I-Hielscher Ultrasound Technology

Ukukhishwa kwe-ultrasonic nokulondolozwa

I nokwahlukana cell izakhiwo (lysis) esebenzisa ultrasound isetshenziswa for the isizinda of compounds naphakathi-amaselula noma ngenxa inactivation amagciwane abe nenkani.

Ingemuva

Ngo-microbiology, ultrasound is ngokuyinhloko elihlobene ne iseli ukuphazamiseka (lysis) noma Ukuhlakazeka (Allinger 1975). Lapho sonicating uketshezi at kwemibala okusezingeni eliphezulu, amaza omsindo asakaze singene abezindaba liquid kuholele kushintshana ephezulu ingcindezi (kokucindezelwa) kanye ephansi kwengcindezi (rarefaction) nowe, ne rates kuye ngokuthi nobuningi.
Phakathi umjikelezo low-ingcindezi, high-umfutho amagagasi ultrasonic adale Bubbles cleaner encane noma voids kule ketshezi. Ngesikhathi ama-Bubbles bazuze ivolumu ngaso ingasakwazi lokunciphisa amandla, bewa ngobudlova ngesikhathi umjikelezo ephezulu ingcindezi. Lesi simo esiyingqayizivele sibangelwa ukuthi kungani kuthiwa cavitation. Phakathi Implosion okushisa aphezulu kakhulu (approx. 5,000K) nezingcindezi (abangu. 2,000atm) usufinyelelwe endaweni. I Implosion we bubble cavitation kuphumela Jets liquid of afinyelela ku 280m / s velocity kwaphumela phuca amabutho zephule imvilophi cell athutha futhi sithuthukise zokudluliswa kwezinto. Ultrasound kungaba nemiphumela noma ezilimazayo noma ezakhayo kumaseli kuncike nemingcele sonication baqashwe.

cell nokwahlukana

Ngaphansi okukhulu sonication enzyme noma amaprotheni kungaba adedelwe amaseli noma organelles subcellular ngenxa cell nokwahlukana. Kulokhu, lesi sithako ziyoncibilika ku kuphela is ebiyelwe isakhiwo zingaxazululeki. Ukuze kukhishwe khona, ulwelwesi cell kumele destructed. Cell ukuphazamisa kuyinqubo ebucayi, ngoba ikhono odongeni seli ukumelana ophezulu osmotic ngaphakathi. isilawuli Ezinhle ukuphazamiseka cell liyadingeka, ukugwema oluzokhishwa okungaphazamiseki yonke imikhiqizo intracellular kuhlanganise cell doti futhi acid nucleic, noma umkhiqizo denaturation.
Ultrasonication ukhonza njengelungu izindlela kahle luyalawuleka cell nokwahlukana. Ngenxa yalesi, imiphumela mechanical ultrasound ukunikeza Ukungena ngokushesha futhi ephelele kuphela ku izinto yeselula futhi sithuthukise ukudluliswa mass. Ultrasound ephumelelisa Ukungena enkulu kuphela ku izicubu isitshalo futhi kuthuthukisa ukudluliswa mass. amagagasi ultrasonic odala cavitation ukuphazamisa iseli izindonga ekukhipheni izingxenye-matrix.

Dlulisa IMisa

Ngokuvamile, ukwenza i-ultrasound kungaholela permeabilization of cell ulwelwesi ukuze ion (Mummery 1978), Futhi kunganciphisa selectivity we ulwelwesi cell kakhulu. Umsebenzi mechanical we ultrasound isekela ukwanda okusheshayo of kumakhemikhali awuketshezi singene nezicubu. Njengoba ultrasound ephula udonga cell athutha ngamabutho cavitation phuca, kwenza kubelula ukuthi ukudluliswa kusuka cell zingene kuphela. Usayizi kuyizinhlayiyana ukuncishiswa nge cavitation ultrasonic kwandisa indawo ephindwe in contact phakathi okuqinile kanye isigaba liquid.

Amaphrotheni kanye enzyme Isizinda

Ikakhulukazi isizinda enzyme namaprotheni elondolozwe ku amaseli nezinhlayiyana subcellular kuyinto isicelo eyingqayizivele nephumelelayo ephezulu umfutho ultrasound (Kim 1989), Njengoba isizinda organic compounds oluqukethwe phakathi nomzimba we izitshalo kanye imbewu ngumuntu kuphela kungenziwa ngcono kakhulu. Ngakho-ke i-ultrasound has a inzuzo engaba khona isizinda nokuhlukaniswa kwemihlambi inoveli engase izingxenye bioactive, isib ekungalayishweni esetshenziswa-umkhiqizo Ukusakaza elasungulwa izinqubo zamanje. Ultrasound nakho kungasiza ukuqinisa imiphumela yokwelashwa enzyme, kanye yilo inciphise enzayimu edingekayo noma ukwandisa isivuno compounds extractable efanele.

Lipids futhi Amaphrotheni

Ultrasonication ivame ngcono isizinda of lipids namaprotheni kusuka imbewu plant, ezifana kabhontshisi (isib ufulawa noma kabhontshisi defatted) noma ezinye imbewu uwoyela. Kulokhu, lapho kubhujiswa lesi izindonga cell kusiza ngokucindezela (uyabanda noma ushise) futhi ngaleyo ndlela kunciphisa uwoyela asalile noma amafutha ikhekhe ngokucindezela.

Ithonya okuqhubekayo isizinda ultrasonic ukuze isivuno amaprotheni abahlakazekile bengaba labonakaliswa UMoulton et al. I sonication anda yokutakula wamaprotheni abahlakazekile bengaba ngokuqhubekayo njengoba izinhlayiya zeqhwa / isilinganiso kuphela washintsha esuka 1:10 ukuze 1:30. Izibalo zikhombe ukuthi izinhlelo ultrasound efanela peptize soy amaprotheni at cishe kunoma iyiphi throughput commercial nokuthi amandla sonication edingekayo laliphansi kunawo, lapho zazisetshenziswa slurries mkhulu. (UMoulton et al. 1982)

Kusebenza kuze kube: uwoyela Citrus kusuka izithelo, uwoyela isizinda kusuka phansi lwesinaphi, lamantongomane, ukudlwengula, uwoyela imifino (Echinacea), canola, soy, ummbila

Liberation of phenolic compounds kanye Anthocyanins

Enzyme, ezifana pectinases, cellulases futhi hemicellulases kabanzi juice ukucubungula ukuze zilulaza iseli izindonga futhi sithuthukise extractability ijusi. I ukuphazamiseka matrix cell udonga futhi kukhipha izingxenye, ezifana phenolic zakhi zibe ijusi. Ultrasound ngcono yokuyigqula ngakhoke kungaholela ukwanda phenolic kwakwakhe, alkaloids juice hoxa, ngokuvamile kwesokunxele in the ikhekhe cindezela.

Imiphumela emihle ukwelashwa ultrasonic ku yokukhululwa phenolic ezibangela futhi anthocyanins kusukela yamagilebhisi kanye berry-matrix, ikakhulukazi kusukela bilberry (I-vaccinium myrtillus) Futhi black currant (Ribes) Ku juice, waba liphenywa I-VTT Biotechnology, i-Finland (i-MAXFUN EU-Project) usebenzisa I-Ultrasonic Processor UIP2000hd ngemva incibilikiswa, mashing kanye enzyme bayashintshana ekufukameleni. I ukuphazamiseka izindonga cell by ukwelashwa enzymatic (Pectinex BE-3L ngoba bilberry futhi Biopectinase CCM for black currant) sashintsha lapho kuhlangene ultrasound. “ukwelashwa US ukwandisa lokuhlushwa phenolic compounds juice billberry ngaphezu kuka-15%. […] Ithonya US (ultrasound) lalibalulekile okuningi nge-black currant, okuyizinto amajikijolo inselele ngaphezulu juice ukucutshungulwa kuka bilberry ngenxa okuqukethwe kwabo okusezingeni eliphezulu pectin kanye ezahlukene cell udonga izakhiwo. […] Lokuhlushwa phenolic compounds ijusi kukhuphuke ngo-15-25% ngokusebenzisa US (ultrasound) ukwelashwa emva enzyme bayashintshana ekufukameleni.” (Mokkila et al. 2004)

Microbial kanye enzyme Inactivation

Ukusetshenziswa kwe-microbial kanye ne-enzyme (ukulondolozwa), isib. Izithelo zezithelo kanye namasiki kungenye ukusetshenziswa kwe-ultrasound ekusetshenzisweni kokudla. Namuhla, ukulondolozwa ngokuphakama kwamazinga okushisa isikhathi esifushane (ukuguqulwa kwamathambo) kuseyindlela ejwayelekile kakhulu yokucubungula i-microbial noma i-enzyme inactivation eholela ekhaleni elide-impilo (ukulondolozwa). Ngenxa yokuvezwa kokushisa okuphezulu, le ndlela yokushisa ivame ukulimaza imikhiqizo eminingi yokudla.
Ukukhiqizwa izinto ezintsha kusukela ukusabela ukushisa-catalyzed futhi ukuguqulwa macromolecules kanye ukusonteka yezitshalo nezilwane izakhiwo kungehlisa ekulahlekelweni izinga. Ngakho-ke, ukwelashwa ezishisayo kungabangela ushintsho engathandeki yezimfanelo sezinzwa, isb ukuthungwa, ukunambitheka, umbala, nephunga nezimfanelo ukudla, isb amavithamini kanye amaprotheni. Ultrasound kuyinto kahle-non-ezishisayo (sakugcina) ukucutshungulwa okunye.

Heat elakhiwe endaweni yi cavitation kanye ezizivelelayo wadala kungaholela i inactivation enzyme ngu sonication (El'piner 1964). Emazingeni ngokwanele eliphansi sonication izinguquko ezihlelekile futhi umzimba kungavuka amaseli ngaphandle nokubhujiswa kwabo. Umsebenzi Peroxidase, kutholakala okuyinto izithelo kakhulu engahluziwe unblanched nemifino futhi ikakhulukazi zingahlanganiswa ukuthuthukiswa kokufunda flavour kanye Browning zombala zingancishiswa kakhulu ngokusebenzisa ultrasound. enzyme Thermoresistant, ezifana lipase futhi protease ukuthi ukumelana impatho ultra-high-lokushisa futhi okuyinto kunganciphisa izinga futhi eshalofini-ukuphila ubisi ukushisa kabi kanye neminye imikhiqizo idayari kungenziwa inactivated kahle kakhulu ngohlelo lokusebenza ngesikhathi esisodwa ultrasound, ukushisa nokucindezelwa (MTS).

Ultrasound uye wabonisa amandla ayo ekubhubhiseni Amagciwane ukudla yizinambuzane, efana E.coli, Salmonellae, Ascaris, Giardia, Cryptosporidium izinhlumba, Futhi Poliovirus.

Kusebenza kuze kube: kulondolozwe ujamu marmalade noma toppings, isib ngoba u-ayisikhilimu, neziphuzo zezithelo nososo, imikhiqizo inyama, avalele

Synergies of ultrasound kanye lokushisa kanye Kontanga

ngokuvamile Ultrasonication kusebenza kangcono uma kuhlangene nezinye izindlela anti-microbial, njenge:

  • Thermo-sonication, isb ukushisa kanye ultrasound
  • mano-sonication, ingcindezi isb kanye ultrasound
  • Mano-Thermo-sonication, isb ingcindezi, ukushisa kanye ultrasound

Isicelo elihlangene ultrasound nokushisa kanye / noma ingcindezi Kunconywa Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sterothermophilus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, futhi Aeromonas hydrophila.

Inqubo Development

Ngokungafani nezinye izinqubo-non-ezishisayo, njengaleyo ophezulu hydrostatic (HP), onomfutho carbon dioxide (cCO2) kanye supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) kanye okusezingeni eliphezulu kagesi emkhakheni pulses (USIZO), ukwenza i-ultrasound kungenziwa kalula ihlolwe lab noma ebhentshini-top esikalini – odala imiphumela reproducible ukuze ngesilinganiso-up. Amandla kanye nezici cavitation kungenziwa kalula bazivumelanisa isizinda inqubo ethize ukukhomba izinjongo ezithile. Amplitude nokucindezelwa kungenziwa kuhluka anhlobonhlobo, isib ukuhlonza kakhulu eyonga ugesi isizinda isethaphu. kwezicubu Tough kufanele ibhekane maceration, ukugaya noma pulverization ngaphambi ultrasonication.

E.coli

Ukukhiqiza nengcosana amaprotheni isakhi sokuzakhela isifundo kanye kwebalingisi of izakhiwo oyizalayo, E.coli kuyinto igciwane lokuzikhethela. Ukuhlanzwa amathegi, isib umsila polyhistidine, beta-galactosidase, noma maltose-ngibopha
amaphrotheni, owaziwa ohlanganiswe amaprotheni isakhi sokuzakhela ukuze ubenze separable kuseli ezikhishwe nge ubumsulwa eyanele ngezinhloso eziningi kohlaziyo. Ultrasonication evumela ukusebenzisa ngokugcwele ukukhululwa amaprotheni, ikakhulukazi lapho isivuno ukukhiqizwa uphansi futhi alondoloze isakhiwo nomsebenzi amaprotheni isakhi sokuzakhela.

I ukuphazamiseka E.coli amaseli ukuze kukhishwe Imininingwane Chymosin amaprotheni wahlolwa UKim Zayas.

liqhakaze Obumba

I-Saffron ibizwa ngokuthi i-spice ebiza kakhulu emakethe yomhlaba futhi ihlukaniswe ukunambitheka kwayo okubucayi, ukunambitheka okubabayo nombala ophuzi okhangayo. I-spice ye-safari itholakala kuhlamba olubomvu lwembali le-crocus ye-safoni. Ngemuva kokumiswa, lezi zingxenye zisetshenziselwa ukudla okunomsoco noma njenge-agent agent. I-taste flavor ye-safari iphumela ikakhulukazi emakhiweni amathathu: i-crocins, i-picrocrocin ne-safranal.

Kadkhodaee futhi Hemmati-Kakhki baye wakubonisa cwaningo ukuthi ultrasonication anda isivuno isizinda kakhulu futhi yehlise isikhathi processing kakhulu. Empeleni, imiphumela ultrasound isizinda babe ngokugqamile ungcono by bendabuko abandayo amanzi isizinda, okuyinto ehlongozwayo ngu-ISO. Ukuze ucwaningo lwabo, Kadkhodaee futhi Hemmati-Kakhki baye basebenzisa Hielscher sika ultrasonic idivayisi UP50H. Kuhle imiphumela kwafezwa sonication pulsed. Lokhu kusho ukuthi iDemo ishayela ngezikhawu Zaziphumelela kangcono kunendlela evamile yokwelapha okuqhubekayo ultrasonic.

namachibi

Ngezinye kwemibala elawulwa, isicelo ultrasound biotransformation kanye ukuvutshelwa kungaholela kahle i bioprocessing sithuthukiswe, ngenxa eyenga imiphumela begazi futhi ngenxa lula yeselula mass-ukudluliselwa. Ithonya isicelo elawulwa of ultrasound (20kHz) kwi namachibi cholesterol ukuze cholestenone ngu uhlezi amaseli Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 25544 (phambilini obuwaziwa I-Nocardia erythropolis) Ukuthi siphenywe Ibha.

I-Cholesterol + O2 = Cholest-4-en-3-oyedwa + H2O2

Lolu hlelo esivamile kugucuka microbial ka sterols futhi kwezidakamizwa ukuthi substrate kanye imikhiqizo amanzi ukudla okuqinile zingaxazululeki. Ngakho-ke, kulesi simiso kunalokho esingavamile, izitokisi kanye ukudla okuqinile kungenzeka ibe ngaphansi kwegunya umphumela ultrasound (Ibha, ngo-1987). At umfutho ngokwanele ongaphakeme ultrasonic owalondoloza ubuqotho isakhi amaseli futhi zigcinwe umsebenzi wabo umzimba, Bar yabukela isithuthukisi okuphawulekayo amazinga kinetic we biotransformation e slurries microbial 1.0 no 2.5 g / L cholesterol lapho sonicated for 5s zonke 10mn nge a amandla okukhipha 0.2W / cm². Ultrasound yabonisa kungekho ukusebenza ngomhla ka-namachibi enzymatic cholesterol (2.5g / L) ngu-cholesterol oxidase.

Ubuchwepheshe kunenzuzo

Ukusetshenziswa cavitation ultrasonic for isizinda kanye nokulondolozwa kokudla kuyinto entsha enamandla ukucutshungulwa ubuchwepheshe esingagcini nje zisetshenziswe ngendlela ephephile futhi imvelo kodwa futhi ngokupheleleyo nangokonga. I homogenizing nomphumela ekulondolozeni kungenziwa kalula esetshenziselwa zezithelo kanye purees (isb liwolintji, lihhabhula, ubhamubhamu, umango, amagilebhisi, iplamu) kanye yemifino nososo kanye nesobho, like utamatisi sauce noma asparagus isobho.

Cela ulwazi oluthe xaxa!

Sicela usebenzise ifomu elingezansi, uma ufisa ukucela ukwaziswa okwengeziwe mayelana nokusebenzisa ultrasound for the isizinda nasekusindisweni.









Sicela uqaphele wethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


Izincwadi

Allinger, uH (1975): I-Laboratory yaseMelika, 7 (10), 75 (1975).

Ibha, R. (1987): Bioprocesses ultrasound Enhanced, Ku: I-biotechnology kanye Engineering, Umq. 32, Kk. 655-663 (1987).

El'piner, S.I. (1964): Ultrasound: Physical, Chemical, futhi eziphilayo Effects (Consultants Bureau, i-New York, 1964), 53-78.

Kadkhodaee, R .; Hemmati-Kakhki, A .: Ultrasonic Isizinda of eselaphayo kusuka liqhakaze, ku: Inthanethi Publication.

Kim, S. M. futhi Zayas, J.F. (1989): Icubungula ipharamitha ye chymosin isizinda nge-ultrasound; ekhatsi J. Ukudla Sci. 54: 700.

Mokkila, M., Mustranta, A., Buchert, J., Poutanen, K (2004): Ukuhlanganisa amandla ultrasound ne enzyme berry juice ukucutshungulwa, Ku: Int 2nd. Conf. Biocatalysis Wokudla Iziphuzo, 19-22.9.2004, Stuttgart, eJalimane.

Moulton, K.J. uWang, L.C. (1982): A Pilot-Plant Ukutadisha Okuqhubekayo Ultrasonic Isizinda of Soybean Amaphrotheni, ku: Journal of Ukudla Science, uMqulu 47, 1982.

Umama, i-CL (1978): Umthelela ultrasound ku fibroblasts ngaphandle kwesibeletho, ku: Ph.D. Mqondo, University of London, London, England, 1978.