I-Sonochemistry ne-Sonochemical Reactors

I-Sonochemistry yinkambu yamakhemikhali lapho i-high-intensity ultrasound isetshenziselwa ukuheha, ukusheshisa nokuguqula ukuphendula kwamakhemikhali (synthesis, catalysis, degradation, polymerization, hydrolysis njll). I-cavitation eyenziwe nge-Ultrasonically ibonakala ngezimo ezihlukile zamandla aminyene, ezikhuthaza futhi ziqinise ukusabela kwamakhemikhali. Izinga lokuphendula okusheshayo, isivuno esikhulu nokusetshenziswa kwama-reagents aluhlaza okotshani, okunamandla kuguqula i-sonochemistry ibe yithuluzi elinenzuzo enkulu ukuthola ukutholakala kwamakhemikhali okuthuthukile.

Sonochemistry

I-Sonochemistry yinkambu yocwaningo nokucubungula lapho ama-molecule enza ukusabela kwamakhemikhali ngenxa yokusetshenziswa kwe-high-intensity ultrasonication (isb. 20 kHz). Umkhuba obhekene nokusabela kwe-sonochemical yi-acoustic cavitation. I-acoustic noma i-ultrasonic cavitation yenzeka lapho amagagasi anamandla e-ultrasound ahlanganiswa abe uketshezi noma udaka. Ngenxa yokushintshana kwemijikelezo ephezulu yengcindezi / yengcindezi ebangelwe ngamandla amagagasi e-ultrasound kulolo ketshezi, ama-vacuum bubbles (cavitational voids) akhiqizwa, akhula ngaphezu kwemijikelezo eminingi yengcindezi. Lapho ibhamuza le-vacitational vacuum lifinyelela osayizi obuthile lapho lingakwazi khona ukumunca amandla amaningi, i-vacuum bubble ingena ngodlame futhi idale indawo eshisayo enamandla kakhulu. Le ndawo eshisayo eyenzeka endaweni ibhekene namazinga okushisa aphakeme kakhulu, izingcindezi nokusakazwa okuncane kwamajetshi ashesha ngokweqile.

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Sonochemical glass reactor at the ultrasonicator UIP1000hdT. Ultrasonic (acoustic) cavitation initiates, intensifies and accelerates chemical reactions

I-Sonochemical reactor: I-sonication enamandla ne-cavitation evelayo iqala futhi iqinise ukusabela kwamakhemikhali futhi ingashintsha izindlela.

I-Acoustic Cavitation nemiphumela ye-High-Intensity Ultrasonication

Acoustic cavitation as shown here at the Hielscher ultrasonicator UIP1500hdT is used to initiate and promote chemical reactions. Ultrasonic cavitation at Hielscher's UIP1500hdT (1500W) ultrasonicator for sonochemical reactions.I-acoustic cavitation, evame ukubizwa nangokuthi i-ultrasonic cavitation, ingahlukaniswa ibe yizinhlobo ezimbili, i-cavitation ezinzile neyesikhashana. Ngesikhathi se-cavitation ezinzile, i-bubble cavitation igudluka kaningi ezungeze ububanzi bayo bokulingana, ngenkathi i-cavitation yesikhashana, lapho ibhamuza elifushane elifinyelela khona ekushintsheni komthamo omkhulu emijikelezweni embalwa ye-acoustic futhi liphela ekuweni okunamandla (uSuslick 1988). Ukuqina okuzinzile nokudlulayo kungenzeka ngasikhathi sinye kusixazululo futhi igwebu elenza i-cavitation elizinzile lingaba yimbotshana yesikhashana. I-bubble implosion, okuyisici se-cavitation yesikhashana kanye ne-sonication enamandla amakhulu, idala izimo ezahlukahlukene zomzimba kufaka phakathi amazinga okushisa aphakeme kakhulu ka-5000-25,000 K, izingcindezi ezifika kubha ezi-1000 eziningana, nemifudlana engamanzi ene-velocities ezifika ku-1000m / s. Kusukela ukuwa / ukufakwa kwamabhamuza e-cavitation kwenzeka ngaphansi kwe-nanosecond, amazinga okushisa kakhulu nokupholisa ngokweqile kwe-1011 Ama-K / s angabonakala. Izinga lokushisa eliphakeme kangaka nokwehluka kwengcindezi kungaqala futhi kusheshise ukusabela. Mayelana nemifudlana eyenzekayo ketshezi, lawa ma-microjets anejubane eliphezulu abonisa izinzuzo eziphakeme kakhulu uma kukhulunywa ngama-slurries aqinile a-heterogeneous solid. Amajetshi ajika oketshezi ebusweni ngokushisa okugcwele nengcindezi yebhamuza eliwayo futhi libangela ukuguguleka komhlaba ngokungqubuzana kwe-interparticle kanye nokuncibilika kwasendaweni. Ngenxa yalokho, ukudluliswa okukhulu kwesixazululo kuyabonakala.


I-Ultrasonic cavitation ikhiqizwa kahle kakhulu kuziphuzo futhi izinyibilikisi izingcindezi zomphunga ophansi. Ngakho-ke, imidiya enezingcindezi zomphunga ophansi iyathandeka ekusetshenzisweni kwe-sonochemical.
Njengomphumela we-ultrasonic cavitation, amandla amakhulu adaliwe angashintsha izindlela zokuphendula ziye emizileni esebenza kahle, ukuze kuguqulwe okuphelele kanye / noma ukukhiqizwa kwemikhiqizo engafuneki.
Isikhala esiminyene ngamandla esidalwe ukuwa kwamabhamuza e-cavitation sibizwa ngokuthi indawo eshisayo. Imvamisa ephansi, amandla amakhulu e-ultrasound ebangeni lama-20kHz kanye nekhono lokwenza ama-amplitudes aphakeme kusungulwe kahle ekwakhiweni kwezindawo ezishisayo kakhulu nezimo ezithandekayo ze-sonochemical.

Imishini yaselebhu ye-Ultrasonic kanye nezimboni ze-ultrasonic zezinqubo zezinqubo ze-sonochemical zentengiso zitholakala kalula futhi zifakazelwa njengezithembekile, zisebenza kahle, futhi zinobungani bemvelo kulab, umshayeli kanye nesikali sezimboni ngokuphelele. Ukuphendula kwe-Sonochemical kungenziwa njenge-batch (isb., Isitsha esivulekile) noma inqubo yoku-inthanethi kusetshenziswa i-reactor cell cell evaliwe.

Ultrasonicator UIP2000hdT with sonochemical inline reactor for highly efficient sonochemical applications such as sono-catalysis and sono-synthesis.

I-Industrial ultrasonicator I-UIP2000hdT (2kW) nge-sonochemical inline reactor.

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Sono-Synthesis

I-Sono-synthesis noma i-sonochemical synthesis ukusetshenziswa kwe-ultrasonically eyenziwe nge-cavitation ukuze kuqalwe futhi kukhuthazwe ukusabela kwamakhemikhali. I-high-power ultrasonication (isb., Kuma-20 kHz) ikhombisa imiphumela enamandla kuma-molecule kanye nokuhlanganiswa kwamakhemikhali. Isibonelo, imiphumela ye-sonochemical evela ku-sonication enamandla ingaholela ekuhlukaneni kwama-molecule, kudale ama-radicals wamahhala, kanye / noma nokuguqula izindlela zamakhemikhali. Ukuhlanganiswa kwe-Sonochemical ngakho-ke kusetshenziselwa kakhulu ukwenziwa noma ukuguqulwa kwezinhlobonhlobo zezinto ezakhiwe nge-nano. Izibonelo zama-nanomaterial akhiqizwa nge-sono-synthesis angama-nanoparticles (ama-NPs) (isb., Ama-NP egolide, ama-NP esiliva), izingulube, izinhlayiya ze-core-shell, i-nano-hydroxyapatite, izinhlaka zezinsimbi eziphilayo (ama-MOFs), izithako ezisebenzayo zokwenziwa kwemithi (ama-API), ama-nanoparticles ahlotshiswe nge-microsphere, ama-nano-composites phakathi kwezinye izinto eziningi.

Ultrasonically synthesised silver nano-particles are spherically shaped and show a uniform particle size.

Isithombe se-TEM (A) nokusatshalaliswa kosayizi wezinhlayiyana (B) zama-nanoparticles esiliva (Ag-NPs), ahlanganiswe nge-sonochemically ngaphansi kwezimo ezinhle.

Okuphinde kusetshenziswe kabanzi i-crystallization (sono-crystallization) ekhiqizwa nge-ultrasonically, lapho i-power-ultrasound isetshenziselwa ukukhiqiza izixazululo ze-supersaturated, ukuqala i-crystallization / imvula, nokulawula ubukhulu be-crystal kanye ne-morphology nge-ultrasonic process parameters. Chofoza lapha ukuze ufunde kabanzi mayelana ne-sono-crystallization!

Sono-Catalysis

Ukwenza i-sonicating ukumiswa kwamakhemikhali noma isixazululo kungathuthukisa kakhulu ukusabela okokusebenza. Amandla e-sonochemical anciphisa isikhathi sokuphendula, athuthukise ukushisa nokudluliswa kobuningi, okugcina kubangele ukwanda kwesilinganiso samakhemikhali, isivuno kanye nezinto ezikhethiwe.
Kunezinqubo eziningi zokuhlinzekela, ezizuzisa kakhulu ekusetshenzisweni kwamandla e-ultrasound kanye nemiphumela yayo ye-sonochemical. Noma yikuphi ukuphendulwa kwesigaba se-heterogeneous phase transfer catalysis (PTC) okubandakanya uketshezi olubili noma ngaphezulu olungabonakali noma ukwakheka okuqinile oketshezi, izinzuzo ezivela ku-sonication, amandla e-sonochemical kanye nokudluliswa kwesisindo okuthuthukisiwe.
Isibonelo, ukuhlaziywa okuqhathaniswayo kwe-peroxide oxidation ethulile ne-ultrasonically-catalytic wet ye-phenol emanzini iveze ukuthi i-sonication inciphise umgoqo wamandla wokuphendula, kepha ayibanga nomthelela endleleni yokuphendula. Amandla okwenza kusebenze i-oxidation ye-phenol ngaphezulu kwe-RuI3 i-catalyst ngesikhathi se-sonication itholwe iyi-13 kJ mol-1, eyayincane ngokuphindwe kane uma iqhathaniswa nenqubo ye-oxidation ethule (57 kJ mol-1). (URokhina et al, 2010)
I-Sonochemical catalysis isetshenziselwa ngempumelelo ukwenziwa kwemikhiqizo yamakhemikhali kanye nokwenziwa kwezinto ezingaphili ezihleliwe ezinjengezinsimbi, ama-alloys, izinhlanganisela zensimbi, izinto ezingezona ezensimbi, nezinhlanganisela ezingaphili. Izibonelo ezijwayelekile ze-PTC esizwa nge-ultrasonically yi-transesterification yama-fatty acids mahhala abe yi-methyl ester (biodiesel), i-hydrolysis, i-saponification yamafutha yemifino, i-sono-Fenton reaction (izinqubo ezinjenge-Fenton), ukonakala kwe-sonocatalytic njll.
Funda kabanzi mayelana ne-sono-catalysis nezinhlelo zokusebenza ezithile!

Ezinye Izicelo zeSonochemical

Ngenxa yokusetshenziswa kwawo okuhlukahlukene, ukwethembeka nokusebenza okulula, izinhlelo ze-sonochemical ezifana ne- UP400St noma I-UIP2000hdT zibalwa njengemishini esebenza kahle ekuphenduleni kwamakhemikhali. Amadivayisi we-Hielscher Ultrasonics sonochemical angasetshenziselwa kalula i-batch (i-beaker evulekile) ne-sonication eqhubekayo emgqeni usebenzisa i-sonochemical flow cell. I-Sonochemistry kufaka phakathi i-sono-synthesis, i-sono-catalysis, ukonakala, noma i-polymerization isetshenziswa kakhulu ekhemistry, i-nanotechnology, isayensi yezinto zokwakha, ezemithi, i-microbiology kanye nakwezinye izimboni.

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Izinsiza kusebenza ze-Sonochemical ezisebenza kakhulu

Hielscher's industrial processors of the hdT series can be comfortable and user-friendly operated via browser remote control.I-Hielscher Ultrasonics ingumhlinzeki wakho ophezulu wama-ultrasonicators amasha, we-state-of-the-art, i-sonochemical flow cell, ama-reactor kanye nezinsiza zokuphendula kahle nangokuthembekile kwe-sonochemical. Onke ama-ultrasonicators ama-Hielscher aklanywe ngokukhethekile, akhiqizwa futhi ahlolwa ekomkhulu lekhaya le-Hielscher Ultrasonics eTeltow (ngaseBerlin), eJalimane. Ngaphandle kwezindinganiso zobuchwepheshe eziphakeme kakhulu nokuqina okuvelele nokusebenza kwe-24/7/365 kokusebenza kahle kakhulu, ama-ultrasonicators ama-Hielscher kulula futhi anokwethenjelwa ukusebenza. Ukusebenza kahle okuphezulu, isoftware ehlakaniphile, imenyu enembile, ukulawulwa kwedatha okuzenzakalelayo nesilawuli kude sesiphequluli yizici ezimbalwa nje ezihlukanisa iHielscher Ultrasonics kwabanye abakhiqizi bemishini ye-sonochemical.

Amplitudes Angaguquguquki

I-amplitude ukufuduka ngaphambili (ithiphu) ye-sonotrode (eyaziwa nangokuthi i-ultrasonic probe noma uphondo) futhi kuyisici esiyinhloko esithonya i-ultrasonic cavitation. Ama-amplitudes aphakeme asho ukuqina okukhulu. Ubukhulu obudingekayo be-cavitation buxhomeke kakhulu ohlotsheni lokuphendula, ama-reagents amakhemikhali asetshenzisiwe kanye nemiphumela eqondisiwe yempendulo ethile ye-sonochemical. Lokhu kusho ukuthi ubukhulu kufanele buguqulwe ngokunembile ukuze kutshale amandla we-acoustic cavitation ezingeni elifanele. Onke ama-ultrasonicators ama-Hielscher angashintshwa ngokuthembekile nangokuqondile nge-digital digital control ku-amplitude ekahle. Izimpondo ze-booster zingasetshenziswa ngokwengeziwe ukunciphisa noma ukukhulisa i-amplitude ngemishini. I-Ultrasonics’ amaprosesa asezimboni e-ultrasonic angaletha ama-amplitudes aphakeme kakhulu. Amplitudes afika ku-200µm angaqhutshwa ngokuqhubekayo ngokuqhubekayo ekusebenzeni okungama-24/7. Ngama-amplitudes aphakeme kakhulu, ama-sonotrode e-ultrasonic enziwe ngokwezifiso ayatholakala.

Ukulawulwa Kokushisa Okuqondile Ngesikhathi Sokusabela Kwe-Sonochemical

Sonochemical setup consisting in the ultrasonicator UP400St with temperature sensor for sonochemical reactionsEndaweni eshisayo ye-cavitation, amazinga okushisa aphakeme kakhulu ezinkulungwane eziningi ze-degrees Celsius angabonakala. Kodwa-ke, lawa mazinga okushisa aqine akhawulelwe endaweni yangaphakathi kumzuzu nangaphakathi kwebhamu lokufaka le-cavitation. Esixazululweni esiningi, ukukhuphuka kwamazinga okushisa kusuka ku-implosion amabhamuza owodwa noma ambalwa we-cavitation ayibalulekile. Kepha ukuqhubeka kwe-sonication isikhathi eside kungadala ukwanda kokushisa kuketshezi oluningi. Lokhu kwanda kokushisa kunomthelela ekuphenduleni kwamakhemikhali amaningi futhi kuvame ukubhekwa njengokuzuzisa. Kodwa-ke, ukusabela okwehlukile kwamakhemikhali kunamazinga okushisa ahlukahlukene okusabela kahle Lapho izinto ezizwela ukushisa ziphathwa, ukulawula ukushisa kungadingeka. Ukuze kuvunyelwe izimo ezishisayo ezifanele phakathi nezinqubo ze-sonochemical, i-Hielscher Ultrasonics inikeza izixazululo ezahlukahlukene eziyinkimbinkimbi zokulawula ukushisa okuqondile ngesikhathi senqubo ye-sonochemical, njengama-sonochemical reactors namaseli okugeleza anamajackethi okupholisa.
Amaseli ethu okugeleza kwe-sonochemical nama-reactor ayatholakala ngamajackethi okupholisa, asekela ukushabalalisa ukushisa okusebenzayo. Ngokuqapha okuqhubekayo kokushisa, ama-Hielscher ultrasonicators afakwe inzwa yokushisa engaxhuma, engafakwa kuketshezi ukuze kukalwe njalo izinga lokushisa ngobuningi. Isoftware eyinkimbinkimbi ivumela ukusethwa kwebanga lokushisa. Lapho umkhawulo wokushisa weqiwe, i-ultrasonicator iyama isikhashana kuze kube yilapho izinga lokushisa kuketshezi lehle lafika endaweni ethile ebekiwe bese liqala ukuzitholela futhi. Zonke izilinganiso zokushisa kanye neminye imininingwane yenqubo ye-ultrasonic ebalulekile iqoshwa ngokuzenzakalela ekhadini le-SD elakhelwe ngaphakathi futhi lingabuyekezwa kalula ngenqubo yokulawula.
Ithempelesha ipharamitha ebalulekile yezinqubo ze-sonochemical. Ubuchwepheshe obuchazekile bukaHielscher bukusiza ukuthi ugcine ukushisa kohlelo lwakho lokusebenza lwe-sonochemical ebangeni elifanele lokushisa.

Kungani i-Hielscher Ultrasonics?

  • ukusebenza kahle
  • Ubuchwepheshe besimanje
  • Kulula Futhi Kuphephile Ukusebenza
  • ukuthembeka & ukuqina
  • ibhethri & emugqeni
  • nganoma iyiphi ivolumu
  • isoftware ehlakaniphile
  • izici ezihlakaniphile (isb., ukuvumelanisa idatha)
  • I-CIP (ihlanzekile-endaweni)

Ithebula elingezansi linikeza isibonakaliso somthamo wokucubungula we-ultrasonicators wethu:

Iqoqwana Ivolumu flow Rate Amadivayisi ezinconyiwe
1 kuya ku-500mL 10 kuya ku-200mL / min UP100H
10 kuya ku-2000mL 20 kuya ku-400mL / min UP200Ht, UP400St
0.1 kuya ku-20L 0.2 kuya ku-4L / min I-UIP2000hdT
10 kuya ku-100L 2 kuya ku-10L / iminithi I-UIP4000hdT
na 10 kuya ku-100L / iminithi UIP16000
na sikhulu yinhlanganisela UIP16000

Xhumana nathi! / Cela Us!

Cela ulwazi oluthe xaxa

Uyacelwa ukuthi usebenzise ifomu elingezansi ukucela ulwazi olungeziwe mayelana nezinhlelo zokusebenza ze-ultrasonic, izinhlelo zokusebenza nentengo. Sizokujabulela ukuxoxa ngenqubo yakho nawe futhi sikunikeze uhlelo lwe-ultrasonic oluhlangabezana nezidingo zakho!









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Ultrasonic high-shear homogenizers are used in lab, bench-top, pilot and industrial processing.

I-Hielscher Ultrasonics ikhiqiza ama-homogenizers asebenza ngokusebenza okuphezulu wokuxuba izinhlelo, ukusabalalisa, ukumisa nokukhipha ilebhu, umshayeli kanye nesikali sezimboni.



Izincwadi / Izikhombo

  • Suslick, Kenneth S.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Fang, Mingming; Cichowlas, Andrzej A. (1995): Sonochemical synthesis of nanostructured catalysts. Materials Science and Engineering: A. Proceedings of the Symposium on Engineering of Nanostructured Materials. ScienceDirect 204 (1–2): 186–192.
  • Ekaterina V. Rokhina, Eveliina Repo, Jurate Virkutyte (2010): Comparative kinetic analysis of silent and ultrasound-assisted catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of phenol. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, Volume 17, Issue 3, 2010. 541-546.
  • Brundavanam, R. K.; Jinag, Z.-T., Chapman, P.; Le, X.-T.; Mondinos, N.; Fawcett, D.; Poinern, G. E. J. (2011): Effect of dilute gelatine on the ultrasonic thermally assisted synthesis of nano hydroxyapatite. Ultrason. Sonochem. 18, 2011. 697-703.
  • Poinern, G.E.J.; Brundavanam, R.K.; Thi Le, X.; Fawcett, D. (2012): The Mechanical Properties of a Porous Ceramic Derived from a 30 nm Sized Particle Based Powder of Hydroxyapatite for Potential Hard Tissue Engineering Applications. American Journal of Biomedical Engineering 2/6; 2012. 278-286.
  • Poinern, G.J.E.; Brundavanam, R.; Thi Le, X.; Djordjevic, S.; Prokic, M.; Fawcett, D. (2011): Thermal and ultrasonic influence in the formation of nanometer scale hydroxyapatite bio-ceramic. International Journal of Nanomedicine 6; 2011. 2083–2095.
  • Poinern, G.J.E.; Brundavanam, R.K.; Mondinos, N.; Jiang, Z.-T. (2009): Synthesis and characterisation of nanohydroxyapatite using an ultrasound assisted method. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 16 /4; 2009. 469- 474.
  • Suslick, K. S. (1998): Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology; 4th Ed. J. Wiley & Sons: New York, Vol. 26, 1998. 517-541.


High performance ultrasonics! Hielscher's product range covers the full spectrum from the compact lab ultrasonicator over bench-top units to full-industrial ultrasonic systems.

I-Hielscher Ultrasonics ikhiqiza ama-homogenizers asebenza ngokusezingeni eliphezulu avela ku- I-Lab kuya usayizi wezimboni.