I-Hielscher Ultrasound Technology

Imiphumela ye-Sonochemical kwizinqubo ze-Sol-Gel

Isingeniso

Izinhlayiya ze-ultrafine nezinhlayiya ezibunjiwe, amafayili amancane amafilimu, amafayili, izinto ezivuthayo nezimbizi, kanye nama-aerogels anamahloni kakhulu kanye nama-xerogels yizithasiselo ezikhona kakhulu zokuthuthukiswa nokukhiqizwa kokusebenza okuphezulu. Izinto ezithuthukisiwe, kufaka phakathi isib. I-ceramics, ama-aerogels amakhulu kakhulu, ama-ultralight kanye nama-organic-inorganic hybrids angenziwa ngokwakhiwa kokumiswa kwama-colloidal noma ama-polymers ku-liquid ngokusebenzisa indlela ye-sol-gel. Lezi zinto zibonisa izici eziyingqayizivele, ngoba ama-particle sol ayenziwe avela usayizi we-nanometer. Ngakho-ke, inqubo ye-sol-gel iyingxenye ye-nanochemistry.
Kulezi zilandelayo, ukuhlanganiswa kwezinto ezisetshenziswa nge-nano-size ngokusebenzisa imizila ye-sol-gel esekelwa ultrasonically kubuyekezwa.

Inqubo ye-Sol-Gel

I-Sol-gel nokucubungula okuhlobene kuhlanganisa izinyathelo ezilandelayo:

  1. ekwenzeni i-sol noma i-powder yokugcoba, ukugcoba u-sol enesikhunjini noma kwi-substrate (uma kunamabhayisikobho), noma ukwenza i-sol yesibili emgqonyeni okhuni kanye ne-gelation, noma ukufaka i-powder ibe ngumzimba ngemigwaqo engelona i-gel;
  2. ukuma;
  3. ukudubula nokususa. [Rabinovich 1994]
Izinqubo ze-Sol-gel zindlela ezimanzi zamakhemikhali zokwenza i-gel yensimbi yensimbi noma i-polymers hybrid

Ithebula 1: Izinyathelo ze-Sol-Gel synthesis nezinqubo ezansi

Amandla we-ultrasound akhuthaza ukusabela kwe-sonochemical (Chofoza ukuze ukhulise!)

I-Ultrasonic ingilazi yeglasi Sonochemistry

Isicelo solwazi




Qaphela kwethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


Izinqubo ze-Sol-gel yindlela yokusebenza yamakhemikhali ehlanganiswayo yokwakha inethiwekhi edidiyelwe (okuthiwa i-gel) ye-oxide yensimbi noma i-polymers ye-hybrid. Njengama-precursors, ngokuvamile ama-salts ensimbi angenangqamuzana njengama-chloride ensimbi nezakhi zensimbi eziphilayo ezinjenge-metal alkoxide ezisetshenziswayo. Umhlabathi – ehlanganisa ukumiswa kwamaproseshi – iguqula ohlelweni lwe-gel-like diphasic, oluqukethe kokubili uketshezi nesigaba esiqinile. Ukusabela kwamakhemikhali okwenzeka ngesikhathi senqubo ye-sol-gel yi-hydrolysis, i-poly-condensation, ne-gelation.
Ngesikhathi i-hydrolysis ne-poly-condensation, i-colloid (sol), equkethe ama-nanoparticles ehlakazeka endaweni ethile, isakhiwe. Isigaba se-sol ekhona siguqukela kwijel.
I-gel-phase eyenziwe yenziwa yizinhlayiya ukuthi ubukhulu kanye nokwakheka kungashintsha kakhulu kunama-particle e-colloidal aphikisiwe kuya kuma polymeri ahamba phambili. Ifomu nesayizi kuxhomeke ezimweni zamakhemikhali. Kusukela ekubonweni ku-SiO2 ama-alcogels angaphethelwa ngokuthi isilamu esisetshenziswa ngokuyisisekelo senza izinhlobo eziyinkimbinkimbi ezakhiwe yi-aggregation ye-monomer-clusters, ehlanganiswa kakhulu futhi ehlanganiswa kakhulu. Ziyakuthinteka yi-sedimentation namandla okuvunguza.
Ama-acid-catalyzed solols aphuma emaketangeni aphethwe yi-polymeri ekhonjiswe kakhulu ekhombisa microstructure emihle kakhulu kanye nama-pores amancane kakhulu afana nomfaniswano omkhulu kulo lonke ulwazi. Ukwakhiwa kwenethiwekhi evulekile eqhubekayo yamapholisa amancane aveza amanani athile ngokuqondene nezakhiwo zomzimba ekwakheni ikhwalithi ephezulu yokusebenza kanye nengilazi / ingilazi / i-ceramic ezilinganisweni ezimbili no-3. [Sakka et al. 1982]
Ekuqhutshweni okuqhubekayo, nge-spin-coating noma nge-dip-coating kungenzeka ukuba ugqoke ama-substrates ngamafilimu amancane noma ngokufaka umhlabathi ube isikhunta, ukwakha i-gel ebizwa ngokuthi i-wet gel. Ngemuva kokomiswa okwengeziwe nokushisa, kuzotholakala ukwaziswa okunamandla.
Ngezinyathelo eziqhubekayo zenqubo engezansi, i-gel etholakalayo ingabuyekezwa. Nge-precipitation, spray pyrolysis, noma amasu e-emulsion, i-ultrafine ne-powders efanayo. Noma okuthiwa ama-aerogels, abonakala nge-porosity ephakeme kanye nesibalo esincane kakhulu, angadalwa ngokukhipha isigaba se-liquid gel. Ngakho-ke, izimo ezivame ukuchithwa kuyadingeka.
Ultrasonication iyindlela yokufakazela ukuthuthukisa i-sol-gel synthesis ye-nano-materials. (Chofoza ukuze ukhulise!)

Ithebula 2: I-ultrasonic sol-gel ukuhlanganiswa kwe-TiO2 emangqamuzana [Yu et al., Chem. Umphakathi. 2003, 2078]

I-High Power Ultrasound

I-high-power, i-low-frequency ultrasound inikeza amandla amakhulu okusebenza kwamakhemikhali. Lapho amagagasi amakhulu e-ultrasonic efakwa phakathi kwe-liquid medium, okushintshanisa ukucindezela okuphezulu nokucindezela okuphansi kwezinga ngamanani kuye ngokuthi imvamisa yenzeke. Imijikelezo ephezulu yokucindezela isho ukuthinteka, kanti imijikelezo ephindaphindiwe ephindaphindiwe isho ukungahlali okuncane kokuphakathi. Phakathi nomjikelezo ophansi we-pressure (okungajwayelekile), amandla amakhulu e-ultrasound enza ama-bubbles amancane ahlanzekile ku-liquid. Lezi zibhulabhisi eziphumula zikhula ngaphezu kwemijikelezo eminingana.
Ngokuvumelana nokuqina kwe-ultrasound, ukucindezela ketshezi nokwelula kuya degrees ehlukahlukene. Lokhu kusho ukuthi cavitation Amabhubhu angaziphatha ngezindlela ezimbili. Ngezinhloso eziphansi ze-ultrasonic zika ~ 1-3Wcm-2, i-bubble cavitation i-oscillate ngobukhulu obuningi bokulingana kwemigqa eminingi ye-acoustic. Lo mkhuba kuthiwa u-cavitation ozinzile. Ngezinhloso eziphezulu ze-ultrasonic (≤ 10Wcm-2) i-bubbles cavitational yenziwa ngaphakathi kwemijikelezo embalwa ye-acoustic eya endaweni engenani kabili ubukhulu bayo bokuqala futhi iwa phansi endaweni yokucindezela lapho ibhola lingenakukwazi ukuthola amandla amaningi. Lokhu kubizwa ngokuthi i-cavitation yesikhashana noma engenamandla. Ngesikhathi se-bubble implosion, izindawo ezibizwa ngokuthi izindawo ezishisayo zendawo, ezithi zimoya ezimbi kakhulu: Ngesikhathi implosion, amazinga okushisa aphezulu kakhulu (cishe 5,000K) kanye nezingcindezi (cishe 2,000atm) zifinyelelwa. I-implosion ye-bubble cavitation nayo ibangele ama-jets ahlanzekile angama-280m / s velocity, asebenza njengamandla amakhulu kakhulu ekhanda. [Suslick 1998 / Santos et al. 2009]

I-Sono-Ormosil

I-Sonication iyithuluzi eliphumelelayo le-synthesis of polymers. Phakathi ne-ultrasonic ukuhlakazeka ne-deagglomeration, amabutho we-caviational shear, alula futhi aphule iminyango yamangqamuzana ngenqubo engahleliwe, okuholela ekunciphiseni isisindo samangqamuzana ne-poly-dispersity. Ngaphezu kwalokho, izinhlelo eziningi zezigaba zisebenza kahle kakhulu zahlakazeka futhi emulsified, ngakho-ke amaxube afanele kakhulu anikezwa. Lokhu kusho ukuthi i-ultrasound ikwandisa isilinganiso se-polymerization ngaphezu kokugqugquzela okujwayelekile futhi kubangele izilinganiso eziphakeme zamangqamuzana nama polydispersities aphansi.
I-Ormosils (i-silicific silicate silicate) itholakala lapho i-silane ingezwa nge-silica etholakala i-gel ngesikhathi senqubo ye-sol-gel. Umkhiqizo uyinhlanganisela ye-molecular-scale esakhiwe ngezakhiwo ezenziwe ngcono. I-Sono-Ormosils ibonakala ngokuphakama okukhulu kunama-gel classic kanye nokuzinza okunezimo ezithuthukisiwe. Ngakho-ke incazelo ingase ibe yizinga elikhuphuka lokupholisa umzimba. [Rosa-Fox et al. 2002]

Amandla amakhulu e-ultrasonic yindlela eyaziwa futhi enokwethenjelwa yesikhumba (Chofoza ukuze ukhulise!)

I-Ultrasonic cavitation in liquid

I-TiO engahlukumezi2 nge-Ultrasonic Sol-Gel Synthesis

I-TiO engahlukumezi2 i-widley isetshenziswe njenge-photocatalyst kanye ne-electronics, ubuchwepheshe bezinzwa nokulungiswa kwemvelo. Ukuze uthole izindawo eziphathekayo ezihlelekile, kuhloswe ukukhiqiza i-TiO2 nge-crystallinity ephezulu kanye nomhlaba omkhulu. Umzila we-sol-gel osizwa nge-ultrasonic unenzuzo yokuthi izakhiwo zangaphakathi neziqhamuka ze-TiO2, njenge-usayizi wezinhlayiya, indawo ephezulu, i-pore-volume, i-pore-diameter, i-crystallinity kanye ne-anatase, i-rutile ne-brookite isigaba se-ratios singathonywa ngokulawula imingcele.
Milani et al. (2011) zibonise ukuhlanganiswa kwe-TiO2 anatase nanoparticles. Ngakho-ke, inqubo ye-sol-gel yayisetshenziswa kwi-TiCl4 Izandulela kanye nezindlela zombili, nge-without ultrasonication, ziye zaqhathaniswa. Imiphumela ibonisa ukuthi i-ultrasonic irradiation inomthelela omuhle kuzo zonke izingxenye zesisombululo esenziwe yi-sol-gel indlela futhi kubangele ukuhlukana kwezixhumanisi ezixekethile ze-colloids ezinkulu ze-nanometric esixazululweni. Ngakho, ama-nanoparticles amancane adalwa. Ukucindezeleka okuphezulu endaweni kanye namazinga okushisa aphule izibopho ezimaketangeni amade amancane kanye nezixhumanisi ezibuthakathaka ezibopha izinhlayiya ezincane, lapho kuhlanganiswa khona ama-colloidal amakhulu. Ukuqhathaniswa kokubili kwe-TiO2 amasampuli, phambi nokungabikho kwe-ultrasonic irradiation, iboniswa ngezithombe ze-SEM ngezansi (bheka iPh. 2).

I-Ultrasound isekela inqubo ye-gelatinization ngesikhathi se-sol-gel synthesis. (Chofoza ukuze ukhulise!)

Khetha. 2: Izithombe ze-SEM ze-TiO2 pwder, zikhonjiswe nge-deg deg 400 nge-1h kanye ne-gelatinization isikhathi se-24h: (a) ebusweni futhi (b) ngokungabikho kwe-ultrasound. [Milani et al. 2011]

Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukusabela kwamakhemikhali kungazuzisa emiphumeleni ye-sonochemical, okufaka phakathi isib. Ukuhlukana kwezibopho zamakhemikhali, ukuthuthukiswa okuphawulekayo kwe-chemical reaction or degradation.

I-Sono-Gels

Ngaphakathi sono-catalytically ukusizwa kwe-sol-gel ukusabela, i-ultrasound isetshenziselwa kubangaphambili. Izinto zokwenza izinto ezinezici ezintsha ziyaziwa njenge-sonogels. Ngenxa yokungabi khona kwe-solvent eyengeziwe ngokuhambisana ne-ultrasonic cavitation, indawo eyingqayizivele yokuphendula kwe-sol-gel iyadalwa, evumela ukwakheka kwezici ezithile emajelini aphumela: ukuphakama okuphezulu, ukuthungwa okuhle, isakhiwo esihambisanayo njll. Lezi zakhiwo zikhomba ukuguquka kwe-sonogels ekuqhutshweni okuqhubekayo nesakhiwo sokugcina . [Blanco et al. 1999]
USuslick no-Price (1999) abonisa ukuthi irradiation ultrasonic of Si (OC2H5)4 emanzini nge-acid catalyst iveza i-silica "sonogel". Ukulungiselela ngokujwayelekile ama-silica gels aseSi (OC2H5)4, i-ethanol iyinhlanganisela ejwayelekile esetshenziswa ngenxa yezinto ezingezona ukuxazululwa kwe-Si (OC2H5)4 emanzini. Ukusetshenziswa kwalezo zinhlayiya kuvame ukukhathazeka ngoba kungabangela ukuphazamiseka ngesikhathi sokusula. I-Ultrasonication inikeza ukuxuba okusebenza kahle kakhulu ukuze ama-co-solvents ashabeneyo afana ne-ethanol angagwenywa. Lokhu kubangela i-silica sono-gel ekhonjwe ubukhulu obuphakeme kunama-gels akhiqizwa ngokujwayelekile. [Suslick et al. 1999, 319f.]
Ama-aerogels avamile ahlanganisa umthamo we-low-thickness ne-pores enkulu engenalutho. I-sonogels, ngokuphambene nalokho, ibe ne-porosity ehle futhi ama-pores ayifana nendawo, ene-surface ebushelelezi. Izitshalo ezingaphezu kuka-4 esifundeni se-angle eliphezulu ziveza ukushintshashintsha kwamandla kagesi emiphakathini ye-pore-matrix [Rosa-Fox et al. 1990].
Izithombe ezingaphezulu kwamasampuli e-powder zibonisa ngokucacile ukuthi ukusebenzisa amagagasi e-ultrasonic kwaholela ekuhloliseni okukhulu ubukhulu bezinhlayiya futhi kwaphumela ezinhlayiyeni ezincane. Ngenxa ye-sonication, usayizi wezinhlayiya ezivamile uyancipha ngo-approx. 3 nm. [Milani et al. 2011]
Imiphumela emihle ye-ultrasound ikhonjiswe ezifundweni ezihlukahlukene zocwaningo. Isibonelo, umbiko weNeppolian et al. emisebenzini yabo ukubaluleka kanye nezinzuzo ze-ultrasonication ekuguqulweni nasekuthuthukiseni izakhiwo ze-photocatalytic zamanqamuzana we-nano-usayizi we-TiO2 we-mesoporous. [Neppolian et al. 2008]

Nanocoating nge ultrasonic sol-gel ukusabela

Izindlela zokugcoba ukuhlanganisa izinto ezihlanganisa izinto ezigciniwe nge-nano-scaled layer noma ukuhlanganiswa kwenkampani yenani eliphezulu. Ngalokhu kutholakala izakhi ezifakwe ngaphakathi noma ze-shell-shell. Izinhlanganisela ezinjalo ze-nano zinezici eziphezulu zokusebenza ngokomzimba nangokhemikhali ngenxa yezici ezithile ezihlanganisiwe kanye / noma ukuhlela imiphumela yezingxenye.
Ngokumangalisayo, inqubo yokugqoka ye-indium tin oxide (i-ITO) izinhlayiya izoboniswa. Izinhlayiyana ze-ITO ziboshwe nge-silika ngezinyathelo ezimbili, njengoba kuboniswe ekucwaningweni kuka Chen (2009). Esikhathini sesinyathelo sokuqala samakhemikhali, i-indium tin oxide powder ilawulwa ukwelashwa kwe-aminosilane suface. Isinyathelo sesibili yisembatho se-silika ngaphansi kwe-ultrasonication. Ukuze unikeze isibonelo esithile sokunikezwa kwezingane kanye nemiphumela yaso, isinyathelo senqubo esethuliwe esifundweni sikaCen, sishintshwe ngezansi:
Inqubo evamile yalesi sinyathelo yile ndlela elandelayo: I-10g GPTS ixutshwe kancane kancane ngamanzi angu-20g acidified by hydrochloric acid (HCl) (pH = 1.5). U-4g we-aminosilane ophethwe ngopheji ophethwe ngawo wabe wenezelwa engxenyeni, equkethe ibhodlela le-glass elingu-100ml. Ibhodlela labe selibekwe ngaphansi kwesiphakamiso se-sonicator for irradiation eqhubekayo ultrasound nge amandla okukhipha 60W noma ngenhla.
Ukusabela kwe-Sol-gel kwaqaliswa ngemuva kwe-2-3min ultrasound irradiation, lapho i-foam emhlophe eyakhiwe khona, ngenxa yokukhululwa kotshwala ku-hydrolysis enkulu ye-GLYMO (3- (2,3-Epoxypropoxy) propyltrimethoxysilane). I-Sonication isetshenziselwe i-20min, ngemva kwalokho ikhambi lavuselelwa amahora amaningi. Uma inqubo isiphelile, izinhlayiya zahlanganiswa ngamagesi futhi zahlanzwa ngokuphindaphindiwe ngamanzi, noma zomiswa ukuze zihlukaniswe noma zihlale zihlakazekile emanzini noma izixazululo eziphilayo. [Chen 2009, p.217]

Isiphetho

Ukusetshenziswa kwe-ultrasound kuya kwezinqubo ze-sol-gel kuholela ekuxubeni okungcono nakwezinhlayiya zezinhlayiya. Lokhu kubangela ubukhulu bezinhlayiyana ezincane zezinhlayiya, i-spherical, i-dim-dimensional shape shape kanye ne-morphology ethuthukisiwe. Okubizwa okuthiwa ama-sono-gels kubonakala ngobuningi bawo futhi buhle, isakhiwo esisodwa. Lezi zici zidalwe ngenxa yokugwema ukusetshenziswa kwe-solvent ngenkathi kuhlanganiswa umhlabathi, kodwa futhi, ikakhulukazi, ngenxa yesimo sokuqala sokuxhunyaniswa esibangelwa yi-ultrasound. Emva kwenqubo yokumisa, i-sonogels ephumela kuba nesakhiwo sezinhlayiyana, ngokungafani nabalingani babo abatholiwe ngaphandle kokusebenzisa i-ultrasound, okuyi-filamentous. [Esquivias et al. 2004]
Kuye kwaboniswa ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwe-ultrasound enamandla kuvumela ukusetshenziselwa izinto eziyingqayizivele ezinqubo ze-sol-gel. Lokhu kwenza i-high-power ultrasound ithuluzi elinamandla lokucwaninga kwamakhemikhali kanye nezinto zokwakha.

Xhumana Nathi / Cela Ukwaziswa Olwengeziwe

Khuluma nathi mayelana nezidingo zakho zokucubungula. Sizosikisela ukusetha nokulungiswa kwemingcele efanele yephrojekthi yakho.





Sicela uqaphele wethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


UIP1000hd Bench-Top Ultrasonic Homogenizer

I-1kW i-ultrasonic recirculation isethaphu ngepompo futhi ibambe itanki ivumela ukucubungula okunamandla

Izincwadi / Izinkomba

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  • https://www.hielscher.com/sonochem