwa. Ukuze kutholakale ukunciphisa ion igolide kanye nokukhiqizwa kwemisebenzi ye-oksijeni yokuhlanganisa i-nanoparticles yegolide kwi-graphene oxide encishisiwe, ukuxiliswa kwe-ultrasound kwasetshenziselwa ingxube ye-reactants. Ukwenziwa kwe-biomolecules eguqulwe ngegolide-yokubopha-i-peptide kubonisa ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi i-ultrasonic irradiation ye-graphene ne-graphene composites. Ngakho-ke, i-ultrasound ibonakala iyithuluzi elifanele ukulungiselela ezinye i-biomolecules.
I-elekthoni: I-Graphene iyisici esisebenza kahle kakhulu emkhakheni we-elekthronikhi. Ngokuhamba okuphezulu kwabathwali bezindleko ngaphakathi kwegridi ye-graphene, i-graphene inesithakazelo esiphezulu ekuthuthukiseni izingxenye ze-elektroniki ezisheshayo ku-high-frequency-technology.
Izinzwa: I-graphhene ye-ultrasonically exfoliated ingasetshenziselwa ukukhiqizwa kwezinzwa ezibucayi kakhulu nezikhethiwe zokuziphatha (okuphi ukumelana kwazo ngokushesha >10 000% ku-vapor ethanol egcwele), kanye nama-ultracapacitors anekhono eliphakeme kakhulu (120 F / g), amandla omzimba (105 kW / kg), namandla we-9.2 Wh / kg). (An et al., 2010)
Utshwala: Ukukhiqizwa kotshwala: Isicelo esingaseceleni singase sibe ukusetshenziswa kwe-graphene ekukhiqizeni utshwala, lapho kutholakala khona izibilini ze-graphene ukuze ziphuze utshwala futhi zenze kanjalo utshwala obuqinile.
Njengomshini onamandla kunawo wonke, owenziwe kagesi futhi owodwa wezinto ezilula kakhulu neziguquguqukayo, i-graphene yinto ethembisayo yamaseli elanga, i-catalysis, izibonisi ezibonakalayo ezibonakalayo nezibonakalayo, ama-resonator ama-micromechanical, ama-transistors, njenge-cathode kuma-lithium-air batteries, ama-ultrasensitive detectors , ukugqoka okuqhutshwayo kanye nokusetshenziswa njengokwengeza kwamakhemikhali.

Isimiso esisebenzayo se-Ultrasound ephezulu

Lapho ukuphuza utshwala ngokweqile, amagagasi omsindo asakaze emithonjeni yamanzi ashukumisela ukushintsha ukucindezela okuphezulu (ukucindezela) nokujikeleza okuncane (ukungavamile), namazinga kuye ngokuthi imvamisa. Ngesikhathi umjikelezo ophansi ocindezelayo, amagagasi aphakeme kakhulu e-ultrasonic enza ama-bubbles amancane avulekile noma aphuma emanzini. Lapho ama-bubbles athola umthamo lapho bengakwazi khona ukuwuthola amandla, awela phansi ngesihluku phakathi nomjikelezo ophezulu wokucindezela. Lokhu kwenzeka kuthiwa yi-cavitation. Phakathi nokushisa okuphezulu kakhulu (cishe 5,000K) kanye nezingcindezi (cishe 2,000atm) kufinyelelwe endaweni yangakini. Implosion of the cavitation I-bubble iphinde iholele ku-jets oketshezi ofika ku-280m / s velocity. (Suslick 1998) I-cavitation eyenziwe nge-ultrasonically ibangela imiphumela yamakhemikhali nempilo, engasetshenziswa ezinkambisweni.
I-cavitation-induced Sonochemistry inikeza ukuxhumana okuyingqayizivele phakathi kwamandla nendaba, ngezindawo ezishisayo phakathi kwamabhulethi angu- ~ 5000 K, izingcindezi ze ~ ~ 1000 bar, ukushisa nokushisa kwamazinga >I-1010K s-1; lezi zimo ezingavamile zivumela ukutholakala kwendawo ehlukahlukene yokusabela kwamakhemikhali ngokuvamile engatholakali, okuvumela ukuhlanganiswa kwezinhlobonhlobo zezinto ezingavamile ezakhiwe. (Bang 2010)