I-Hielscher Ultrasound Technology

I-Ultrasonic Deacetylation yeChitin ukuya eChitosan

I-Chitosan yi-biotolymer eyenziwe nge-Chitin enezicelo eziningi ku-pharma, ukudla, ezolimo kanye nezimboni. I-Ultrasonic deacetylation ye-chitin kuya ku-chitosan iqinisa ukwelashwa kakhulu – okuholela kwinqubo esebenza kahle futhi esheshayo enesithelo esikhulu se-chitosan sekhwalithi ephezulu.

Ultrasonic Chitosan Production

I-Chitosan itholakala yi-N-deacetylation ye-chitin. E-deacetylation evamile, i-chitin ifakwe emanzini nge-solk alkali (ngokuvamile i-40 kuye ku-50% (w / w) NaOH). Inqubo yokufakelwa kudinga amazinga okushisa aphezulu angama-100 kuye kwangama-120ºC athatha isikhathi kakhulu, kanti umkhiqizo we-chitosan otholakala ngesinyathelo sokunye uphansi. Ukusetshenziswa kwe-high-Power ultrasonics kuqinisa inqubo ye-deacetylation ye-chitin kakhulu futhi kuphumela ekuvuneni okukhulu kwesisindo se-chini-molecule we-chitosan ekwelashweni okusheshayo emazingeni okushisa aphansi. I-Ultrasonic deacetylation iphumela ku-chitosan esezingeni eliphakeme esetshenziswa njengokudla nezinhlanganisela zepharma, njengomanyolo nakwezinye izinhlelo zokusebenza eziningi zezimboni.
Ukwelashwa kwe-Ultrasonic kubangela izinga elihlukile le-acetylation (DA) le-chitin lehlisa izinga le-acetylation chitin kusuka ku-DA≥90 kuya ku-chitosan nge-DA≤10.
Izifundo eziningi zokucwaninga ziqinisekisa ukusebenza kwe-ultrason chitin deacetylation to chitosan. Weiss J. et al. (2008) ithole ukuthi i-sonication ithuthukisa ukuguqulwa kwe-chitin ibe yi-chitosan kakhulu. Ukwelashwa kwe-chitin kwe-ultrasonic kuza nokonga isikhathi esibalulekile ukunciphisa isikhathi senqubo esidingekayo kusuka emahoreni ayi-12-24 kuya emahoreni ambalwa. Ngaphezu kwalokho, i-solvent engaphansi iyadingeka ukuze kufinyelelwe ukuguqulwa okugcwele, okunciphisa umthelela wemvelo wokulahla nokulahla i-solvent esetshenzisiwe noma engafakwanga, okusho ukuthi i-NaOH ehlangene.

I-Ultrasonic Deacetylation yeChitin ukuya eChitosan

I-deacetylation ye-chitin ku-chitosan igqugquzelwa yi-sonication

I-UIP4000hdT ye-high-performanceace yezinhlelo zokusebenza zezimboni

I-UIP4000hdT – Uhlelo lwe-4kW lwamandla e-ultrasonic

Isicelo solwazi




Qaphela kwethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


Isimiso Sokusebenza se-Ultrasonic Chitosan Treatment

Amandla aphezulu, i-low-frequency ultrasonication (∼20-26kHz) yakha i-acoustic cavitation ku-liquids nakuma-slurries. I-Ultra enamandla amakhulu ikhuthaza ukuguqulwa kwe-chitin ibe yi-chitosan njenge-solvent (isib, NaOH) izingcezu futhi zingene ezinhlayiyeni eziqinile ze-chitin, ngaleyo ndlela kwandise indawo engaphezulu komhlaba futhi kuthuthukiswe ukudluliselwa kwesisindo phakathi kwesigaba esiqinile nesamanzi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amabutho aphezulu e-shear we-ultrasonic cavitation akha ama-radicals mahhala akhulisa ukwenziwa kwe-reagent (ie i-NaOH) ngesikhathi se-hydrolysis. Njengenqubo yokuphrinta engenalo olushisayo, i-sonication ivimbela ukucekeka phansi okushisa okwakha i-chitosan esezingeni eliphakeme. Izikhathi zokucubungula ze-Ultrasonic ezidingekayo ukukhipha i-chitin kusuka kuma-crustaceans kanye ne-isivin chitin (bese ngenxa yalokho i-chitosan) yokuhlanzeka okuphezulu kuqhathaniswa nezimo zokuphamba kwendabuko. Ekhiqizweni kwe-chitin ne-chitosan, ama-ultrasounds ngale ndlela angakwazi ukwehlisa izindleko zokukhiqiza, anciphise isikhathi sokusebenza, avumele ukulawulwa okungcono kwenqubo yokukhiqiza futhi anciphise umthelela wezemvelo wokulahleka kwenqubo.

Izinzuzo ze-Ultrasonic Chitosan Production

  • Uphakeme weChitosan Yield
  • Imfanelo ephakeme
  • Isikhathi Esincishisiwe
  • Izinga lokushisa eliphansi
  • Ukusebenza Ngokweqile
  • Kulula & Ukusebenza okuphephile
  • ukuphathwa kwemvelo

Ultrasonic Chitin Decetylation to Chitosan – I-Protocol

1) Lungiselela i-chitin:
Kusetshenziswa amagobolondo crab njengezinto zomthombo, amagobolondo crab kufanele agezwe kahle ukuze asuse noma yiziphi izinto eziphilayo encibilikisiwe nokungcolisa ukunamathela kubandakanya umhlabathi namaprotheni. Ngemuva kwalokho, izinto zegobolondo kumele zomiswe ngokuphelele (isib. Ku-60ºC kowe-24h kuhhavini). Amagobolondo omisiwe abese enhlabathini (isb. Usebenzisa i-hammer mill), ancishiswe endaweni eyi-alkali (isib. NaOH ekhonsathini ka-0.125 kuya ku-5.0 M), bese ekhishwa ku-acid (isib. Dilute hydrochloric acid).
2) I-Deacetylation ye-Ultrasonic
Ukuqhuba ukusabela okujwayelekile kwe-ultrasonic deacetylation, izinhlayiya ze-beta-chitin (0.125 mm < d < 0.250 mm) are suspended in 40% (w/w) aqueous NaOH at a ratio beta-chitin/NaOH aqueous solution of 1/10(g mL-1), ukumiswa kudluliselwa kwisikebhe esingilazi esiboshwe kabili futhi senziwa sisebenzise i-Hielscher UP400St homogenizer ye-ultrasonics. Amapharamitha alandelayo (cf. Fiamingo et al. 2016) agcinwa njalo lapho enza ukusabela kwe-ultrason chitin deacetylation reaction: (i) probe ye-ultrasonic (sonotrode Hielscher S24d22D, ububanzi be-tip = 22 mm); (ii) imodi yokushayela kwe-sonication (IP = 0.5sec); (iii) ukuqina komhlaba okuphezulu
(I = 52.6 W cm-2), (iv) lokushisa lokuphendula (60ºC ± 1ºC), (v) isikhathi sokuphendula (50 amaminithi), (vi) isilinganiso sesisindo se-beta-chitin / umthamo ka-40% (w / w) wamanzi we-sodium hydroxide (BCHt / NaOH = 1 / 10 g mL-1); (vii) umthamo wokumiswa kwe-beta-chitin (50mL).
Ukusabela kokuqala kuqhubeke kube yi-50min ngaphansi kokuphindaphindwa kwamandla kazibuthe bese kuphazamiseka ngokushesha ukupholisa ukumiswa ku-0ºC. Ngemuva kwalokho i-dilute hydrochloric acid yengezwa ukuthola i-pH 8.5 bese isampula le-CHs1 lihlukaniswe yi-filtration, lihlanzwa kakhulu ngamanzi anezithelo futhi lomiswe ngaphansi kwezimo ezikhona. Lapho i-deacetylation efanayo ye-ultrasonic iphindwa njengesinyathelo sesibili ku-CHs1, ikhiqiza isampula le-CHs2.

I-Ultrasonic deacetylation yokushintshwa kwe-chitosan

Ukuskena izithombe ezi-elektroni microscopy (SEM) ekukhulisweni kwe-100 × ye-a) gladius, b) gladius eyenziwe nge-ultrasound, c) β-chitin, d) i-ara-chitin ephathwe ngayo β-chitin, no-e) chitosan (umthombo: Preto et al . 2017)

Fiamingo et al. ithole ukuthi ukwenziwa kwe-deacetylation kwe-beta-chitin ngempumelelo kukhiqiza kahle isisindo se-chitosan esiphakeme ngesilinganiso esiphansi se-acetylation noma ukusebenzisa izithasiselo noma umkhathi we-inert noma izikhathi zokuphendula ezinde. Noma ukusabela kwe-ultracid deacetylation kwenziwa ngaphansi kwezimo ezinobumnene – okungukuthi izinga lokushisa eliphansi lokuqhathanisa uma liqhathaniswa ne-cosmochemical deacetylations. I-deacetylation ye-ultrasonic ye-beta-chitin ivumela ukulungiswa kwe-chitosan ye-deacetylated engahleliwe enesilinganiso esishintshashintshayo se-acetylation (4% ≤ DA ≤ 37%), isisindo esiphakeme sesisindo sama-molecule (900,000 g mol-1 ≤ MW ≤ 1,200,000 g mol-1 ) kanye ne-low dispersity (1,3 ≤ Ð ≤ 1.4) ngokwenza izinto ezintathu ezilandelanayo (50 amaminithi / igxathu) ku-60ºC.

I-Hielscher Ultrasonics ikhiqiza ama-ultrasonicators aphezulu ekusebenzeni kwezicelo ze-sonochemical.

Amaprosesa aphezulu aphezulu e-ultrasonic kusukela ebhuthini kuya ku-pilot nesilinganiso sezimboni.

Amasistimu aphezulu we-Ultrasonic we-High-Performance Production of Chitosan

I-UIP4000hdT - ama-4 kilowatts uhlelo olunamandla lwe-ultrasonic lokususa nokukhipha i-oyili eyengeziwe yamafutha omnqumoUkuqhekeka kwe-chitin kanye ne-decetylation ye-chitin kuya ku-chitosan kudinga imishini enamandla ye-ultrasonic enamandla nethembekile engakhipha ama-amplople aphezulu, kunikeza i-controllability eqondile ngaphezulu kwemingcele yenqubo futhi ingaqhutshwa ngo-24/7 ngaphansi komthwalo osindayo nasezindaweni ezifunwayo. Uhla lomkhiqizo we-Hielscher Ultrasonics likuthola futhi ufune izidingo zakho zenqubo. Ama-ultrasonicators ama-Hielscher ayizinqubo ezisezingeni eliphezulu ezingafakelwa izesekeli ezifana nama-sonotrodes, ama-boosters, ama-reactors noma amaseli wokugeleza ukuze ahambisane nezidingo zenqubo yakho ngendlela efanelekile.
Ngokubonisa kombala wedijithali, inketho yokusetha ukusetshenziselwa ukwenziwa kwe-sonication, ukuqoshwa kwedatha ezenzakalelayo ekhadini elihlanganisiwe le-SD, ukulawulwa kwesiphequluli esikude nezinye izici eziningi, ukulawulwa kwenqubo okuphezulu nobungane bomsebenzisi kuyaqinisekiswa. Kudwetshwe ngamandla nokuthwala kanzima, umthamo we-Hielscher ultrasonic uyihhashi lakho lokusebenza elinokwethenjelwa ekukhiqizeni.
Ukuqhekeka kweChitin kanye ne-deacetylation kudinga i-Ultra enamandla ukuthola ukuguqulwa okuhlosiwe kanye nomkhiqizo wokugcina we-chitosan wekhwalithi ephezulu. Ikakhulu ekuhlukaniseni kwama-chitin flakes, amplopes aphakeme nezingcindezi eziphakeme kubalulekile. Hielscher Ultrasonics’ Izimboni zokuqhubekisa ukusebenza kwezezimboni ziveza kalula ama-amplopes aphezulu kakhulu. Amplopes afinyelela ku-200µm angaqhutshwa ngokuqhubekayo ekusebenzeni kwe-24/7. Amplrodes aphakeme kakhulu, ama-sonotrodes abekwe ngokwezifiso ayatholakala. Umthamo wamandla wezinhlelo ze-Hielscher ultrasonic zivumela ukukhipha amandla okusebenzayo futhi okusheshayo kwinqubo ephephile nenomsebenzisi.

Ithebula elingezansi linikeza isibonakaliso somthamo wokucubungula we-ultrasonicators wethu:

Iqoqwana Ivolumu flow Rate Amadivayisi ezinconyiwe
1 kuya ku-500mL 10 kuya ku-200mL / min UP100H
10 kuya ku-2000mL 20 kuya ku-400mL / min UP200Ht, UP400St
0.1 kuya ku-20L 0.2 kuya ku-4L / min I-UIP2000hdT
10 kuya ku-100L 2 kuya ku-10L / iminithi I-UIP4000hdT
na 10 kuya ku-100L / iminithi UIP16000
na sikhulu yinhlanganisela UIP16000

Xhumana nathi! / Cela Us!

Cela ulwazi oluthe xaxa

Sicela usebenzise ifomu elingezansi, uma ufisa ukucela ulwazi oluthe xaxa mayelana ne-homogenization yama-ultrasonic. Sizojabula ukukunikeza uhlelo lwe-ultrasonic ukuhlangabezana nezidingo zakho.









Sicela uqaphele wethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


Izincwadi / Izinkomba

  • UButnaru E., Stoleru E., uBrebu MA, uDarie-Nita RN, uBargan A., uVasile C. (2019): Amafilimu ama-Chitosan-Isekelwe Bionanocomposite Alungiselelwe I-Emulsion Technique Yokulondolozwa Kokudla. Izinto zokwenziwa ngo-2019, 12 (3), 373.
  • UFihingo A., de Moura Delezuk JA, Trombotto St David L., Campana-Filho SP (2016): I-deosetylated deacetylated high isisindo esikhulu sama-molecule kusuka ku-multistep ultrasound-esiza deacetylation ye-beta-chitin. I-Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 32, 2016. 79-85.
  • UKjartansson, G., Wu, T., Zivanovic, S., Weiss, J. (2008): Ukuguqulwa Okusizwe Kwesizwe SaseChitin ukuya eChitosan, e-USDA National Research Initiative Principal Inational Abahloli Bokuphenya, New Orleans, LA, Juni 28.
  • I-Kjartansson, G., Kristbergsson, K. Zivanovic, S., Weiss, J. (2008): Ithonya lokushisa ngesikhathi sokuwohloka kwe-chitin kuya ku-chitosan nge-high-intensity ultrasound njengendlela yokwelashwa kwangaphambili, Umhlangano Waminyaka Yonke we-Institute of Food Technologists , ENew Orleans, LA, Juni 30, 95-18.
  • I-Kjartansson, G., Kristbergsson, K., Zivanovic, S., Weiss, J. (2008): Ithonya le-high-intensity ultrasound ukusheshisa ukuguqulwa kwe-chitin ku-chitosan, Umhlangano Waminyaka Yonke we-Institute of Food Technologists, eNew Orleans, LA, Juni 30, 95-17.
  • I-Preto MF, iCampana-Filho SP, i-Fiamingo A., iCosentino IC, iTessari-Zampieri MC, i-Abessa DMS, iRomero AF, iBordon IC (2017): UGladius kanye nokuphuma kwalo njengama-biosorbents angasebenza emafutheni odizili wasolwandle. Isayensi Yezemvelo Nocwaningo Lokungcola (2017) 24: 22932-22939.
  • I-Wijesena RN, Tissera N., Kannangara YY, Lin Y., Amaratunga GAJ, de Silva KMN (2015): Indlela yokulungiselela phezulu phansi kwe-chitosan nanoparticles nan nanibibers. Ama-carbohydrate Polymers 117, 2015. 731-738.
  • UWu, T., Zivanovic, S., Hayes, DG, Weiss, J. (2008). Ukwehliswa okufanele kwesisindo se-chitosan nge-high-intensity ultra: Indlela engaphansi nomphumela wokusebenza kwamapharamitha. Ijenali yeCommunication Yezolimo Nokudla 56 (13): 5112-5119.
  • Yadav M .; IGoswami P .; Paritosh K .; Kumar M .; Pareek N .; IVivekanand V. (2019): Imfucuza yasolwandle: umthombo wokulungiswa kwezinto zokuhweba / zezitosan eziqashile. Imithombo yezinto eziphilayo kanye ne-Bioprocessing 6/8, 2019.


Amaqiniso Okufanele Ukwazi

Isebenza kanjani i-Ultrasonic Chitin Deactylation?

Lapho amandla aphezulu, i-Ultra enamandla ephansi (isb., 20- 26kHz) ihlanganiswa ibe ngumjikelezo we-liquid noma i-slurry, kusetshenziswa imijikelezo ephezulu ye-high-pressure / low-pressure ku-liquid compression and rarefaction. Ngalesi sikhathi semijikelezo eshintshashintshashintshashintshwayo ephezulu, kutholakala amabhubu amancane amancane, akhula ngemijikelezo eminingana yengcindezi. Ephuzwini, lapho amabhuthi we-vacuum engakwazi ukudonsa amandla amaningi, awela ngobudlova. Ngalesi sikhathi sokuqhuma kwe-bubble, kwenzeka izimo ezibucayi bendawo: amazinga okushisa aphakeme afinyelela ku-5000K, izingcindezi ezifinyelela ku-2000atm, amazinga okushisa aphakeme kakhulu / okupholisa kakhulu nokwehluka kwengcindezi. Njengoba amandla e-bubble fall fall ashesha kunokudluliselwa ngobuningi nokushisa, amandla asezithambekweni ezidilikayo ahlanganiswa nendawo encane kakhulu, ebizwa nangokuthi "indawo eshisayo". Ukufakwa kwe-bubble ye-cavitation kubuye kube nemiphumela emincane yama-microturbulefere, ama-jets we-liquid afinyelela ku-280m / s velocity kanye nomphumela wamabutho e-shear. Le nto yaziwa njenge-ultrasonic noma i-acoustic cavitation.
Amaconsi nezinhlayiyana kulolu ketshezi lwe-sonication zithintwa yilawo mandla omgwaqo futhi lapho izinhlayiya ezisheshayo zishayisana, ziqhekeka ngokushayisana kwe-inclarticle. I-acoustic cavitation iyisimiso esisebenzayo sokugaya i-ultrasonic, ukusabalalisa, i-emulsation ne-sonochemistry.
Nge-chitin deacetylation, ukwanda okukhulu kwe-ultrasound endaweni ephezulu ngokwenza isebenze ngaphezulu futhi kugqugquzele ukudluliselwa kwesisindo phakathi kwezinhlayiya ne-reagent.

i-chitosan

I-Chitosan iyinhlangano elungiselelwe i-carbohydrate enobuthi, i-cationic, non-enobuthi enobungozi enesakhiwo esiyinkimbinkimbi samakhemikhali esakhiwa amayunithi we-glucosamine β- (1,4) njengesakhi sawo esiyinhloko (> 80%) kanye ne-N-acetyl glucosamine amayunithi (<20%), randomly distributed along the chain. Chitosan is derived from chitin through chemical or enzymatic deacetylation. The degree of deacetylation (DA) determines the content of free amino groups in the structure and is used to distinguish between chitin and chitosan. Chitosan shows good solubility in moderate solvents such as diluted acetic acid and offers several free amine groups as active sites. This makes chitosan advantageous over chitin in many chemical reactions. Chitosan is valued for its excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, non-toxicity, good antimicrobial activity (against bacteria and fungi), oxygen impermeability and film forming properties. In contrast to chitin, chitosan has the advantage of being water-soluble and thereby easier to handle and use in formulations. As the second most abundant polysaccharide following cellulose, the huge abundance of chitin makes it a cheap and sustainable raw material.

Ukukhiqizwa kweChitosan

IChitosan ikhiqizwa ngenqubo yezinyathelo ezimbili. Esigabeni sokuqala, izinto ezingavuthiwe, ezinjengamagobolondo e-crustacean (ie. Shrimp, crab, lobster), ziyancishiswa, zidilizwe futhi zihlanjululwe ukuze kutholakale i-chitin. Esinyathelweni sesibili, i-chitin iphathwa ngesisekelo esinamandla (isb., NaOH) ukususa amaketanga aseceleni we-acetyl ukuze kutholakale i-chitosan. Inqubo yokukhiqiza ejwayelekile ye-chitosan yaziwa ukuthi idla isikhathi kakhulu futhi ibiza kakhulu.

chitin

Chitin (C8H13O5N)n i-polymer eqondile ye-β-1,4-N-acetylglucosamine futhi ihlukaniswe nge-α-, β- ne-γ-chitin. Ukutholakala kwe-glucose, i-chitin iyingxenye eyinhloko yemikhawulo yama-arthropods, njengama-crustaceans nezinambuzane, i-radulae yama-molluscs, imilomo ye-cephalopod, kanye nezikali zezinhlanzi kanye nama-lissamphibians futhi kungatholakala ezindongeni zeseli ku-fungi, futhi. Isakhiwo se-chitin siqhathaniswa ne-cellulose, sakha ama-nanofibrils noma amakhaladi. I-Cellulose yiyona polysaccharide ebaluleke kakhulu emhlabeni, ilandelwa yi-chitin njenge-polysaccharide yesibili enobukhulu.

i-glucosamine

IGlucosamine (C6H13CHA5) ushukela we-amino kanye nesandulela esibalulekile ekwakhekeni kwamakhemikhali ama-glycosylated protein and lipids. IGlucosamine ngokwemvelo iyinkimbinkimbi eningi eyingxenye yesakhiwo sazo zombili ama-polysaccharides, chitosan, ne-chitin, okwenza i-glucosamine ingenye yama-monosaccharides amaningi kakhulu. Iningi lama-glucosamine atholakala ngokuthengisa akhiqizwa yi-hydrolysis yama-crustacean exoskeletons, okungukuthi ama-crab kanye nama-lobster amagobolondo.
I-Glucosamine isetshenziswa ikakhulukazi njengesengezo sokudla lapho isetshenziswa ngezindlela ze-glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride noma i-N-acetyl glucosamine. Ama-supplements e-Glucosamine sulfate ahanjiswa ngomlomo ukwelapha isimo esibuhlungu esidalwa ukuvuvukala, ukuqhekeka nokulahleka kwe-cartilage (osteoarthritis) ekugcineni.