I-Biodiesel nge-Ultrasonically Improved (Trans-) Esterification

IBiodiesel ihlanganiswa nge-transesterification isebenzisa i-base-catalyst. Kodwa-ke, uma kusetshenziswa izinto ezingavuthiwe ezifana nemifino yemfucumfucu esezingeni eliphansi enokuqukethwe okunamafutha ane-asidi ephezulu, kudingeka isinyathelo samakhemikhali sangaphambi kokwelashwa sokusebenzisa i-acid-catatlyst. I-Ultrasonication nemiphumela yayo ye-sonochemical kanye ne-sonomechanical ifaka isandla kuzo zombili izinhlobo zokuphendula futhi ikhulise ukusebenza kahle kokuguqulwa kwe-biodiesel ngokumangazayo. Ukukhiqizwa kwe-Ultrasonic biodiesel kushesha kakhulu kunokuhlanganiswa okuvamile kwe-biodiesel, kuphumela ekukhiqizeni okuphezulu kwe-biodiesel nekhwalithi futhi kusindisa ama-reagents afana ne-methanol ne-catalyst.

Ukuguqulwa kwe-Biodiesel kusetshenziswa i-Power Ultrasound

Okwe-biodiesel, ama-fatty acid esters akhiqizwa ngokuguqulwa kwamafutha yemifino kanye namafutha ezilwane (isb., Tallow). Ngesikhathi sokuphendula kwe-transesterification, ingxenye ye-glycerol ithathelwa indawo ngenye utshwala, njenge-methanol. Iziphakeli ezinokuqukethwe okuphezulu kwamafutha anamafutha mahhala, isb. Uwoyela wemifino kadoti (i-WVO), zidinga ukwelashwa kwangaphambili kwe-acid esterification ukugwema ukwakheka kwensipho. Le nqubo ye-acid catalysis ukusabela okuhamba kancane, lapho kwenziwa njengendlela ejwayelekile ye-batch. Isixazululo sokusheshisa inqubo yokuqinisekisa kancane ukusetshenziswa kwe-ultrasound yamandla. I-Sonication ifinyelela ukuthuthuka okuphawulekayo kusivinini sokuphendula, ukuguqulwa kanye nesivuno se-biodiesel njengoba imiphumela ye-sonochemical ye-high-power ultrasound ikhuthaza futhi iqinisa i-acid catalysis. I-Ultrasonic cavitation inikeza amandla we-sonomechanical, okusho ukuxubana okuphezulu kwe-shear, kanye namandla we-sonochemical. Lezi zinhlobo zombili zethonya le-ultrasonic (i-sonomechanical ne-sonochemical) ziguqula i-acid-catalyzed esterification ibe ukusabela okusheshayo okudinga i-catalyst encane.

Isicelo solwazi




Qaphela kwethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


3x UIP1000hdT ultrasonicators for highly efficient biodiesel transesterification

Ukuxubana kwe-Ultrasonic kuthuthukisa izinga lokuguqulwa kwe-biodiesel, kwandisa isivuno futhi konga i-methanol eyeqile ne-catalyst. Isithombe sikhombisa ukufakwa kwe-3x I-UIP1000hdT (amandla we-1kW ultrasound ngayinye) wokucubungula okusemgqeni.

Ultrasonic transesterification improves biodiesel conversion.

Ukuguqulwa kwama-triglycerides abe yi-biodiesel (FAME) kusetshenziswa imiphumela ye-sonication ekuphenduleni okuphuthumayo nokusebenza kahle okuphezulu kakhulu.

Isebenza Kanjani Ukuguqulwa Kwe-Ultrasonic Biodiesel?

I-Ultrasonication phakathi kwezigaba ezahlukahlukene ku-transesterification (nayo kwesinye isikhathi ibizwa ngokuthi yi-alcoholysis) kanye ne-esterification isuselwa ekuthuthukisweni kokuxubeka nasekwandisweni kokushisa nokudluliswa okukhulu. Ukuxubana kwe-Ultrasonic kusekelwe esimisweni se-acoustic cavitation, esenzeka njengomphumela wokufaka amabhamuza we-vacuum kuketshezi. I-acoustic cavitation ibonwa ngamandla amakhulu okushefa kanye nokuxokozela, kanye nokwehluka kakhulu kwengcindezi kanye nokwehla kwamazinga okushisa. Le mibutho ikhuthaza ukusabela kwamakhemikhali kwe-transesterification / esterification futhi kuqinise ukudluliswa kobuningi nokushisa, ngaleyo ndlela kuthuthukise ukusabela kokuguqulwa kwe-biodiesel kakhulu.
Ukusetshenziswa kwe-ultrasonics ngesikhathi sokuguqulwa kwe-biodiesel kufakazelwe ngokwesayensi nangokwezimboni ukuthuthukisa ukusebenza kahle kwenqubo. Ukuthuthuka kokusebenza kahle kwenqubo kungabangelwa ukunciphisa ukusetshenziswa kwamandla nezindleko zokusebenza, kanye nokwehlisa ukusetshenziswa kotshwala (okungukuthi, i-methanol), i-catalyst encane, nesikhathi esifushane sokusabela. Izindleko zamandla okushisa ziyaqedwa ngoba asikho isidingo sokushisa kwangaphandle. Ngokwengeziwe, ukwahlukaniswa kwesigaba phakathi kwe-biodiesel ne-glycerol kulula ngesikhathi esifushane sokuhlukanisa isigaba. Isici esibalulekile ekusetshenzisweni kokuhweba kwe-ultrasound ekukhiqizeni i-biodiesel ukukala okulula kunoma yiliphi ivolumu, ukusebenza okuthembekile nokuphephile kanye nokuqina nokuthembeka kwemishini ye-ultrasonic (indinganiso yezimboni, ekwazi ukusebenza ngokuqhubekayo 24/7 / 365 ngaphansi komthwalo ogcwele).

Hielscher ultrasonic reactor for biodiesel transesterification with superior process efficiency

Uhlelo lwezezimboni lwe-Ultrasonic olunokugeleza kweseli kwe-inline biodiesel esterfication kanye ne-transesterification.

Process chart showing the biodiesel process in continuous flow mode. Ultrasound can improve esterification and transesterification significantly.

I-Ultrasonic esterification ne-transesterification ingaqhutshwa njengenqwaba noma inqubo eqhubekayo yomugqa. Ishadi likhombisa inqubo esemgqeni we-ultrasonic ye-biodiesel (FAME) transesterfication.


Process chart showing the biodiesel process in batch mode. Ultrasound can improve esterification and transesterification significantly.

I-Ultrasonic esterification ne-transesterification ingaqhutshwa njengenqwaba noma inqubo eqhubekayo yomugqa. Leli shadi libonisa inqubo ye-batch ultrasonic yokuguqulwa kwe-biodiesel.

Isicelo solwazi




Qaphela kwethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


Ultrasonically-Assisted Two Step Biodiesel Conversion Ukufaka I-Acid- ne-Base-Catalyzed Reaction Steps

Kwama-feedstocks anokuqukethwe okuphezulu kwe-FFA, ukukhiqizwa kwe-biodiesel kwenziwa njenge-acid noma i-base-catalyzed reaction enqubeni yesigaba ezimbili. I-Ultrasound inikela ngezinhlobo ezimbili zombili zokuphendula, i-acid-catalyzed esterification kanye ne-base-catalyzed transesterification:

I-acid-catalyzed esterification isebenzisa i-Ultrasound

Ukwelapha ama-acid amaningi wamahhala ku-feedstock, inqubo yokuqinisekisa iyadingeka. I-Sulfuric acid ivame ukusetshenziswa njenge-acid catalyst.

  • Lungisa i-feedstock ngokuhlunga nokucwengisisa kokungcolisayo namanzi.
  • Chaza i-catalyst, okuyi-sulfuric acid, ku-methanol. Ukusakazwa kokuphakelayo kwe-catalyst / methanol kanye ne-feedstock ngokusebenzisa umshini wokushisa nesixubanisi esimile ukuze kutholwe ingxubevange engakahluziwe.
  • Ukuhlanganiswa kwangaphambili kwe-catalyst ne-feedstock kuya ngqo ekamelweni lokuphendula le-ultrasonic, lapho kuhlangana khona i-ultra-fine ne-sonochemistry futhi ama-fatty acids wamahhala aguqulwa abe yi-biodiesel.
  • Ekugcineni, susa umkhiqizo emanzini bese uwondla izigaba ezimbili zesibili - i-transesterification ye-ultrasonic. I-methanol emanzi ene-asidi ingemuva kokululama, ukomiswa kanye ne-neutraliziation elungele ukusetshenziswa futhi.
  • Kwi-FFA ephezulu kakhulu equkethe ama-feedstocks, ukusethwa kokuphindaphindwa kungadingeka ukuze kwehliswe i-FFA iye ezingeni elifanele ngaphambi kwesinyathelo se-transesterification.

Ukuphendula kwe-Esterification usebenzisa i-Acid Catalyst:
I-FFA + Utshwala → Ester + Amanzi

I-Base-Catalyzed Transesterification isebenzisa i-Ultrasound

I-feedstock, manje enamanani amancane ama-FFA kuphela, angaphakelwa ngqo esigabeni se-transesterification. Imvamisa i-sodium hydroxide noma i-potassium hydroxide (NaOH, KOH) isetshenziswa njenge-base catalyst.

  • Chaza i-catalyst, okuyi-potassium hydroxide, ku-methanol bese wondla imifudlana ye-catalyst / methanol kanye ne-feedstock eseyenziwe ngaphambilini ngomxube we-static ukuthola i-pre-mix engahluziwe.
  • Yondla i-pre-mix ngqo ekamelweni lokuphendula le-ultrasonic lokuxubana okuphezulu kwe-shear kanye nokwelashwa kwe-sonochemical. Imikhiqizo yalokhu kuphendula ngama-alkyl esters (okungukuthi, i-biodiesel) ne-glycerin. I-glycerin ingahlukaniswa ngokuhlala ngaphandle noma nge-centrifuging.
  • I-biodiesel ekhiqizwa nge-ultrasonically inekhwalithi ephezulu futhi yenziwe ngokushesha, eyonga amandla futhi eyonga izindleko ngokusindisa i-methanol ne-catalyst.

Ukuphendula kwe-Transesterification usebenzisa i-Base Catalyst:
Amafutha / Amafutha + Utshwala → I-Biodiesel + Glycerol

Ukusetshenziswa kweMethanol & Ukubuyiselwa KweMethanol

I-Methanol iyinto esemqoka ngesikhathi sokukhiqizwa kwe-biodiesel. Ukuguqulwa kwe-biodiesel okuqhutshwa nge-ultrasonically kuvumela ukusetshenziswa okuncishiswe kakhulu kwe-methanol. Uma manje ucabanga ukuthi “anginandaba nokusetshenziswa kwami kwe-methanol, ngoba ngiyakuthola noma kunjalo”, ungacabanga kabusha futhi ubheke izindleko ezimba eqolo zamandla ezisebenza esinyathelweni sokuhwamuka (isb. kuyadingeka ukuhlukanisa nokusebenzisa kabusha i-methanol.
I-Methanol ivame ukususwa ngemuva kokuthi i-biodiesel ne-glycerin sehlukaniswe izendlalelo ezimbili, ukuvimbela ukubuyela emuva kokuphendula. I-methanol bese iyahlanzwa iphinde isetshenziswe kabusha ibuyele ekuqaleni kwenqubo. Ukukhiqiza i-biodiesel nge-esterification eqhutshwa nge-ultrasonically kanye ne-transesterification, uyakwazi ukunciphisa ukusetshenziswa kwakho kwe-methanol ngokumangazayo, ngaleyo ndlela unciphise izindleko ezinkulu kakhulu zamandla wokuthola i-methanol. Ukusetshenziswa kwe-Hielscher ultrasonic reactors kunciphisa inani elidingekayo lemethanol eyeqile kuze kufike ku-50%. Isilinganiso se-molar esiphakathi kuka-1: 4 noma u-1: 4.5 (uwoyela: i-methanol) sanele ku-feedstock eningi, lapho usebenzisa ukuxubana kwe-Hielscher ultrasonic.

Process chart showing the biodiesel processing steps. Ultrasound can improve esterification and transesterification significantly.

I-Ultrasonic esterification yisinyathelo sangaphambi kokuthenga, esinciphise okuphakelayo okuphansi kwebanga eliphakeme kuma-FFA kuma-esters. Esigabeni sesibili se-ultrasonic transesterification, ama-triglycerides aguqulwa abe yi-biodiesel (FAME).

Isicelo solwazi




Qaphela kwethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


Ukusebenza kahle kokuguqulwa kwe-Ultrasonic – Kufakazelwe Ngokwesayensi

Iqembu labacwaningi abaningi liphenye indlela nemiphumela ye-ultrasonic transesterification ye-biodiesel. Isibonelo, iqembu labacwaningi likaSebayan Darwin likhombisile ukuthi i-ultrasonic cavitation inyuse umsebenzi wamakhemikhali kanye nesilinganiso sokuphendula okuholele ekwakhiweni okwenyuka kakhulu kwe-ester. Inqubo ye-ultrasonic yehlise isikhathi sokuphendula se-transesterification saba yimizuzu emi-5 – ngokuqhathanisa namahora ama-2 wokucubungula okwenziwa ngemishini Ukuguqulwa kwe-triglyceride (TG) kuya ku-FAME ngaphansi kwe-ultrasonication kutholwe i-95.6929% wt nge-methanol kuya ku-oyela molar ratio ka-6: 1 no-1% wt sodium hydroxide njenge-catalyst. (bheka uDarwin et al. 2010)

Ama-Ultrasonicators Wosayizi Waphakathi Nesisindo Esikhulu we-Biodiesel Processing

Hielscher Ultrasonics’ ihlinzeka ngamaprosesa amancane asezingeni eliphakathi nendawo kanye namaphrosesa asezimboni amakhulu wezimboni ukukhiqizwa okusebenzayo kwe-biodiesel nganoma yiliphi ivolumu. Ukunikela ngohlelo lwe-ultrasonic nganoma yisiphi isilinganiso, i-Hielscher inganikela ngesixazululo esihle kubo bobabili abakhiqizi abancane nezinkampani ezinkulu. Ukuguqulwa kwe-ultrasonic biodiesel kungenziwa njenge-batch noma njengenqubo eqhubekayo yomugqa. Ukufakwa nokusebenza kulula, kuphephile futhi kunika imiphumela ephezulu ethembekile yekhwalithi ephezulu ye-biodiesel.
Ngezansi uzothola ukusethwa okuphendulayo okuphendulayo kwamanani wamanani wokukhiqiza.

ithoni / hr
gal / hr
1x UIP500hdT
0.25 kuya ku-0.5
80 kuya ku-160
1x I-UIP1000hdT
0.5 kuya ku-1.0
160 kuya ku-320
1x UIP1500hdT
0.75 kuya ku-1.5
240 kuya ku-480
2x I-UIP1000hdT
1.0 kuya ku-2.0
320 kuya ku-640
2x UIP1500hdT
1.5 kuya ku-3.0
480 kuya ku-960
4x UIP1500hdT
3.0 kuya ku-6.0
960 kuya ku-1920
6x UIP1500hdT
4.5 kuya ku-9.0
1440 kuya ku-2880

Xhumana nathi! / Cela Us!

Cela ulwazi oluthe xaxa

Uyacelwa ukuthi usebenzise ifomu elingezansi ukucela ulwazi olungeziwe mayelana nezinhlelo zokusebenza ze-ultrasonic, izinhlelo zokusebenza nentengo. Sizokujabulela ukuxoxa ngenqubo yakho nawe futhi sikunikeze uhlelo lwe-ultrasonic oluhlangabezana nezidingo zakho!









Sicela uqaphele wethu Inqubomgomo yobumfihlo.


Ultrasonic high-shear homogenizers are used in lab, bench-top, pilot and industrial processing.

I-Hielscher Ultrasonics ikhiqiza ama-homogenizers asebenza ngokusebenza okuphezulu wokuxuba izinhlelo, ukusabalalisa, ukumisa nokukhipha ilebhu, umshayeli kanye nesikali sezimboni.



Izincwadi / Izikhombo


Amaqiniso Okufanele Ukwazi

Ukukhiqizwa kwe-Biodiesel

I-Biodiesel ikhiqizwa lapho i-trigycerides iguqulwa ibe ngamafutha anamafutha e-methyl ester (FAME) ngokusebenzisa ukusabela kwamakhemikhali okwaziwa nge-transesterification. Ngesikhathi sokuphendula kwe-transesterification, ama-trigylcerides kumafutha wemifino noma emafutheni ezilwane asabela lapho kukhona i-catalyst (isb., I-potassium hydroxide noma i-sodium hydroxide) enotshwala obuyinhloko (isb., I-methanol). Kulokhu kusabela, ama-alkyl esters akhiwa kusuka kokuphakelayo kwamafutha yemifino noma amafutha ezilwane. Ama-Triglycerides ama-glycerides, lapho i-glycerol isetshenziswe ngama-acids amade, abizwa ngama-fatty acids. Lawa mafutha acid atholakala kakhulu emafutheni omifino kanye nasemafutheni ezilwane. Njengoba i-biodiesel ingakhiqizwa kusuka kuma-feedstocks ahlukahlukene anjenge-oyili yemifino eseyintombi, uwoyela wemifino odoti, owoyela osetshenzisiwe, amafutha ezilwane afana ne-tallow kanye nesinqumelo, inani lama-fatty acids (FFAs) angahluka kakhulu. Amaphesenti ama-fatty acids wamahhala we-triglycerides yinto ebalulekile ethonya inqubo yokukhiqizwa kwe-biodiesel kanye nekhwalithi ye-biodiesel eholela kakhulu. Inani eliphakeme lamafutha acid amahhala angaphazamisa inqubo yokuguqula futhi onakalise ikhwalithi yokugcina ye-biodiesel. Inkinga enkulu ukuthi ama-fatty acids wamahhala (ama-FFA) asabela ngama-alkalali catalysts aholela ekwakheni insipho. Ukwakhiwa kwesepha kamuva kubangela izinkinga zokuhlukaniswa kwe-glycerol. Ngakho-ke, ama-feedstocks aqukethe inani eliphakeme lama-FFA ikakhulukazi adinga ukwelashwa kwangaphambili (okubizwa ngokuthi yi-esterification reaction), lapho ama-FFA aguqulwa abe ama-esters. I-Ultrasonication ithuthukisa zombili izindlela zokuphendula, i-transesterification kanye ne-esterification.

Ukuphendula Kwamakhemikhali kwe-Esterification

I-Esterification inqubo yokuhlanganisa i-organic acid (RCOOH) notshwala (ROH) ukwakha i-ester (RCOOR) namanzi.

Ukusetshenziswa kweMethanol ku-Acidic Esterification

Lapho i-acid esterification isetshenziselwa ukunciphisa ama-FFA kuma-feedstock, izidingo zamandla ngokushesha ziphansi kakhulu. Kodwa-ke, amanzi adalwa ngesikhathi sokuphendula kwesiqinisekiso – ukudala i-methanol emanzi, ene-asidi, okumele inciphiswe, yomiswe futhi itholakale. Le nqubo yokutakula i-methanol iyabiza.
Uma ama-feedstocks anama-20 kuya kuma-40% noma amaphesenti aphezulu we-FFA, izinyathelo eziningi zingadingeka ukuze wehlise emazingeni amukelekile. Lokhu kusho ukuthi, i-methanol emanzi kakhulu iyakhiwa. Ngemuva kokwehlisa amandla i-methanol ene-asidi, ukomisa kudinga iziphuzo zazihluzwa eziningi ezinamanani abalulekile we-reflux, okuholela ekusebenziseni amandla kakhulu.


High performance ultrasonics! Hielscher's product range covers the full spectrum from the compact lab ultrasonicator over bench-top units to full-industrial ultrasonic systems.

I-Hielscher Ultrasonics ikhiqiza ama-homogenizers asebenza ngokusezingeni eliphezulu avela ku- I-Lab kuya usayizi wezimboni.