I-Hielscher Ultrasound Technology

I-Sono-Synthesis ye-Nano-Hydroxyapatite

I-Hydroxyapatite (HA noma i-HAp) i-ceramic ebizwa ngokuthi i-bioactive ceramic ejwayelekile ngenxa yezokwelapha ngenxa yesakhiwo sayo esifanayo nokwenza amathambo. I-syntsonically synthesis synthesis (sono-synthesis) ye-hydroxyapatite iyindlela ephumelelayo yokukhiqiza i-HA nanostructured kumazinga aphezulu kakhulu. Umzila we-ultrasonic uvumela ukukhiqiza i-nano-crystalline HAp kanye nezinhlayiya eziguquliwe, isib. I-core-shell nanospheres, nezinhlanganisela.

I-Hydroxyapatite: Amaminerali Ahlukahlukene

I-Hydroxylapatite noma i-hydroxyapatite (i-HAp, nayo i-HA) iyindlela ejwayelekile yemaminerali ye-calcium apatite ne-formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH). Ukukhomba ukuthi i-crystal unit cell ihlanganisa izinhlangano ezimbili, ngokuvamile kubhalwe uCa10(PO4)6(OH)2. I-Hydroxylapatite yi-endyside ye-hydroxyl yeqembu lama-apatite eliyinkimbinkimbi. I-OH- ion ingashintshwa yi-fluoride, i-chloride noma i-carbonate, ikhiqiza i-fluorapatite noma i-chlorapatite. I-crystallizes in the crystal system ye-hexagonal. I-HAp yaziwa njengama-bone material kuze kube ngu-50% wt% yethambo yindlela eguquliwe ye-hydroxyapatite.
Ezokwelapha, i-nanostructured HAp ekhukhumezayo iyisici esithakazelisayo se-bone artifical application. Ngenxa yokuzihlanganisa kwayo okuhle ekuthinteni kwethambo kanye nokwakheka kwamakhemikhali afanayo kuya amathambo, i-HAp ceramic enesibindi isetshenziswe kakhulu kuzinhlelo zokusebenza eziphilayo ezihlanganisa ukuvuselelwa kwezicubu zamathambo, ukukhula kwesisindo, nokulethwa kwezidakamizwa.
"E-tissue engineering engineering iye yasetshenziswa njengezinto zokugcwalisa iziphutha zamathambo nokunyuka kwamafutha, izinto zokufakelwa kwamathambo ezifakelwayo, kanye nokuhlinzwa okubuyiselwayo. Ingxenye yayo ephezulu iholela osteoconductivity emnandi kakhulu kanye nokuhlaziywa okuhlinzekwa ukuhlinzeka ngokushesha kwe-bone ingrowth. "[Soypan et al. 2007] Ngakho, izimpande eziningi zanamuhla ziboshwe nge-hydroxylapatite.
Okunye ukusetshenziswa okuthembisayo kwe-microcrystalline hydroxylapatite ukusetshenziswa kwayo njengoba “ukwakha amathambo” yengezela ngokuthandwa okungcono kakhulu uma kuqhathaniswa ne-calcium.
Ngaphandle kokusetshenziswa kwayo njengento yokulungisa amathambo namazinyo, ezinye izinhlelo ze-HAp zingatholakala ku-catalysis, ukukhiqizwa komanyolo, njengokwakhiwa kwemikhiqizo yezokwelapha, kwezicelo zamaphrotheni chromatography, nezinqubo zokwelapha kwamanzi.

Amandla we-Ultrasound: Imiphumela nemiphumela

I-Sonication ichazwa njengenqubo lapho kusetshenziswa insimu ye-acoustic, ehlanganiswe ne-liquid ephakathi nendawo. Amagagasi e-ultrasound asakazeka kulolu ketshezi futhi akhiqize imijikelezo ephezulu yokucindezela / imingcele ephansi (ukuvumelanisa nokungafani). Ngesikhathi sesigaba se-rarefaction kuphuma ama-bubu amancane okugcwala noma i-voids ku-ketshezi, ekhula ngaphezu kwemijikelezo ephezulu yokucindezela / imishini ephansi kuze kube yilapho i-bubble ingasakwazi ukuthola amandla amaningi. Kulesi sigaba, amabhuleki afaka ngobudlova phakathi kwesigaba sokucindezela. Ngenkathi i-bubble enjalo iwa inani elikhulu lamandla likhishwa ngendlela yamagagasi okwethusayo, amazinga okushisa aphakeme (cishe. 5,000K) nezingcindezi (cishe. 2000atm). Ngaphezu kwalokho, lezi "izindawo ezishisayo" zibonakaliswa ngamazinga aphezulu wokupholisa kakhulu. Ukufakwa kwe-bubble kubuye kuphumele kumajethi we-liquid afinyelela ku-280m / s velocity. Le nto ibizwa ngokuthi i-cavitation.
Uma lezi zinhlobo ezidlulele, ezikhiqizwa ngesikhathi sokuwa kwamabhulebhu amancane, zanda emkhatsini we-sonicated, ama-particle kanye namaconsi athintekile – okwenza kube nokuhlukunyezwa kwe-interparticle ukuze i-shatter eqinile. Ngakho-ke, ukunciphisa usayizi wezinhlayiyana njengokugaya, ukuguqulwa kwamanzi, nokusabalalisa kutholakala. Izinhlayiya zinganciphisa ukuba zibe yi-submicron- nano-size.
Ngaphandle kwemiphumela yemishini, i-sonication enamandla ingenza ama-radicals mahhala, ama-molecule we-shear, futhi asebenze izinhlayiya ezikhona. Lezi zenzakalo ziyaziwa njenge-sonochemistry.

Sono-Synthesis

Ukwelashwa kwe-ultrasonic ye-slurry imiphumela kuma-particle amahle kakhulu ngisho nokusatshalaliswa ukuze kusungulwe izindawo eziningi ze-nucleation zezulu.
HAp izinhlayiya zokwenziwa ngezansi ngaphansi kwe-ultrasonication kubonisa izinga lokunciphisa izinga lokulwa. Ukuthambekela okuphansi kokuhlanganiswa kwe-HAp ultrasonically yokwenziwa kwe-HAp kwaqinisekiswa isib nge-FESEM (Ukukhishwa kwe-Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy) ukuhlaziywa kwe-Poinern et al. (2009).

I-Ultrasound iyasiza futhi ikhuthaza ukuphendula kwamakhemikhali nge-cavitation ye-ultrasonic nemiphumela yayo engokomzimba ethinta ngokuqondile i-particle morphology ngesikhathi sesigaba sokukhula. Izinzuzo main of ultrasonication kuholele ukulungiselela of superfine yokusabela ingxube kukhona

  • 1) ijubane lokuphendula elikhuphukile,
  • 2) wehla isikhathi sokucubungula
  • 3) ukuthuthukiswa okuphelele ekusetshenzisweni kwamandla okusebenza kahle.

I-Poinern et al. (2011) yakha umzila wamakhemikhali omanzi osebenzisa i-calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca [NO3] 2 · 4H2O) ne-potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) njengezimpikiswano ezinkulu. Ukulawulwa kwe-pH value ngesikhathi sokuqala, i-ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) yanezelwa.
Iprosesa ye-ultrasound yayiyi- UP50H (50 W, 30 kHz, MS7 Sonotrode w / 7 mm ububanzi) kusuka ku-Hielscher Ultrasonics.

Izinyathelo ze-nano-HAP synthesis:

Isixazululo se-40 mL se-0.32M Ca (CHA3)2 · 4H2O walungiswa ku-beaker encane. Isixazululo se-pH sabe seshintshwe ku-9.0 esingaba ngu-2.5mL NH4OH. Isixazululo sasikhulunywa nge-the UP50H ku-100% amplitude setting for 1 ihora.
Ekupheleni kwehora lokuqala isisombululo se-60 mL esingu-0.19M [KH2PO4] kancane kancane wanezela kancane kancane kwisisombululo sokuqala ngenkathi ehamba ngehora lesibini le-irradiation ye-ultrasonic. Phakathi nenqubo yokuxuba, inani le-pH lihloliwe futhi ligcinwa ngo-9 ngesikhathi isilinganiso se-Ca / P sigcinwa ngo-1.67. Isixazululo sabe sesihlungwa ngokusebenzisa i-centrifugation (~ 2000 g), okwathi ngemva kwalokhu ukukhanya okumhlophe okwakungumphumela kwakulinganiselwe kuma-sampuli ambalwa okwelashwa okushisa.
Ukuba khona kwe-ultrasound kwinqubo yokuqala ngaphambi kokwelapha okushisa kunethonya elibalulekile ekwakheni ama-precursors okuqala okuyi-nano-HAP. Lokhu kungenxa yobukhulu bezinhlayiya ezihlobene nucleation kanye nephethini lokukhula lezinto, okuhlangene nalo lihlobene nezinga le-super saturation ngaphakathi kwesigaba samanzi.
Ngaphezu kwalokho, usayizi wezinhlayiyana kanye ne-morphology yayo ingathonywa ngokuqondile phakathi nalolu hlelo lokusebenza. Umphumela wokwandisa amandla e-ultrasound kusuka ku-0 kuya ku-50W wabonisa ukuthi kungenzeka ukunciphisa usayizi wezinhlayiyana ngaphambi kokwelashwa okushisayo.
Amandla ekhulayo e-ultrasound asetshenziselwa ukugcoba uketshezi okwakuthiwa yi-liquid waveza ukuthi kuningi okwakhiqizwa ama-bubbles / cavitations. Lokhu nakho kwaveza izingosi eziningi ze-nucleation futhi ngenxa yalokho izinhlayiya ezizungeze lezi zindawo zincane. Ngaphezu kwalokho, izinhlayiya ezivezwe ezinkathini ezinde ze-ultrasonic irradiation zibonisa ukumbalwa okuncane. Idatha elandelayo ye-FESEM isiqinisekisile ukuthi i-particle agglomeration iyancishiswa lapho i-ultrasound isetshenziswa ngesikhathi sokuqala.
I-Nano-HAp inhlayiyana yobukhulu bezinhlamvu ze-nanometer kanye ne-morphology eyindilinga yakhiqizwa ngokusebenzisa inqubo yamakhemikhali amanzi amanzi lapho kukhona khona i-ultrasound. Kutholakale ukuthi isakhiwo samakhemikhali kanye ne-morphology ye-nano-HAP powders elandelwayo yayixhomeke emandleni omthombo we-ultrasonic irradiation kanye nokwelashwa okusebusayo okulandelayo okusetshenzisiwe. Kwakusobala ukuthi ukutholakala kwe-ultrasound kwinqubo yokucubungula kwagqugquzela ukuphendula kwamakhemikhali kanye nemiphumela emzimbeni okwakhiqiza i-ultrafine nano- HAp powders emva kokwelapha okushisayo.

Ultrasonication eqhubekayo nge-glass flow cell

Sonication kwikhompiyutha ye-reactor

I-Hydroxyapatite:

  • i-calcium phosphate mineral engavamile
  • ukuhambisana okuphezulu
  • i-biodegradability ehamba kancane
  • osteoconductive
  • non-toxic
  • okungewona immunogenic
  • ingahlanganiswa nama-polymers kanye / noma ingilazi
  • ukuhlelwa kwe-matrix yesakhiwo esihle samanye ama-molecule
  • elihle kakhulu esikhundleni sesithambo

I-homogenizers ye-ultrasonic amathuluzi anamandla okwenza izinto zenziwe futhi zisebenze izinhlayiyana, njenge-HAp

I-Probe-type ultrasonicator UP50H

HAp Synthesis nge-Ultrasonic Sol-Gel Route

Ultrasonically basiza sol-gel umzila for synthesis of nanostructured HAp izinhlayiyana:
Okuqukethwe:
– ama-reactants: I-calcium nitrate Ca (CHA3)2, di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate (NH4)2I-HPO4, I-sodium hydroxyd NaOH;
– 25 ml tube tube yokuhlola

  1. Dissolve Ca (CHA3)2 futhi (NH4)2I-HPO4 emanzini ashicilelwe (molar ratio calcium kuya phosphorous: 1.67)
  2. Engeza i-NaOH enesisombululo sokugcina i-pH yayo cishe 10.
  3. Ukwelashwa kwe-ultrasonic nge-an UP100H (i-sonotrode MS10, i-amplitude 100%)
  • I-synthetic hydrothermal yenziwa ngo-150 ° C ngehora lesishiyagalolunye (24 h) kuhhavini kagesi.
  • Ngemuva kokuphendula, i-crypalline HAp ingavunwa yi-centrifugation futhi igeze ngamanzi ahlanzekile.
  • Ukuhlaziywa kwe-HAp nanopowder nge-microscopy (SEM, TEM,) kanye / noma i-spectroscopy (FT-IR). I-synthesized HAp nanoparticles ibonisa ukukhanya okukhulu kwe-crystallinity. I-morphology ehlukene ingagcinwa kuye ngokuthi isikhathi se-sonication. I-sonication ende ingaholela ku-uniforms HAp nanorods enezinga eliphezulu le-ultra-high crystallinity. [cp. I-Manafi et al. 2008]

Ukuguqulwa kwe-HAp

Ngenxa yobuhlungu bayo, ukusetshenziswa kwe-HAp ehlanzekile kunqunyelwe. Emcwaningweni wezinto ezibonakalayo, kwenziwa imizamo eminingi yokuguqula i-HAp ngama-polymers kusukela ithambo lemvelo liyinhlanganisela ngokuyinhloko lalingama-nano-size, ama-aperal-like HAp amakristali (ama-akhawunti angu-65wt% amathambo). Ukuguqulwa kwe-ultrasonically kusiza kwe-HAp nokuhlanganiswa kokuhlanganiswa ngezici ezibonakalayo ezithuthukisiwe kunika amathuba amaningi (bheka izibonelo ezimbalwa ngezansi).

Izibonelo Eziwusizo:

Ukusebenzisana kwe-nano-HAp

Esifundweni sePoinern et al. (2009), i-Hielscher UP50H I-probe-type ultrasonicator isetshenziswe ngempumelelo kwe-sono-synthesis ye-HAp. Ngokunyuka kwe-ultrasound energy, ubukhulu bezinhlayiya ze-crypallites ze-HAp wehlile. I-hydroxyapatite ye-Nanostructured (HAp) yayilungiswe nge-ultrasonically eyasiza inqubo yokumanzisa imvula. Ca (CHA3) noKh25PO4 i-werde esetshenziselwa njengezinto eziyinhloko ne-NH3 njengemvula. Ukushisa kwe-hydrothermal ngaphansi kwe-ultrasonic irradiation kwabangele izinhlayiya ze-HAp ezincane ezinomthamo we-morphological spherical in the range of nano meter range (cishe 30nm ± 5%). Abasebenzi be-Poinern nabasebenzisana nabo bathola indlela yokwenza i-sono-hydrothermal indlela yomnotho enekhono elikhulu lokukwazi ukukhiqiza.

Ukwenziwa kwe-gelantine-hydroxyapatite (i-Gel-HAp)

I-Brundavanam nabasebenzisana nabo baye balungiselela ngempumelelo i-gelantine-hydroxyapatite (i-Gel-HAp) eyakhiwe ngaphansi kwezimo zomsindo omnene. Ukuze kulungiswe i-gelantine-hydroxyapatite, i-1g ye-gelatine iye yaqedwa ngokuphelele ku-1000mL MilliQ amanzi ku-40 ° C. I-2mL yesisombululo se-gelatine esilungisiwe yabe yengezwa ku-Ca2 + / NH3 ingxube. Ingxube yayikhulunywa nge-an UP50H i-ultrasonicator (50W, 30kHz). Ngesikhathi sonication, 60mL of 0.19M KH2PO4 babekwe phansi-ngokuhlakanipha bengezwe kule nhlanganisela.
Isixazululo sonke sanikezwa i-1h. Inani le-pH lahlolwa futhi lagcinwa ku-pH 9 ngaso sonke isikhathi futhi isilinganiso seCa / P sashintshwa saba ngu-1.67. Ukuhlunga kwe-white precipitate kutholwe ngo-centrifugation, kuholele ekuthambekeni kogqinsi. Amasampula ahlukahlukene ayephathwa ngokushisa esithandweni somhubhe nge-2h emazingeni okushisa angama-100, 200, 300 no-400 ° C. Ngaleyo ndlela, kwatholakala i-Gel-HAp powder enefomu ye-granular, eyayigaywa ibe yimpuphu ecolekile futhi ebonakala yi-XRD, FE-SEM ne-FT-IR. Imiphumela ikhombisa ukuthi i-ultrasonication emnene nokuba khona kwe-gelatine ngesikhathi sokukhula kwe-HAp kukhuthaza ukunamathela okuphansi - ngaleyo ndlela kuholele ekunciphiseni futhi kwakha ukwakheka okuvamile kwe-Gel-HAp nano-izinhlayiya. I-sonication emnene isiza ukwakheka kwezinhlayiya ezinobukhulu be-Gel-HAp ngenxa yemiphumela ye-homogenization ye-ultrasonic. Izinhlobo ze-amide ne-carbonyl ezivela ku-gelatine kamuva zinamathela kuzinhlayiyana ze-np ze-HAp ngesikhathi sesigaba sokukhula ngokusebenzisana okwenziwe nge-sonochemically.
[Brundavanam et al. 2011]

Ukuthunyelwa kwe-HAp kwi-Titanium Platelets

Ozhukil Kollatha et al. (2013) baye bafaka ama-Ti amapulethi nge-hydroxyapatite. Ngaphambi kokumiswa, ukumiswa kwe-HAp kwakuhlelwe ngokufanayo nge-an UP400S (400 Watts idivayisi ultrasonic nge uphondo ultrasonic H14, sonication isikhathi 40 sec. At 75% amplitude).

I-Silver Coated HAp

Abakwa-Ignatev nabasebenzisana nabo (2013) bathuthukisa indlela ye-biosynthetic lapho i-nanoparticles yesiliva (AgNp) ifakwe ku-HAp ukuthola i-HAp yokugqoka enezinto zokulwa ne-antibacterial nokunciphisa umphumela we-cytotoxic. Ukuze i-deagglomeration ye-nanoparticles yesiliva kanye ne-sedimentation yayo kwi-hydroxyapatite, i-Hielscher UP400S isetshenziswe.

U-Ignatev kanye nabasebenza naye basebenzise idivayisi ye-ultrasonic probe-type UP400S ye-production-silver coated HAp.

Ukusethwa kwe-magnetic stirrer ne-ultrasonicator UP400S yayisetshenziselwa ukulungiswa kwe-Hap [ignatev et al 2013]


Amadivaysi ethu anamandla ama-ultrasonic amathuluzi athembekile ukuphatha izinhlayiya ezinhlangothini ezincane ze-micron- ne-nano-size. Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi ufuna ukuhlanganiswa, ukusabalalisa noma ukusebenza izinhlayiya ezincane zamatayipi ngenjongo yokucwaninga noma udinga ukuphatha ama-slurries amaningi e-nano-powder ukukhiqiza ukuhweba – Hielscher unikeza ultrasonicator efanelekayo izidingo zakho!

UP400S nge-reactor ultrasonic

I-homogenizer ye-ultrasonic UP400S


Xhumana Nathi / Cela Ukwaziswa Olwengeziwe

Khuluma nathi mayelana nezidingo zakho zokucubungula. Sizosikisela ukusetha nokulungiswa kwemingcele efanele yephrojekthi yakho.





Sicela uqaphele wethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


Izincwadi / Izinkomba

  • I-Brundavanam, i-RK; Jinag, Z.-T., Chapman, P .; Le, X.-T .; I-Mondinos, N .; Fawcett, D .; I-Poinern, i-GEJ (2011): Imiphumela ye-gelatine eyancipha ekufakweni kwe-nano hydroxyapatite ngokushushumbiswa kwe-ultrasonic. I-Ultrason. Sonochem. 18, 2011. 697-703.
  • I-Cengiz, B .; IGokce, Y .; I-Yildiz, N .; I-Aktas, Z .; UCalimli, A. (2008): Synthesis kanye nokubonakaliswa kwe-hydroyapatite nanoparticles. Ama-Colloids Nezindawo eziphezulu: I-Physicochem. Eng. Izici 322; 2008. 29-33.
  • Ignatev, M .; I-Rybak, T .; I-colonges, i-G .; Scharff, W .; I-Marke, S. (2013): Ama-Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Izingubo Ne-Nanoparticles Yesiliva. I-Acta Metallurgica Slovaca, 19/1; 2013. 20-29.
  • I-Jevtića, M .; I-Radulovićc, A .; Ignjatovića, N .; UMitrićb, uM .; Uskoković, D. (2009): Umhlangano olawulwayo we-poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) / i-hydroxyapatite core-shell nanospheres ngaphansi kwe-ultrasonic irradiation. I-Acta Biomaterialia 5/1; 2009. 208-218.
  • I-Kusrini, E .; I-Pudjiastuti, AR; I-Astutiningsih, i-S .; I-Harjanto, S. (2012): Ukulungiswa kwe-Hydroxyapatite kusuka ku-Bovine Bone ngeZindlela Zokuhlanganiswa Zokushisa Ukushiswa kwe-Ultrasonic ne-Spray. Intl. I-Conf. kwi-Chemical, Bio-Chemical and Environmental Sciences (ICBEE'2012) eSingapore, ngoDisemba 14-15, 2012.
  • IManafi, uS .; I-Badiee, SH (2008): Imiphumela ye-Ultrasonic ku-Crystallinity ye-Nano-Hydroxyapatite nge-Wet Chemical Method. Ir J Pharma Sci 4/2; 2008. 163-168
  • Ozhukil Kollatha, V .; I-Chenc, Q .; I-Clossetb, R .; ULuytena, J .; I-Trainab, K .; I-Mullensa, i-S .; I-Boccaccinic, i-AR; I-Clootsb, R. (2013): I-AC ne-DC Electrophoretic Deposition ye-Hydroxyapatite ku-Titanium. I-Journal ye-European Ceramic Society 33; 2013. 2715-2721.
  • I-Poinern, i-GEJ; I-Brundavanam, i-RK; Thi Le, X .; Fawcett, D. (2012): Impahla yeMechanical ye-Porous Ceramic Ephuma ku-30 ​​nm Isisindo Sokwakheka Kwe-Particular Phyder of Hydroxyapatite yezinhlelo zokusebenza ezinzima ze-Tissue Engineering. Journal American of Engineering Biomedical 2/6; 2012. 278-286.
  • Poinern, GJE; E-Brundavanam, R .; Thi Le, X .; I-Djordjevic, S .; I-Prokic, M .; I-Fawcett, D. (2011): Ithonya elishisayo ne-ultrasonic ekwakhekeni kwe-nanometer wadogo hydroxyapatite bio-ceramic. I-International Journal ye-Nanomedicine 6; 2011. 2083-2095.
  • Poinern, GJE; Brundavanam, RK; UMondinos, N .; Jiang, Z.-T. (2009): Synthesis nokubekwa uphawu kwe-nanohydroxyapatite kusetshenziswa indlela esizwe ye-ultrasound. I-Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 16/4; 2009. 469- 474.
  • I-Soypan, I .; UMel, M .; Ramesh, S .; Khalid, KA: (2007): I-hydroxyapatite enamandla ngama-bone okufakwayo. Isayensi Nezobuchwepheshe Zokuxhumana Okuphambili 8. 2007. 116.
  • Suslick, KS (1998): i-Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia ye-Chemical Technology; Umhlaka 4 J. Wiley & Amadodana: New York, Umq. 26, 1998. 517-541.

Amadivaysi e-ultrasonic ebhentshini eliphezulu kanye nokukhiqizwa okufana ne-UIP1500hd inikeza ibanga eligcwele lezimboni.

idivayisi ultrasonic I-UIP1500hd nge flow-nge ophendulayo