I-Hielscher Ultrasound Technology

Ukunciphisa i-Sonochemical ye-Palladium Nanoparticles

I-Palladium (i-Pd) iyaziwa kakhulu ngemisebenzi yayo yokucwaninga kodwa iphinde isetshenziswe ekucwaningweni kwezinto zokwakha kanye nokukhiqizwa kwe-electronics, imithi, ukuhlanzwa kwe-hydrogen nezinye izicelo zamakhemikhali. Ngendlela ye-sonochemical, i-mono-ehlakazekile kanye nezinhlayiya ze-palladium nano ezihlanganisiwe zingenziwa.

Ultrasonic Ukukhiqizwa Palladium Nanoparticles

U-Nemamcha noRehspringer baphenye ukukhiqizwa kwe-sonochemical yama-nanoparticles ahlakazekile nama-palladium. Ngakho-ke, i-Pd (CHA3)2 isixazululo siye sazalwa nge-ultrasonic lab homogenizer UP100H phambi kwe-ethylene glycol (EG) ne-polyvinylpyrrolidone (i-PVP).

Inqubo

Amasampuli alungiselelwe njengalandelayo:
Ngokuba amasampuli, izingxube ze-30mL ye-EG no-5 · 10-6i-mol ye-PVP yayithandwa yi-magnetic stirring engu-15. Ngamasampuli ahlukene, inani elihlukile le-Pd (CHA3)2 isixazululo, 1.5mL no-2mL, kwanezelwa. Izingxube zesampula zalungiswa nge-2 · 10-3mol Pd (CHA3)2 esampula (a) no 2.66 · 10-3mol Pd (CHA3)2 esampula (b). Zombili izingxube zanikezwa ngesivinini se-20mL besebenzisa i-probe-type ultrasonicator. Amasampuli athathwe ngemuva kwezikhathi zokunakekelwa kuka-30, 60, 90, 120, 150, no-180 min.

Ukuhlaziywa kwemiphumela yokuhlola kubonisa ukuthi:

    Ukunciphisa i-sonochemical ye-Pd (II) ibe yi-Pd (0) kuncike esikhathini sokunikezela.
    2. Ukuphakama kwe-PVP / Pd (II) ye-molar ephakeme kuholela ekubunjweni kwezinhlayiya ze-palladium ezinamakhompiyutha anomumo ohlangene kanye nobubanzi obungama-5nm.
    3. Nokho, isilinganiso esiphansi se-PVP / Pd (II) se-molar sihilela ukuthola ama-palladidium nanoparticles enesisindo esikhulu esasikelwe ngo-20nm.


Umzila we-sonochemical wokunciphisa ama-ion angu-palladium (II) I-Pd (II) kuma-athomu e-palladium I-Pd (0) kungacatshangwa ukuthi yilokhu okulandelayo:

  • (1) I-pyrolysis yamanzi: H2O → • OH + • H
  • (2) Ukwakhiwa okukhulu: RH (I-agent yokunciphisa) + • OH (• H) → • R + H2O (H2)
  • (3) Ukunciphisa i-Ion: Pd (II) + ukunciphisa ama-radicals (• H, • R) → Pd (0) + R • CHO + H +
  • (4) Ukubunjwa kwamathambo: nI-Pd (0) → i-Pdn

–> Umphumela: Ngokuya ngezinga le-PVP / Pd (II), elihlakazekile noma elihlanganisiwe le-Pdn zatholakala.

I-Mono-ehlakazekile nehlanganisiwe ye-nanoparticles ye-Pd etholakele ngokunciphisa kwe-ultrasonic ye-Pd (II)

Ukunciphisa i-Sonochemical ye-Palladium: isampula (kwesokunxele) iqukethe inani eliphakeme le-PVP, isampuli b (kwesokudla) inani elincane le-PVP. Isikhathi se-Sonication UP100H: 180 iminithi. Isampula imibukiso ye-mono ehlakazekile i-Pd nano izinhlayiya, isampuli b ezihlanganisiwe ze-Pd nano izinhlayiya. [Nemamcha; Rehspringer 2008]

Ukuhlaziywa kanye nemiphumela

Ukubamba okubonakalayo kwe-UV kuhlaziya kuqinisekisa ubuhlobo phakathi kokunciphisa kwe-sonochemical ye-palladium (II) ion kuya kuma-athomu angu-palladium (0) kanye nesikhathi sokugcina ensimini ye-ultrasonic. Ukunciphisa i-palladium (i-II) ion kuya kuma-athomu e-palladium (0) kuyaqhubeka futhi kungafinyelelwa ngokuphelele ngenkathi yokukhulisa ingane. I-micrographs ye-electron microscopy yokudlulisa (TEM) ibonisa ukuthi:

  1. 1. Uma inani eliphakeme le-PVP lengeziwe, ukunciphisa i-sonochemical ye-palladium ions kuholela ekubunjweni kwezinhlayiya ze-palladium ezi-monodispersed nge-shape eyindilinga kanye nobubanzi besilinganiso se-approx. 5nm.
  2. Ukusetshenziswa kwesincane sePVP kuhilela ukuthola ama-palladium nanoparticles. Ukulinganisa okukhanya okunamandla (DLS) kwembula ukuthi ama-aggregates ama-palladium nanoparticles anesilinganiso esikhulu sokusakaza usayizi we-20nm.
Izinhlayiya ze-nano-size zilungiselelwe nguNemamcha et al. (2008) nge-sonochemical ukunciphisa kwe-Pd (II) kuya ku-Pd (0)

idivayisi ultrasonic UP100H iye yasetshenziselwa ukulungiswa kwezinhlayiya ze-palladium nano.

Sonochemistry: Ultrasonic ukunciphisa palladium

I-Palladium (Pd) i-nano izinhlayiyana ingalungiswa yi-sonication

Izincwadi / Izinkomba

I-Nemamcha, A .; I-Rehspringer, i-JL (2008): I-Morphology yama-nanoparticles ahlakazekile nehlanganisiwe e-PVV-Pd alungiselelwe i-ultrasonic irradiation ye-Pd (CHA3)2 isisombululo e-ethylene glycol. IsAm. Adv. Kubalulekile. Sci. 18; 685-688.

Xhumana Nathi / Cela Ukwaziswa Olwengeziwe

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Amaqiniso Okufanele Ukwazi

I-ultrasonic izicubu ze-homogenizers ngokuvamile ibizwa ngokuthi i-sonicator yesondlo, i-lyser ye-sonic, i-ultrasound ephazamisayo, i-grinder ye-ultrasonic, i-sono-ruptor, i-sonifier, i-sonic dismembrator, i-cell disrupter, i-ultrasonic disperser noma i-dissolver. Amagama ahlukene avela ezinhlobonhlobo zokusebenza ezingagcwaliseka nge-sonication.