I-Hielscher Ultrasound Technology

Ukuqhafaza - Umthelela We-Power Ultrasound ku-Breaking Particle

I-sonofragmentation ichaza ukuhlukana kwama-particle zibe izingcezu ezingamanani ezinamandla ngamandla aphakeme e-ultrasound. Ngokuphambene ne-deagglomeration evamile ye-ultrasonic nokugaya – lapho izinhlayiya zigajwa khona futhi zihlukaniswe ukushayisana kwe-inter-particle – , i-sono-fragementation ihlukaniswa ngokuxhumana okuqondile phakathi kwe-particle kanye ne-wave wave. Amandla avela phezulu / ama-frequency low ultrasound enza i-cavitation futhi ngaleyo ndlela ibutho lezingcweti ezinamandla eziketshezi. Izimo ezimbi kakhulu ze-bubble cavitational ziyawa futhi ukushayisana okungafaniyo kugaxa izinhlayiya ukuze kusetshenziswe izinto ezinhle kakhulu.

Ukukhiqizwa kwe-ultrasonic nokulungiselela kwe-Nano izingxenye

Imiphumela yamandla ultrasound ekukhiqizeni izinto ze-nano ziyaziwa kakhulu: Ukuhlakaza, ukuguqulwa kwamanzi nokukhwabanisa & Ukwehla kanye nokuhlukaniswa ngo-sonication ngokuvamile kuyindlela ephumelelayo yokuphatha nano izinhlayiya. Lokhu kuyiqiniso ngokukhethekile uma kuziwa ezintweni ezinhle kakhulu ze-nano ngezinto ezinokubaluleka okwedlula njengezici ze-nano eziyingqayizivele zezinhlayiyana ezivezwayo. Ukwakha izinto ze-nano ezinemisebenzi ethile, inqubo yomsindo wokuneneka kanye nokuthembeka kufanele iqinisekiswe. I-Hielscher inikeza imishini ye-ultrasonic kusukela esikalini lesibalo kuya esilinganisweni esiphelele sokukhiqiza kwezohwebo.

I-Sono-Ukuhlukaniswa nge-Cavitation

Ukufakelwa kwamandla amakhulu e-ultrasonic abe yiziphuzo kudala izimo ezimbi kakhulu. Lapho i-ultrasound isakaza isikhala esisetshenziselwa uketshezi, amagagasi e-ultrasonic aholela ekushintshaneni ukucindezela nokuhamba okungezansi (ukucindezela okukhulu nokucindezela okuphansi). Ngesikhathi imijikelezo ephansi yokucindezela, kuphakama amabhuzu amancane angena emkhathini. Lezi cavitation ama-bubbles akhula ngaphezu kwemijikelezo emincane ephansi kuze kube yilapho efinyelela usayizi uma engakwazi ukuzuza amandla amaningi. Kulo mhlaba wamandla amakhulu anamandla nobukhulu be-bubble, i-bubble cavitation iwa phansi ngobubi futhi idala izimo ezimbi kakhulu endaweni yangakini. Ngenxa yombono we-the cavitation Bubbles, izinga lokushisa eliphezulu kakhulu. 5000K nezincindezelo ze-approx. Ama-2000 atholakala endaweni yangakini. I-implosion ibangelwa ama-jets ahlanzekile angama-280m / s (≈1000km / h) velocity. I-Sono-fragmentation ichaza ukusetshenziswa kwalezi zindlela ezinamandla ukuze zihlukaniswe izinhlayiya ezincani ezincane ezincane ze-micron ne-nano. Njengoba i-sonication eqhubekela phambili, isimo sezinhlayiya siphenduka kusuka engxenyeni kuya enhlangothini, okwenza izinhlayiya zibe yigugu nakakhulu. Imiphumela ye-sonofragmentation iboniswa njengezinga lokuhlukaniswa elichazwe njengomsebenzi wokufakelwa kwamandla, ivolumu ehanjisiwe kanye nobukhulu bezimbulunga.
Kusters et al. (1994) kuphenywe ukuhlukaniswa kwe-agglomerates okusizwisise amandla maqondana nokusetshenziswa kwayo kwamandla. Imiphumela yabaphenyi „ikhombisa ukuthi indlela yokusabalalisa ye-ultrasonic ingasebenza kahle njengezindlela ezivamile zokugaya. Umkhuba wezezimboni wokusakazwa kwe-ultrasonic (isb. Ama-probes amakhulu, ukuqhubeka kokumiswa) ungahle uguqule le miphumela ngandlela thile, kepha ngaphezu kwakho konke kulindeleke ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwe-energy akusiyo isizathu sokukhethwa kwale nqubo ye-comminutron kodwa kunalokho amandla ayo khiqiza izinhlayiya ezinhle kakhulu (submicron). "[Kusters et al. 1994] Ikhethekile yokugaya izimpuphu ezifana Silica noma i-zirconia, amandla athile adingekayo ngeyunithi ye-powder mass atholakala ukuthi aphansi ngokugaya ama-ultrasonic kunezindlela zokugaya ezivamile. I-ultrasonication ithinta izinhlayiya hhayi nje ngokugaya nokugaya, kodwa nangokugcoba lezi zinhlayiya. Ngaleyo ndlela, i-particulate high of the particles ingafinyelelwa.

I-Sono-fragmentation ye-Crystallization of Nanomaterials

"Nakuba kungekho ukungabaza ukuthi izingxabano ze-interparticle zenzeka ema-slurries amakhemikhali amangqamuzana aphethwe yi-ultrasound, akuwona umthombo omkhulu wokuhlukaniswa. Ngokungafani nama-crystals yamangqamuzana, izinhlayiya zensimbi azilimazi ngokusakazeka ngokuqondile futhi zingathinteka nje kuphela ukushayisana okunamandla kakhulu (kodwa okungafani kakhulu). Ukushintsha kwezindlela eziphakeme zokunikezwa kwe-metal powders ngokuhambisana nama-aspirin slurries kufakazela ukungezwani kwezakhiwo zezinhlayiya ze-metalle ezingenakwenzeka kanye nama-crystals angamahloni. "[Zeiger / Suslick 2011, 14532]

Ukuhlukaniswa kwe-Ultrasonic kwe-acetylsalicylic acid izinhlayiyana

Ukuxilongwa kwezinhlayiya ze-aspirin [Zeiger / Suslick 2011]

UGopi et al. (2008) iphenye ukwakheka kwezinhlayiya zobumba eziphezulu ze-submicrometer alumina ceramic (ikakhulukazi ebangeni elingaphansi kwe-100 nm) kusuka ekudleni okusayizi-micrometer (isib. 70-80 μm) kusetshenziswa i-sonofragmentation. Babone ushintsho olukhulu ngombala nokwakheka kwezinhlayiya zobumba ze-alumina ngenxa yokuqhekeka kwe-sono. Izinhlayiyana ku-micron, submicron ne-nano sized range zingatholakala kalula ngamandla aphezulu we-sonication. Ukuphakama kwezinhlayiya kukhuphuke kanye nesikhathi esandayo sokugcina insimu ye-acoustic.

Ukuhlakazeka ku-Surfactant

Ngenxa ye-ultrasonic i-particle breakage esebenzayo, ukusetshenziswa kwama-surfactants kubalulekile ukuvimbela ukuguqulwa kwamagqabhezana angaphansi kwe-micron kanye nano-nano-size. I-small size ubukhulu bezinhlayiyana, i-apect ratio ye-surface surface, okumele ihlanganiswe nomuntu osebenza ngokugcizelela ukuwagcina ekumiswe futhi agweme ukuhlanganiswa kwezinhlayiyana (ukuhlukumeza). Inzuzo ye-ultrasonication ibeka umphumela wokuhlakazeka: Ngesikhathi esifanayo ukugaya nokuhlukaniswa, ama-ultrasound ahlakaza izingcezu zezinhlayiyana ezifakwe yi-surfactant ukuze inqwaba ye-nano izinhlayiyana (cishe) igweme ngokuphelele.

Ukukhiqizwa kwezimboni

Ukuze usebenze emakethe ngekhwalithi ephakeme ye-nano impahla eveza ukusebenza okungavamile, imishini yokucubungula ethembekile iyadingeka. Ama-ultrasonicators afika ku-16kW ngeyunithi ehlanganisiwe avumela kakhulu ukuthi asebenze ngokuhamba kwemifudlana engenamkhawulo. Ngenxa yokulinganisa okuphelele kwezinqubo ze-ultrasonic, izinhlelo zokusebenza ze-ultrasonic zingenabungozi ezihlolwe ebhokisatrijini, zilungiswe ebangeni lesikhulu esiphezulu bese ziqaliswa ngaphandle kwezinkinga emgqeni wokukhiqiza. Njengoba i-equing ultrasonic ayidingi isikhala esikhulu singakwazi ngisho nokuvuselelwa emifudlaneni yenqubo ekhona. Ukusebenza kulula futhi kungabhekwa futhi kugijime ngokulawula okukude, kuyilapho ukugcinwa kwesistimu ye-ultrasonic cishe kunganakwa.

Izincwadi / Izinkomba

  • U-Ambedkar, B. (2012): I-Ultrasonic Coal-Wash for De-Ashing no De-Sulfurization: Uphenyo lokuhlola kanye neModetic Mechanistic. Springer, 2012.
  • Eder, uRafael JP; USrank, uSimone; Besenhard, Maximilian O .; I-Roblegg, Eva; I-Gruber-Woelfler, i-Heidrun; Khinast, Johannes G. (2012): Sonocrystallization eqhubekayo ye-Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA): Ukulawulwa kwe-Crystal Size. Ukukhula kwe-Crystal & I-Design 12/10, 2012. 4733-4738.
  • I-Gopi, KR; Nagarajan, R. (2008): Inqubekela phambili eNanoalumina Ceramic Particle Fabrication Ukusebenzisa i-Sonofragmentation. IEEE Ukuthengiselana Nge-Nanotechnology 7/5, 2008. 532-537.
  • Kusters, Karl; I-Pratsinis, i-Sotiris E .; UThoma, uSteven G .; USmith, uDouglas M. (1994): Imithetho yokunciphisa amandla we-Energy ukuhlukaniswa kwe-ultrasonic. Ubuchwepheshe bePowder 80, 1994. 253-263.
  • Zeiger, uBrad W .; USuslick, Kenneth S. (2011): Ukuqothulwa kwezimpawu zamakhemikhali. Journal oft yena American Chemical Society. 2011.

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Ultrasonic processing: Cavitational "hot spot" (Chofoza ukuze ukhulise!)

I-ultrasonic sonotrode edlulisela amagagasi omsindo abe yilawa. Ukugubha phansi kwendawo ye-sonotrode kubonisa lokho indawo yokushisa epholile indawo.