I-Hielscher Ultrasound Technology

Ukuhlanganiswa Okuphezulu kwe-Shear ne-Ultrasonics

Abahlanganisi abakhulu be-shear ephezulu basebenzisa amabutho aphezulu e-shear kwiziphuzo nakuma-slur ukuze banikeze ukuhlukaniswa okufanayo, ukuxubana, nokushumeka kwezigaba ezimbili noma ngaphezulu eziqinile noma ezigcwele uketshezi. I-Ultrasonication yakha amabutho aphezulu e-shear ngokusebenzisa i-acoustic cavitation, eyenzeka lapho i-ultra enamandla amakhulu ihlanganiswa ibe iziphuzo. I-Ultrasonic high-shear mixers ingubuchwepheshe bokuxuba obuphakeme, obudlula obusetshenziswa kakhulu ama-shear blade mixers, ama-multi-shaft mixers, ama-homogenizer aphezulu, ama-colloid mill, kanye ne-blade agitators.

Izinzuzo ze-Ultrasonic High-Shear Mixers

I-Ultrasonic ephezulu ye-shear mixers iyatholakala kusuka kuma-50W lab homogenizer kuze kufike ku-16,000W izinhlelo zokuxuba izimboni. Iphothifoliyo ebanzi evela kwi-lab, i-bench-top ne-yezimboni eziphezulu ze-shear mixers yenza sikwazi ukukhetha i-mixer ephezulu ye-shear ephezulu yesicelo sakho nevolumu lokukhiqiza.
Izikhuliso eziphakeme ku-probe ye-ultrasonics zidala ukuhamba ngamandla okugcwele ngemifudlana ewuketshezi yama-velocity aphezulu kanye nezixakaxaka eziyinkimbinkimbi. Ama-hydraulic kanye nama-mearing shear akhiqizwayo anciphisa izinhlayiyana namaconsi kuya kumicron- size nano-size. Njengoba izinhlaka zenqubo yokwenza i-sonication zinqwabelana kahle futhi ziyaguquguquka, umthelela wokuxubana, wokugaya, noma wokuhlakaza ungashintshwa ngokuqondile ezintweni ezibonakalayo nenqubo yenqubo. Abahlanganisi be-Ultrasonic ephezulu banciphisa isikhathi sokuxuba / sokugaya futhi bakhiqize ukusakazeka okuhle nokuphelele.
I-Ultrasonic mixer ingasetshenziselwa izinqubo ze-batch nezangaphakathi. Izinhlobonhlobo zamaseli okugeleza kwe-ultrasonic nama-reactor avumela ukuhlanganisa ukusakaza ngamazinga wokugeleza ahlukahlukene kakhulu nama-viscosities. I-Ultrasonic ephezulu ye-shear mixer ingaphatha ukugxila okuphezulu kakhulu futhi nezinhlayiya ezihlukumeza kakhulu azinankinga.

Ngabe Ukuxubha Okuphezulu Kanjani Nge-Sonication Kusebenza?

Iprosesa eprosesa ye-UIP4000hdT, i-4kW enamandla i-ultrasonorAbahlanganisi be-shear ephezulu ye-Ultrasonic basebenzisa inqubo efanayo yemishini njengoba amasistimu wokuxuba wezezimboni njenge-high shear blade mixers, ama-multi-shaft mixers, ama-colloid mill, ama-homogenizer omfutho ophakeme, kanye nezinhlelo ze-blade agitators. Izinhlelo zokuxuba ze-Ultrasonic zisetshenziselwa ukuhlakaza nezinhlayiya zamamilimitha, ukugxilisa izigaba zamafutha namanzi, ukuxubusha izinto eziqinile nokukhiqiza ingxubevange yanoma yiluphi uhlobo lwezinto zokwenziwa eziwuketshezi nakushukela. Abahlanganisi be-Ultrasonic bahlanganisa i-probe ye-ultrasonic kumkhumbi wokuxuba, onjengethangi le-batch noma kwiseli eligelezayo. I-ultrasonic disintegrator probe iyavevezela ku-ketshezi esikhungweni esiphakeme kakhulu futhi idale ukuqina kwe-ultrasonic okuqinile kuketshezi. Ukuwa kwamabhamu we-cavitation kuholela emandleni e-shear anamandla, okuphazamisa futhi kuphule amaconsi, ama-agglomerates, ama-aggregates, futhi nezinhlayiya eziyinhloko. Njengoba i-ultrasonic cavitation ikhiqiza ukusakazwa okuphezulu kwe-velocity cavitational okufika ku-1000km / h, amajezi we-cavitational liquid asheshisa izinhlayiya. Lapho izinhlayiya ezisheshayo zishayisana, isenzo leso siyimidiya yokugaya. Kamuva, izinhlayiya ezingqubuzanayo ziyaqhekeka futhi zincishiswa zibe usayizi we-micron- noma we-nano-size. Ensimini ye-ultrasonic cavitation, izingcindezi zishintshana ngokushesha nangokuphindaphindiwe phakathi kwe-vacuum kuze kufike ku-1000bar. Isixhumi esijikelezayo esinama-4 mixer blade sizodinga ukusebenza ku-300,000 RPM ukufezekisa imvamisa efanayo yokushintsha imijikelezo yengcindezi. Abahlanganisi abajwayelekile be-rotary nabahlanganisi be-rotor-stator abakhi mali enkulu ye-cavitation ngenxa yokunciphisa kwabo ijubane.

Ultrasonic high-shear mixer with stirred tank

Isihlanganisi se-shear ephezulu ephezulu I-UIP2000hdT, iyunithi lokuxuba elinamandla le-2kW

Isicelo solwazi




Qaphela kwethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


Icebo lokucubungula: Ukuhlanganiswa kwe-Ultrasonic ngaphansi kwengcindezi

Ukufakwa kwengcindezi kwipheyibheli ye-ultrasonic noma i-flow cell kuqinisa i-acoustic cavitation. I-Hielscher Ultrasonics inikezela ngezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zokugeleza kweseli no-reactor, ezingacindezelwa kalula kuze kufike ku-5 barg. Ama-reactors e-ultrasonic enziwe ngezifiso angakwazi ukubhekana nezingcindezi eziphakeme ezifika ku-300barg.

I-Ultrasonic High-Shear Mixers kanye Nezicelo zazo

Abahlanganisi be-shear ephezulu ye-Ultrasonic badala amabutho amakhulu e-shear, anomphumela odingekayo ezinhlayiyeni ezinjenge-solids, amaconsi, amakristalu, kanye nemicu ukuze aphazamise futhi awaphule kubukhulu obhekisiwe, ongaba ku-micron noma uhla lwe-nano. Ngokuya ngobulukhuni bezinto zokwenziwa kanye nezinto ezi-brittleness, amapharamitha wenqubo we-ultrasonic angahle alungiswe ukuze kufinyelelwe umphumela wokuxuba owafunwayo. Uma kuqhathaniswa nezinye izindlela zokuxuba ezifana nama-high-shear blade agitators, ama-homogenizer aphezulu, ingcindezi ye-colloid / bead, i-shaft mixers njll. Abahlukanisi be-ultrasonic banikeza ezinye izinzuzo ezinkulu.

Izinzuzo ze-Ultrasonic High Shear Mixers

  • I-high-intensity cavitation kanye ne-shear
  • Ukulungiswa kwezinhlayiyana
  • ukugxila okuqinile
  • Akunama-nozzles / akukho okuxhunywayo
  • Akukho maphakathi wokugaya (okusho ubuhlalu) odingekayo
  • ukusabalalisa okulinganayo
  • Kulula & Ukusebenza okuphephile
  • Kulula ukuhlanza
  • Isikhathi- & ephumelela amandla

Ama-Ultrasonic High Shear Mixers Wokuncipha Kwezinhlayiyana

Ama-Ultrasonic disintegrators asetshenziselwa ukuncishiswa kwezinhlayiya nokusatshalaliswa kwezinhlayiyana, ukufaka lokhu kusho ukuqondiswa kwangempela kwezinhlayiya eziyinhloko (okubizwa ngokuthi yi-milling) noma ukwephulwa kwama-agglomerates (okubizwa ngokuthi yi-deagglomeration / dispersion).
Funda kabanzi ngokugaya i-ultrasonic nokusabalalisa izinhlayiya!

Ukuhlanganiswa kwe-Ultrasonic High-Shear yeFied Silica

I-Ultrasonic High Shear Mixers ye-Emulsation

Lapho iziphuzo ezimbili ezingabonakali (isib, amanzi no-oyili) zenziwa indodana ngokusebenzisa i-probe-Type ultrasonic mixer, i-ultrasonic cavitation iphazamisa amaconsi – khiqiza amaconsi amancane kakhulu ezigaba ezimbili ezingenakuvinjwa, ezihlanganiswa ndawonye. Njengoba abahlanganisi be-shear ephezulu ye-ultrasonic bekhiqiza kalula amaconsi osayizi we-nano, ama-emulsion aqinisiwe we-ultrasonic abonisa ukuqina kwesikhathi eside nokubukeka okucacile.
Njengoba noma yiluphi uhlobo lwe-emulsion lunombhalo walo oqondile we-emulsation / i-shear, lapho kutholakala khona usayizi ophelele we-Droplet nezimpawu, ukulungiswa okuqondile kwamapharamitha wokuxuba kubalulekile. Ngenkathi ukucheba okuphansi kakhulu kuphumela emacongeni amakhulu kakhulu, okuqina ngokushesha futhi kuholele ekuhlukanisweni kwesigaba, ukugunda ngokweqile kukhulu kakhulu kungabhubhisa umkhiqizo. I-Ultrasonic ephezulu ye-shear mixers ingalawulwa ngokunembile futhi ilungiswe ukucubungula izidingo.
Chofoza lapha ukuze ufunde kabanzi mayelana ne-nano-emulsization ye-ultrasonic!

Isihlanganisi se-shear ephezulu ephezulu UP200Ht for Emulsification

I-Ultrasonic High Shear Mixers yokuhlanganisa nokuqothula

Izithako ezixubile eziphakeme ze-Ultrasonic zisetshenziselwa ukuxuba, ukugaya, ukuhlakaza, nokuqothula izinhlayiya ezinjenge-powders, i-pigment kanye nemicu ngenqubo esheshayo, ethembekile futhi elula. I-cavitation eyenziwe nge-ultrasonically yandisa ukudluliselwa kwesisindo phakathi kwama-solids noketshezi. Ukuhamba kwe-Ultrasonic kunethonya elinamandla kuzinhlayiya eziqinile: Imisinga ye-cavitational liquid isusa umhlaba, futhi idlulisa izingcezwana ezonakele zibe uketshezi lapho kukhiqizwa khona ukumiswa okungenamsoco.
Chofoza lapha ukuze ufunde kabanzi mayelana nokuqedwa kwe-ultrasonic!

Izicelo ze-Ultrasonic High Shear Mixers

  • Ukukhokha & ukugaya
  • i-deagglomeration & ukuhlakazeka
  • emulsification
  • Ukuqedwa kwamapoda
  • Ukwenza ngcono ukuthunyelwa kwenqwaba
  • Ukusabela kwe-Sonochemical
The Hielscher Ultrasonics SonoStation is an easy-to-use ultrasonic high-shear mixer setup for production scale. (Click to enlarge!)

SonoStation – uhlelo lwe-ultrasonic olunama-2x 2kW ultrasonicators, i-tank eshukumisayo kanye nepompo – uhlelo oluhlelekile olusebenzisayo lokuhlanganisa, ukugaya nokusabalalisa izinhlelo.

Izingxube eziphezulu ze-Shear kunoma yisiphi isayizi

Imiklamo ye-Hielscher Ultrasonics, yenza futhi isabalalise abaxuba be-shear abasezingeni eliphakeme kusuka ku-compact, nokho idivaysi enamandla yeelebhu yokushayela nabakhiqizi bezezimboni abasezingeni eliphakeme ukuze kusetshenzwe imisinga emikhulu yamazinga ekukhiqizeni kwezentengiso.

Abahlanganisi abaphezulu be-Shear beLabhorethri

Abahlanganisi be-Probe-Type ultrasonic bangamathuluzi asunguliwe kulo lonke elabhorethri. Njengoba izinqubo ze-ultrasonic zingahle zilungiswe zize zifinyelele kumthamo omkhulu, abahlanganisi be-Hielscher be-high-shear abalungele ukuthuthukisa nokwandisa inqubo yakho ngezinga elincane. Ngemuva kwalokho, ngemuva kokusungula amapharamitha wezinqubo ezinhle, uhlelo lwakho lokuxuba lungakhuphuka ngokuqondile ngomshini ukukhiqiza umshayeli nobuningi.
I-Hielscher inikezela abahlanganisi be-shem ephezulu ye-ultrasonic ephezulu yomsebenzi welebula ngebanga lamandla kusuka kumandla wokuxuba we-watts we-50 watts we-watts.

Abahlanganisi Abakhulu Bear for the Imboni

8kW high-shear mixer powered by high-performance ultrasonicsAbahlanganisi be-Hielscher ephezulu ye-shear kukhona amaprosesa amakhulu we-ultrasonic aklanyelwe ukugaya, ukusabalalisa, ukukhipha kanye nokuhlanganisa imifudlana emikhulu yesibhakabhaka ngaphansi komthwalo osindayo. Lezi zingxubevange zezimboni zisingatha kalula ukugxila okuphezulu okuqinile nezinhlayiya ezinkulu. Ama-probes (sonotrodes) wezimboni ezixubile eziphakeme zezimboni afakelwe i-flange ukuze i-mixer ihlanganiswe namathangi wensimbi, izikejana zengilazi noma iziqukathi zepulasitiki kunoma yikuphi ukuma. Ukufaka ingcindezi esitsheni se-ultrasonic noma ku-flow cell kukhulisa i-acoustic cavitation futhi ngaleyo ndlela inqubo yokuxuba ye-ultrasonic. I-Hielscher Ultrasonics inikeza abaxubeki bezimboni eziphakeme zezimboni kusuka ku-500 kuya ku-16,000 Watts. Nge-UIP16000, iHielscher inikela ngomxube we-ultrasonic high-shear mixer onamandla kakhulu emhlabeni wonke.
Izinto zokwakha eziphezulu? – Ayikho inkinga! Zonke izinhloli ze-Hielscher ze-Hielscher ezigabeni zebhentshini-eziphezulu nezimboni zingakwazi ukucubungula kalula ama-slurries angama-viscous afinyelela ku-250,000 centipoise. Kuma-viscosities aphezulu ngaphezu kwe-2000 cPs sincoma ukusetshenziswa kwamaseli wokugeleza ngokuhlangana namaphampu we-cavity athuthukayo wokuhlanganiswa okulingene kwamagagasi e-ultrasound emanzini.

Ungayithola Kanjani I-Ultrasonic High Shear Mixer?

I-Hielscher Ultrasonics ingumakhi wesipiliyoni wesikhathi eside wezinhlelo zokuxuba ezinamandla futhi ezinokwethenjelwa, ezisetshenziselwa ukusabalalisa nokuphula izinhlayiya, ukulungiselela ama-nanoemulsions, noma ukuncibilikisa u-powders ku-liquids. Ukuba ngumholi wemakethe wabahlanganisi be-ultrasonic, Imiklamo yeHielscher, yenza futhi isabalalise abahlanganisi be-shear ephezulu kanye nama-homogenizer kusuka elebhu nasebhentshini phezulu kuya esikalini somshayeli kanye nezimboni ezigcwele.

Ukuphendula imibuzo elandelayo kuzosiza ekutholeni i-mixer ephezulu ye-shear ephezulu kakhulu yenqubo yakho:

  • Yini uhlelo lwakho lokuqondisa?
  • Yini ivolumu ejwayelekile okufanele icutshungulwe?
  • Iziphi izici ezibucayi zenqubo?
  • Yiziphi izindinganiso zekhwalithi, okufanele zifinyelelwe?

Abasebenzi bethu abaqeqeshiwe nabanolwazi bazokusiza nganoma yimiphi imibuzo kanye nomqondo wenqubo yakho yokuxuba. I-Hielscher Ultrasonics inikezela ngokubonisana okujulile kokucutshungulwa kwe-ultrasonic ukusiza amakhasimende ethu ekutholeni i-mixer ephezulu kakhulu yegunda ephezulu. Kepha insizakalo kaHielscher ayipheleli lapha, siqeqesha abathengi noma ezikhungweni zabo noma esikhungweni senqubo ye-ultrasonic lab kanye nasezikhungweni zobuchwepheshe ukuze sibasize ngesikhathi sokuthuthuka kwenqubo, nokwenza kahle kanye nokulinganisa.
Hielscher Ultrasonics’ ama-processor ultrasonic processors ahambisa kalula ama-amplopes aphezulu kakhulu, adingekayo ukuphula izinhlayiya ezinzima nama-agglomerates noma ukucubungula ama-slurries ngokuqina okukhulu okuqinile. Abahlanganisi be-Hielscher bezimboni bagijimisa kalula kuma-amplitude afinyelela kuma-200µm ngokuqhubekayo ekusebenzeni kwe-24/7. Uma izinqubo ezithile zifuna ama-amplopes aphezulu kakhulu, ama-oper enziwe ngezifiso we-ultrasonic ayatholakala. Izesekeli ezinjengezimpondo ze-booster, ama-flow cell, ama-sonication reactors kanye nokusetha ngokuphelele kokutholakala kokutholakala kuyatholakala kalula futhi zivumela ukumisa uhlelo lwakho lokuxubha lwe-ultrasonic oluhunyushwe kahle nezidingo zakho zenqubo. Onke ama-sonotrodes kanye nama-reactor, okuwukuphela kwezingxenye ezihlangana phakathi nendawo, yi-CIP / SIP (ukuhlanza nokubulala inzalo endaweni).

I-Ultrasonic High-Shear Mixers

Ukulawulwa okuqondile kwemingcele yenqubo ye-ultrasonic yi-Hielscher Ultrasonics' isoftware ehlakaniphileI-Hielscher Ultrasonics igxila ekuhlukaniseni amaseli okusebenza okuphezulu ngobungani obukhulu kakhulu bomsebenzisi kanye nenqubekela phambili yezobuchwepheshe yezwe. Lokhu kusho ukuthi amazinga we-Hielscher lab disintegrators avumelana kakhulu nokuqonda kwemishini yezimboni. Umsebenzisi angalawula ama-digital ultrasonicators we-Hielscher ngokusebenzisa isilawuli kude esipheqululini. Isoftware yokuqoshwa kwedatha ezenzakalelayo ibhala yonke imingcele ebalulekile ye-ultrasonic efana namandla net, amandla aphelele, amplitude, izinga lokushisa, ingcindezi, isikhathi nosuku njengefayela le-CSV ekhadini le-SD-khadi elakhelwe ngaphakathi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, i-disintegrator ye-ultrasonic ingahlelelwa i-othomathikhi ukuvala emva kwesikhathi esinqunyelwe noma okokufaka amandla athile noma izindlela zokudonsa ze-sonication. Izinga lokushisa elinokubhoboka kanye nezinzwa zokucindezela zivumela ukulandelela ngokucophelela izimo zesampula. Njengoba ukulawulwa kwezinga lokushisa kwezinto ezibonelela ukushisa kuyinto ebalulekile yekhwalithi yemiphumela yenqubo, uHielscher unikeza izixazululo ezahlukahlukene zokugcina izinga lokushisa inqubo ebangeni eliqondiwe lokushisa.
Imisebenzi eyindida ye-Hielscher ultrasonicators iqinisekisa ukulawulwa kwenqubo okuphezulu kakhulu, imiphumela enokwethenjelwa futhi enokuzala, ubungani bomsebenzisi nenduduzo yokusebenza.

ikhwalithi – Yenziwe eJalimane

Njengebhizinisi eliqhutshwa ngumndeni futhi eliqhutshwa ngumndeni, iHielscher ibeka phambili amazinga aphezulu kakhulu wezinhlelo zayo ezisezingeni eliphakeme. Onke ama-ultrasonicators aklanyelwe, akhiqizwa futhi ahlolwe ngokuphelele ekhanda lethu eliseTeltow ngaseBerlin, eJalimane. Ukuba namandla nokwethenjwa kwemishini yokusebenza kwe-Hielscher ka-Hielscher kuyenza ibe ihhashi lomsebenzi ekukhiqizweni kwakho. Ukusebenza okungu-24/7 ngaphansi komthwalo ophelele nasezindaweni ezifunwayo kuyisici esingokwemvelo sabahlanganisi abasebenza kakhulu be-Hielscher.

Ungathenga abahlanganisi be-Hielscher ephezulu ye-shear kunoma yisiphi isayizi ehlukile futhi ulungiselelwe inqubo yakho. Ukusuka ekwelapheni uketshezi olusebenza nge-lab beaker kuya ekugelezeni okuqhubekayo-ngokuxubha kwe-slurries esezingeni lezimboni, i-Hielscher Ultrasonics ikunikeza isixhumi esifanelekayo se-shear ephezulu! Sicela uxhumane nathi – siyajabula ukukuncoma isethaphu eyi-ultrasonic mixer!

Ithebula elingezansi linikeza isibonakaliso somthamo wokucubungula we-ultrasonicators wethu:

Iqoqwana Ivolumu flow Rate Amadivayisi ezinconyiwe
1 kuya ku-500mL 10 kuya ku-200mL / min UP100H
10 kuya ku-2000mL 20 kuya ku-400mL / min UP200Ht, UP400St
0.1 kuya ku-20L 0.2 kuya ku-4L / min I-UIP2000hdT
10 kuya ku-100L 2 kuya ku-10L / iminithi I-UIP4000hdT
na 10 kuya ku-100L / iminithi UIP16000
na sikhulu yinhlanganisela UIP16000

Xhumana nathi! / Cela Us!

Cela ulwazi oluthe xaxa

Uyacelwa ukuthi usebenzise ifomu elingezansi ukucela ulwazi olungeziwe mayelana nezinhlelo zokusebenza ze-ultrasonic, izinhlelo zokusebenza nentengo. Sizokujabulela ukuxoxa ngenqubo yakho nawe futhi sikunikeze uhlelo lwe-ultrasonic oluhlangabezana nezidingo zakho!









Sicela uqaphele wethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


I-Hielscher Ultrasonics yenza ama-homogenizer aphezulu we-ultrasonic wokuhlakazeka, i-emulsation kanye nokukhishwa kweseli.

Amandla aphezulu we-homogenizer ephezulu I-Lab kuya umshayeli futhi Izimboni isikali.

Izincwadi / Izikhombo



Amaqiniso Okufanele Ukwazi

Ama-Ultrasonicators nokusetshenziswa kwawo njenge-High-Shear Mixers

Ama-Ultrasonicators ngamadivayisi we-probe-Type ultrasound, lawo achazwa ngokudlulisela ukudlidliza kwe-ultrasonic nge-probe ye-ultrasonic ku-medium process. I-probe, eyaziwa nangokuthi yi-sonotrode, iyinduku ye-titanium egeleza imvamisa ye-ultrasound, isib. 20kHz. Ukudlidliza ku-20 kHz kusho ukuthi indawo evundlile yes proji iyanda futhi inenkontileka yezikhathi ezingama-20,000 ngomzuzwana. Lokhu kushesha okusendimeni yobuningi be-ultrasonic esezingeni lesiphuphu kuhlanganiswe kuketshezi. Esikhathini uketshezi, amaza we-ultrasound ahamba phakathi nendawo futhi akhiqiza imijikelezo ephezulu yokucindezela / umfutho ophansi. Ngesikhathi sokujikeleza kwengcindezi ephansi, kuphakama ama-bubble-vacuum vacuum futhi akhule ngemijikelezo eminingana yokucindezela aze afike lapho afike khona, lapho engeke akwazi ukuthola amanye amandla. Ephuzwini lokukhula okuphezulu, ibhamuza le-cavitation liqhuma ngobudlova. I-implosion iphumela ensimini enamandla-aminyene enamazinga okushisa okuphezulu kakhulu nezingcindezi, amazinga okushisa afanayo nokuhluka kwengcindezi, ukusakazwa kolwelwesi olunama-velocities afinyelela ku-180m / sec kanye neziyaluyalu. Amandla we-cavitational anethonya elinamandla ku-ketshezi nakuma-slur umphumela wokuxubana okungafaniyo, ukuxubana, ukugaya, ukusabalalisa kanye nemiphumela emulsifying. Abahlanganisi be-Ultrasonic high-shear bakhiqiza kalula izinhlayiya ezinobukhulu obukhulu kanye namaconsi anesilinganiso esincane kakhulu sokusatshalaliswa kwesayizi.

Izimboni Ezijwayelekile Zabahlanganisi be-Ultrasonic High-Shear Mixers

  • Ukusabalalisa, ukuqeda, ukuxubanisa nokwakhiwa okuqinile / koketshezi
  • emulsification
  • Isayensi yezinto ezibonakalayo
  • Isampula ngaphambi kokuhlaziywa
  • Izicelo zeNano-izinhlayiyana
  • Ukusebenza kwama-particle
  • Ukuphendula kwesigaba