I-Hielscher Ultrasound Technology

Ultrasonically Assisted Oxidative Desulfurization (UAODS)

Amakhemikhali ane-sulphur emafutheni angcolile, i-petroleum, i-diesel namanye amafutha okushisa afaka ama-sulfide, thiols, thiophenes, afakwe endaweni benzo- kanye ne-dibenzothiophenes (i-BTs ne-DBTs), i-benzonaphthothiophene (i-BNT), kanye nama-molecule amaningi amaningi, lapho ama-thiophenes ane-condensed amafomu ajwayelekile kakhulu. Amakhamera we-Hielscher ultrasonic asiza desulfurization ejulile ye-oxidative inqubo edingekayo ukuze ihlangabezane nemithethonqubo yanamuhla yezindawo eziyinkimbinkimbi kanye ne-ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD, 10ppm sulfur).
Ukunciphisa Sulfure ku-Refinery

I-Oxidative Desulfurization (ODS)

I-Dibenzothiophene Molecule Ngaphambi Kwe-Oxidative DesulfurizationDesulfurization oxidative ne-hydrogen peroxide kanye nesikhukhula esilandelayo esilandelayo yi-teknoloji ejulile ye-desulfurization technology ukunciphisa inani le-organosulfur e-oil oil. Ama-reactors ama-Hielscher ultrasonic asetshenziswa kuzo zombili izigaba ukuthuthukisa isigaba-ukudlulisa ukusabela kinetics kanye nokuqedwa kwamazinga ku-liquid-phase phase systems.

I-Flowchart ye-Ultrasonically Assisted Oxidative Desulfurization - Izigaba ezimbili

I-Flowchart ye-Ultrasonically Assisted Oxidative Desulfurization – Izigaba ezimbili

Esikhathini sesigaba sokuqala se-ultrasonically esisize desulfurization ye-oxidative, i-hydrogen peroxide isetshenziselwa njenge-oxidant ukukhetha ukhiqiza ama-molecule e-sulphuri aqukethe emafutheni amafutha e-sulfoxides noma ama-sulfones ngaphansi kwezimo ezibucayi ukwenzela ukwandisa ukuxazululwa kwawo kwamakhemikhali e-polar nokwanda emaphoyiseni abo. Desulfurization oxidative yeDibenzotiophene kuya eSulfoxide ne-SulfoneNgalesi sigaba, ukungabi khona kwesigaba se-polar aqueous kanye nesigaba se-organic nonpolar kuyinkinga ebalulekile ekusebenzeni kwe-oxidative deulfurization njengoba zombili izigaba zisabela komunye nomunye kuphela phakathi kwe-interphase. Ngaphandle kwe-ultrasonics, lokhu kubangela izinga lokuphendula eliphansi kanye nokuguquguquka okuncane kwe-organosulfur kulesi sigaba sesigaba ezimbili.

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Ultrasonic Emulsification

Ukuxuba i-Ultrasonic ye-Emulsion ChemistryIsigaba samafutha kanye nesigaba se-aqueous sixutshwe siphakanyiswa sibe se-mixer static ukuze sikhiqize isimiso esisisekelo se-volumetric isilinganiso esiphezulu esinikezwa isitebhisi se-ultrasonic mixing. Kulapho, i-cavitation ye-ultrasonic ikhiqiza ukukhipha isisindo se-hydraulic ephakeme futhi iphula isigaba se-aqueous ibe yi-sub-micron kanye ne-nanosize amaconsi. Njengoba indawo ecacile yomngcele wesigaba inethonya eliphakeme lezinga lamakhemikhali lokubhekana nalokhu ukunciphisa okuphawulekayo kokuphakama kwe-droplet kuthuthukisa ama-reaction kinetics futhi kuncishisa noma kuqeda isidingo samagciwane okudlulisa isigaba. Ukusebenzisa i-ultrasonics, iphesenti yevolumu ye-peroxide inganciphisa, ngoba ama-emulsions amahle adinga ivolumu elingaphansi ukunikeza indawo efanayo yokuxhumana nesigaba samafutha.

I-Ultrasonically Assisted Oxidation

I-Ultrasonic Cavitation ku-1500 WattsI-cavitation ye-ultrasonic ikhiqiza ukufudumala okukhulu kwendawo (~ 5000K), ukucindezelwa okuphezulu (~ 1000atm), izinga lokushisa okukhulu kanye namazinga okupholisa (>109 K / sec), nemifudlana ye-jet yegazi (~ 1000 km / h). Le ndawo enomthelela kakhulu ixidizes thiophenes esigabeni samafutha ngokushesha futhi ngaphezulu ngokuphelele polar sulfoxide futhi sulfones. I-catalyst ingaqhubeka nokusekela inqubo ye-oxidation kodwa ayibalulekile. Ama-catalyst ama-amphiphilic catalysts noma ama-catalysts wokudlulisa isigaba (PTC), njenge-quaternary ammonium usawoti onamandla awo okungafani okuqothula kokubili okune-aqueous and organic liquids aye aboniswa ukuba afakwe ne-oxidant futhi ayithuthele kusukela kwesigaba esibonakalayo kuya kwesigaba sokuphendula, ngaleyo ndlela ukuthuthukisa izinga lokuphendula. I-reagent ye-Fenton inganezelwa ukuthuthukisa ukusebenza kahle kwe-oxidative deulfurization ngamafutha ediziyeli futhi ibonisa ukusebenza okuhle kwe-synergetic ngokucubungula okuyi-sono-oxidation.

I-Mass-Transfer ethuthukisiwe

Lapho izingxube ze-organosulfur zisabela emngceleni wesigaba, i-sulfoxide ne-sulfones iqoqa endaweni encane ye-drople block futhi ivimbele ezinye izinhlanganisela zesulfure ekusebenzisaneni nesigaba se-aqueous. I-shear ye-hydraulic eyabangelwa imifudlana ye-javitational kanye nokusakaza kwe-acoustical kubangelwa ukugeleza okuphazamisayo nokuthutha okubonakalayo kusuka ezindaweni eziya phezulu kuya ezigodini futhi kuholela ekuhlaleni okuphindaphindiwe nokubunjwa okulandelayo kwamaconsi. Njengoba i-oxidation iqhubeka ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, i-sonication ikhulisa ukuvezwa nokuxhumana kwama-reagents.

Isigaba sokudlulisa isigaba se-Sulfones

Emulsion for Ultrasonic Liquid-Liquid ExtractionNgemuva kwe-oxidation nokuhlukaniswa kusuka esigabeni esinqunyiwe (H2O2), i-sulfones ingasuswa ngokusebenzisa i-solvent ye-polar, njenge-acetonitrile esigabeni sesibili. I-sulfones izodlulisela emngceleni wesigaba phakathi kokubili izigaba kuze kube nesigaba se-solvent se-polarity ephakeme. Ngokufana nesiteji sokuqala, izigameko ze-Hielscher ultrasonic zivuselela isisindo se-liquide-liquid ngokwenza i-emulsion enhle kakhulu yesisindo se-solvent esigabeni samafutha. Lokhu kwandisa ukuxhumana kokuqala kwesigaba kanye nemiphumela yesikhumba nokunciphisa ukusetshenziswa kwe-solvent.

Xhumana Nathi / Cela Ukwaziswa Olwengeziwe

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Ukusuka kuLinga Lokuhlola ku-Pilot Scale nokukhiqiza

I-Hielscher Ultrasonics inikeza imishini yokuhlola, ukuqinisekisa nokusebenzisa lobu buchwepheshe nganoma yisiphi isilinganiso. Ngokuyinhloko kwenziwa ngezinyathelo ezingu-4, kuphela.

  1. Hlanganisa amafutha ngeH2O2 futhi ukhulume ukuze ukhiphe izakhi ze-sulfur
  2. I-Centrifuge yokuhlukanisa isigaba se-aqueous
  3. Hlanganisa i-oyile isigaba nge-solvent bese u-sonicate ukukhipha ama-sulfones
  4. I-Centrifuge yokuhlukanisa isigaba se-solvent ne-sulfones

Ezingeni lesibalo, ungasebenzisa i-UP200Ht ukukhombisa umqondo futhi ulungise imingcele eyisisekelo, efana nokuhlushwa kwe-peroxide, ukushisa kwenqubo, isikhathi se-sonication nokuqina kanye nokusetshenziswa kwe-catalyst noma ukusetshenziswa kwe-solvent.
Ezingeni eliphezulu le-bench a I-UIP1000hd, ivumela ukulinganisa kokubili izigaba ngokuzimela ngokwezinga lokugeleza kusuka ku-100 kuya ku-1000L / hr (25 kuya ku-250 gal / hr) nokwandisa inqubo kanye nemingcele ye-sonication. Imishini ye-Hielscher ultrasonic iklanyelwe ukulingana okulinganiselwe kuya ekukhuleni okukhudlwana kokuqhutshwa komshini wokulinganisa noma wokukhiqiza. Ukufakelwa kwe-Hielscher kuboniswe ukusebenza ngokuthembeka ngezinqubo eziphezulu zevolumu, kufaka phakathi ukuhlanzwa kwe-fuel. I-Hielscher ikhiqiza izinhlelo eziqukathiwe, zihlanganisa amaningana wamandla ethu aphezulu angu-10kW noma ama-16kW kumaqoqo ukuze kube lula ukuhlanganiswa. Imiklamo yokuhlangabezana nezimfuneko ezinobungozi zemvelo iyatholakala, futhi. Ithebula elingezansi libala uhlu lokucubungula nezinsizakusebenza zokuphakanyiswa.

Iqoqwana Ivolumu flow Rate Amadivayisi ezinconyiwe
5 ukuze 200ml 50 ukuze 500ml / iminithi UP200Ht, UP400S
0.1 ukuze 2l 0.25 ukuze 2m3/ ihora I-UIP1000hd, I-UIP2000hd
0.4 ukuze 10L 1 kuya 8M3/ ihora UIP4000
na 4 kuya 30m3/ ihora UIP16000
na 30m ngenhla3/ ihora yinhlanganisela I-UIP10000 noma UIP16000
Isistimu Yokuxuba I-Ultrasonic - 2 Amakhulu we-6x10kW (2x120m3 / hr)

Uhlelo lwe-Ultrasonic Mixing – 2 Izakhi ezingu-6x10kW (2x120m3/ hr)

I-Hielscher inikezela kwezinye izinhlelo zokusebenza kuma-Oyili & Imbonini yegesi

  • I-Acid Esterification
  • I-Alkaline Transesterification
  • Ama-Aquafuels (Amanzi / Amafutha)
  • Ukuhlanza kwe-Oil Sensor Cleaning
  • Ukulungiswa kwezinto zokugaya

Izinzuzo zokusebenzisa i-Ultrasonication

I-UAODS inikeza izinzuzo ezibalulekile uma kuqhathaniswa ne-HDS. I-Thiophenes, i-benzo- kanye ne-dibenzothiophenes engenisiwe i-oxidized ngaphansi kokushisa okuphansi nokucindezela. Ngakho-ke, akudingeki ukuthi i-hydrogen ebizayo yenze le nqubo ifaneleke kakhulu ekuhlungeni okusayizi amancane naphakathi, noma izinto zokungcebeleka ezikude ezingekho eduze kwepayipi le-hydrogen. Ukwanda kwezinga lokuphendula kanye nokushisa okushisa okuphendulayo nokucindezela kugweme ukuqashwa kwamakhemikhali anhydrous noma aprotic abizayo.
Ukuhlanganiswa kweyunithi ye-oxidative deulfurization (UAODS) esebenzisa i-ultrasonically ehambisana ne-unit of hydrotreating unit ingathuthukisa ukusebenza kahle ekukhiqizeni i-diesel ephansi ne / noma ephansi ye-sulfur. Lolu buchwepheshe lungasetshenziswa ngaphambi noma emva kokususwa kwamanzi okujwayelekile ukunciphisa izinga lesulfure.
Inqubo ye-UAODS inganciphisa izindleko zezindleko zemali engaphezu kwesigamu uma kuqhathaniswa nezindleko zomshuwalense omusha ophezulu wokucindezela.

Izinkinga ze-Hydrodesulfurization (i-HDS)

Ngenkathi i-hydrodesulfurization (i-HDS) inqubo ephumelelayo kakhulu yokukhipha ama-thiols, ama-sulfide, nama-disulfide, kunzima ukususa ama-sulfur-aqukethe ama-sulfur anama-refractory afana ne-dibenzothiophene kanye neziqhamo zawo (isib. 4,6-dimethydibenzothiophene 4,6-DMDBT) kuya ezingeni le-ultra-low. Ukushisa okuphakeme, ukucindezela okukhulu, nokusetshenziswa kwe-hydrogen ephezulu kuqhuba izindleko zezindleko ze-HDS ngenxa ye-désulfurization ejulile. Izindleko ezinkulu nezindleko zokusebenza azikwazi ukugwema. Amazinga okugcina ama-sulfur angabhubhisa izinsimbi ezinamandla ezisebenzayo ekusetshenzisweni kabusha nasekuguquleni inqubo noma izakhi zokufakelwa kwe-electrode ezisetshenziselwa ukubeka isitoreji se-fuel cell.