Imọ-ẹrọ olutirasandi Hielscher

Ultrasonically Induced and Enhanced Phase Transfer Catalysis

Agbara olutirasandi giga jẹ daradara mọ fun ilowosi rẹ si awọn kemikali kemikali pupọ. Eyi ni eyiti a npe ni Sonochemistry. Orisirisi awọn aati - ati paapa alakoso gbigbe awọn aati - ni awọn ohun elo ti o lagbara julọ fun agbara olutirasandi. Nitori agbara ati isẹ-ẹrọ sonochemical ti a lo si awọn reagents, awọn aati le ṣee bẹrẹ, iyara iyara le dara si daradara, ati awọn oṣuwọn iyipada ti o ga, awọn ti o ga julọ, ati awọn ọja to dara julọ le ṣee ṣe. Awọn scalability linear ti olutirasandi ati wiwa ti ultrasonic gbẹkẹle Iṣẹ awọn ẹrọ ṣiṣe ilana yii jẹ ipinnu pupọ fun ṣiṣejade kemikali.
Glass reactor for targeted and reliable sonication processes

Ẹrọ Gilamu Ultrasonic Glass Flow

alakoso gbigbe catalysis

Iyipada Catalysis Gbekọja (PTC) jẹ fọọmu pataki kan ti o yatọ si catalysis ati ki o mọ bi ilana ti o wulo fun Organic kolaginni. Nipasẹ lilo olušeto ayipada alakoso, o jẹ ṣee ṣe lati solubilize awọn reactants ionic, eyiti o jẹ nigbagbogbo ti a tuka ninu ẹya alakoso ṣugbọn eyiti o ṣagbe ni apakan alakan. Eyi tumọ si PTC jẹ ọna omiran miiran lati bori isoro iṣoro ni aṣeyọri ninu eyi ti ibaraenisepo laarin awọn nkan meji ti o wa ni awọn ọna oriṣiriṣi awọn adalu kan ti ni idiwọ nitori pe ailagbara awọn reagents lati wa papọ. (Esen et al. 2010) Awọn anfani gbogbogbo ti iṣaṣiparọ iyipada alakoso ni awọn igbiyanju kekere fun igbaradi, awọn ilana igbadun ti o rọrun, awọn ipo aiṣedede alailowaya, awọn ipo atunṣe giga, awọn ipinnu giga, ati lilo awọn alaiṣe alailowaya ati awọn ti ko ni ayika, gẹgẹbi awọn ammonium quaternary iyọ, ati awọn nkan ti a nfo, ati awọn iṣeduro lati ṣe awọn iṣeduro ti o tobi pupọ (Ooi et al 2007).
Orisirisi awọn omi-omi-omi ati omi-ajẹ-ara ti a ti mu ki o ṣe awọn aṣayan nipa lilo awọn alakọja alakoso-alakoso (PT) gẹgẹbi awọn idibo, polyethylene glycol-400, ati bẹbẹ lọ, eyiti o gba ki awọn eeya ti o nipọn lati wa lati inu apakan alakoso si Organic alakoso. Bayi, awọn iṣoro ti o ni ibatan pẹlu solubility ti o kere julọ fun awọn olutọju ti Organic ni ipo alakoso le ṣee ṣẹgun. Ninu pesticide ati awọn ile-iṣẹ oogun, PTC ti lo ni pipọ ati pe o ti yi awọn iṣowo pada. (Sharma 2002)

Agbara olutirasandi

Awọn ohun elo ti agbara olutirasandi jẹ ọpa-mọ ọpa lati ṣẹda lalailopinpin itanran Emulsions. Ninu kemistri iru awọn irọrun ti o dara julọ-iwọn emulsions ti lo lati ṣe afihan awọn aati kemikali. Eyi tumọ si pe agbegbe olubasọrọ agbegbe laarin awọn meji tabi diẹ ẹ sii omi olomi di iwọn ti o tobi pupọ ati ki o pese nitorina ọna ti o dara julọ, ti o pari ati / tabi yiyara ti iṣesi.
Fun alakoso gbigbe catalysis – bakanna fun awọn aati kemikali miiran - to nilo agbara jiini lati bẹrẹ iṣesi.
Eyi ni awọn ipa ti o dara pupọ nipa iṣeduro kemikali:

  • Agbara kemikali ti yoo ma ṣe deede nitori agbara kekere agbara ti o le bẹrẹ nipasẹ ultrasonication.
  • Awọn aati kemikali le ṣe itọju nipasẹ ultrasonically-iranlọwọ PTC.
  • Pipe kuro ti alakoso gbigbe ayase.
  • Awọn ohun elo riru le lo diẹ sii daradara.
  • Awọn ọja-ọja le dinku.
  • Rirọpo ipilẹ agbara to lagbara ti o ni agbara-owo to lagbara pẹlu ifilelẹ ti ko ni iye owo.

Nipa awọn ipa wọnyi, PTC jẹ ilana kemikali ti ko niyelori fun isopọ ẹyin lati awọn eroja meji ati diẹ sii: Imukuro gbigbe catalysis (PTC) jẹ ki o lo awọn ohun elo ti kemikali ti awọn ilana kemikali daradara siwaju sii ati lati mu diẹ owo-ṣiṣe daradara. Imudarasi awọn ikolu ti kemikali nipasẹ PTC jẹ ọpa pataki fun iṣeduro kemikali ti a le ṣe atunṣe nipasẹ lilo lilo olutirasandi bosipo.

Ultrasonic cavitation in a glass column

Cavitation ninu omi

Awọn apẹẹrẹ fun ultrasonically ni igbega PTC aati

  • Ilana ti titun N '- (4,6-disubstituted-pyrimidin-2-yl) -N- (5-aryl-2-furoyl) thiaurea awọn itọsẹ lilo PEG-400 labẹ ultrasonication. (Ken ati al 2005)
  • Awọn itọju ultrasonically iranlọwọ ti ko ni mandelic acid nipasẹ PTC ni omi ionic fihan ẹya afikun ohun kan ni ifarahan egbin labẹ awọn ipo ibaramu. (Hua et al 2011)
  • Kubo et al. (2008) ṣabọ alaye ultrasonically iranlọwọ C-alkylation ti phenylacetonitrile ni ayika kan ti kii-onje. Ipa ti olutirasandi lati ṣe igbelaruge iṣeduro naa ni a sọ si agbegbe ti o tobi pupọ laarin agbegbe laarin awọn ọna omi meji. Awọn esi ultrasonication ni iṣiro pupọ ti o pọju ju iṣeduro iṣeduro.
  • Sonication lakoko iyọda ti erogba tetrachloride pẹlu iṣuu magnẹsia fun iran ti dichlorocarbene abajade ni ikun ti o ga julọ ti gem-dichlorocyclopropane ni iwaju awọn olefins. (Lin et al 2003)
  • Olutirasandi pese awọn isare ti Cannizzaro lenu ti p-chlorobenzaldehyde labẹ ipo gbigbe awọn alakoso. Ninu awọn alakoso mẹta gbigbe awọn catalysts – benichltriethylammonium kiloraidi (TEBA), Aliquat ati 18-ade-6 -, eyiti a ti idanwo nipasẹ Polácková et al. (1996) Ti ri pe TEBA jẹ julọ ti o munadoko. Ferrocenecarbaldehyde ati p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde fun, labẹ awọn iru ipo, 1,5-diaryl-1,4-pentadien-3-ones bi ọja akọkọ.
  • Lin-Xiao et al. (1987) ti fihan pe apapo ti ultrasonication ati PTC n ṣe iranlọwọ ni iran ti dichlorocarbene lati chloroform ni akoko kukuru pẹlu ikore ti o dara ati iye ti kii dinku.
  • Yang et al. (2012) ti ṣe iwadi awọn awọ ewe, ultrasonically-assisted synthesis of benzyl 4-hydroxybenzoate using 4,4'-bis (tributylammoniomethyl) -1,1'-biphenyl dichloride (QCl)2) bi ayase. Nipa lilo ti QCl2, wọn ti ṣe agbekalẹ ikun-ara-gbigbe-meji-aaye-iwe-iwe-iwe tuntun. Yiyọ-gbigbe-omi-phase-transfer catalysis (SLPTC) ti a ti gbe jade bi ilana ilana pẹlu ultrasonication. Labẹ sonication intense, 33% ti afikun Q2 ti o ni 45.2% ti Q (Ph (OH) COO)2 ti gbe lọ sinu apakan alakoso lati ṣe pẹlu bromide benzyl, nitorina ni o ṣe mu ki o pọju oṣuwọn atunṣe. Eyi ti o dara si oṣuwọn ti o gba 0.106 min-1 labẹ 300W ti irradiation ultrasonic, nigbati laisi sonication kan oṣuwọn ti 0.0563 min-1 ti šakiyesi. Nitori eyi, awọn ipa-ọna agbara ti awọn aaye-meji-aaye-gbigbe-gbigbe pẹlu olutirasandi ni ipo gbigbe catalysis ni alakoso ti a ti afihan.
The ultrasonic lab device UP200Ht provides powerful sonication in laboratories.

Aworan 1: Imudara UP200Ht jẹ ultrasonic homogenizer alagbara ultrasonic kan

Imudara Ẹtan ti Ipaba Gbigbe Ikọju Ikọja Asymmetric

Pẹlu Ero ti Igbekale ọna ti o wulo fun iṣedopọ asymmetric ti amino acids ati awọn itọsẹ wọn Maruoka ati Ooi (2007) ṣe iwadi "boya atunṣe ti N-spiro chiral quaternary ammonium salts le ni ilọsiwaju ati awọn ẹya wọn ti o rọrun. Niwon irradiation ultrasonic nmu homogenization, ti o jẹ, pupọ itanran Emulsions, o mu ki agbegbe agbegbe ti o pọju eyiti iṣan le waye, eyi ti o le ṣe itọkasi iwọn ilawọn ni ọna omi-omi-alakoso gbigbe. Nitootọ, sonication ti idapọ ti adalu ti 2, methyl iodide, ati (S, S) -naphtyl subunit (1 mol%) ni mẹẹta / 50% KOH olomi ni 0 degC fun 1 h fun jinde ni ọja alkylation ti o tẹle ni 63% ikore pẹlu 88% e; ikore kemikali ati enantioselectivity jẹ afiwe pẹlu awọn ti a ti ṣe nipasẹ iṣeduro ti adalu fun wakati mẹjọ (0 degC, 64%, 90% e). "(Maruoka et al 2007; p 4229)

Improved phase transfer reactions by sonication

Ero 1: Ultrasonication ṣe igbadun ni oṣuwọn oṣuwọn lakoko iṣeduro asymmetric ti α-amino acids [Maruoka et al. 2007]

Ọna miiran ti o ṣe atunṣe idaamu aiṣedede jẹ Iṣelisi Michael. Iṣeduro Michael ti diethyl n-acetyl-aminomalonate si chalcone jẹ eyiti o ni ipa nipasẹ ultrasonication eyi ti o nmu ilosoke 12% ti ikore (lati 72% ti o gba lakoko ti o dakẹ si 82% labẹ ultrasonication). Akoko akoko naa ni igba mẹfa yiyara labẹ agbara olutirasandi akawe si ifarahan laisi olutirasandi. Isanwo enantiomeric (ee) ko ti yipada ati ki o jẹ fun awọn aati meji - pẹlu ati laisi olutirasandi - ni 40% ee. (Mirza-Aghayan et al 1995)
Li et al. (2003) fihan pe iṣiro Mikaeli ti awọn alailẹgbẹ bii awọn olugba pẹlu orisirisi awọn orisirisi methylene ti o nṣiṣe lọwọ gẹgẹbi awọn diethyl malonate, nitromethane, cyclohexanone, acetoacetate ethyl ati acetylacetone bi awọn oluranlowo ti o ni idasilẹ nipasẹ KF / ipilẹ alumina aluminiomu ninu awọn ohun elo ni ikunra giga laarin akoko kukuru labẹ olutirasandi irradiation. Ninu iwadi miiran, Li et al. (2002) ti ṣe afihan awọn aṣeyọri ultrasonically-iranlọwọ awọn kolaginni ti chalcones catalyzed nipasẹ KF-Al2O3.
Awọn ailera PTC wọnyi loke han nikan ni aaye kekere ti o pọju ati awọn iṣeṣe ti itanna ultrasonic.
Igbeyewo ati imọran ti olutirasandi nipa awọn ilọsiwaju ti o ṣee ṣe ni PTC jẹ irorun. Awọn ẹrọ laabu Ultrasonic gẹgẹbi Hielscher's UP200Ht (200 watts) ati awọn ọna ṣiṣe ori-oke bi Hielscher's UIP1000hd (1000 watt) gba awọn idanwo akọkọ. (wo aworan 1 ati 2)
Imudara afikun igbelaruge Ultrasonic ni afikun (Tẹ lati tobi!)

Ero 2: Iranlọwọ aifọwọyi Ultrasonically Michael afikun ti diethyl N-acetyl-aminomalonate si chalcone [Török et al. 2001]

Ṣiṣepọ Ọja ti Nṣiṣẹ lori Ibi-Ọja Ọja

Lilo ultrasonic alakoso gbigbe catalysis o yoo jere lati ọkan tabi diẹ ẹ sii orisirisi awọn anfani anfani:

  • Ibẹrẹ ti awọn aati ti o jẹ bibẹkọ ti ko ṣee ṣe
  • ilosoke ti ikore
  • ge pada ti gbowolori, anhydrous, aprotic solvents
  • idinku ti akoko akoko
  • kekere awọn iwọn otutu
  • igbaradi simplified
  • lilo ti olomi alkali olomi dipo ti irin alkoxides alkali, sodium amide, sodium hydride tabi ti sodium ti fadaka
  • lilo awọn ohun elo ti o din owo din, paapa oxidants
  • naficula ti selectivity
  • iyipada ti awọn ọja ọja (fun apẹẹrẹ O- / C-alkylation)
  • ipinya simplified ati imototo
  • ilosoke ti ikore nipasẹ titẹ awọn ẹgbẹ ainilara
  • rọrun, iwọn ila-apapọ-soke si ipele ti iṣelọpọ iṣẹ, paapaa pẹlu fifun ti o ga julọ
UIP1000hd Bench-Top Ultrasonic Homogenizer

Oṣo pẹlu ẹrọ profaili ultrasonic 1000W, sisan alagbeka, ojò ati fifa soke

Awọn igbeyewo ti o rọrun ati laisi ewu ti Awọn igbejade Ultrasonic ni Kemistri

Lati wo bi olutirasandi n ṣe ipa awọn ohun elo pato ati awọn aati, awọn ayẹwo akọkọ ṣee ṣe ni iwọn kekere. Awọn ẹrọ yàrá ẹrọ ti o ni ọwọ tabi ti o duro ni imurasilẹ duro ni ibiti o ti 50 to 400 Wattis gba laaye fun sonication ti awọn aami kekere ati iwọn-iwọn ninu beaker. Ti awọn abajade akọkọ fihan awọn aṣeyọri ti o pọju, ilana naa le ni idagbasoke ati iṣaṣagbeye ni oke-ori pẹlu ẹrọ isise ultrasonic, fun apẹẹrẹ. UIP1000hd (1000W, 20kHz). Hielscher ká ultrasonic ibujoko-oke awọn ọna šiše pẹlu 500 watt si 2000 watts ni awọn ẹrọ ti o dara fun R&D ati didara julọ. Awọn ọna ẹrọ ultrasonic wọnyi - apẹrẹ fun beaker ati sonication sono – fun iṣakoso ni kikun lori ilana ti o ṣe pataki julo: Iwọnju, Ipaju, Iwọn otutu, Agbara-ori, ati ifojusi.
Išakoso deede lori awọn ipele ayeye fun laaye gangan reproducibility ati PCM scalability ti awọn esi ti o gba. Lẹhin ti o ṣayẹwo ọpọlọpọ awọn atupọ, iṣeto ti o dara julọ ni a le lo lati ṣiṣe continuously (24h / 7d) labẹ awọn ipo iṣelọpọ. Ibi-aṣẹ PC-aṣayan (wiwo-ẹrọ software) tun ṣe igbasilẹ ti awọn idanwo kọọkan. Fun awọn sonication ti awọn olomi flammable tabi awọn nkan to ni nkan agbegbe oloro (ATEX, FM) UIP1000hd wa ninu ẹya ATEX-ti a fọwọsi: UIP1000-Exd.

Gbogbogbo anfani lati ultrasonication ni kemistri:

  • A le ṣe itọju le ni itọju tabi kere si ipo ti o ni agbara mu ti a ba beere fun lilo sonication.
  • Awọn akoko asiko ni a maa dinku pupọ gẹgẹbi awọn exotherms deede ni nkan ṣe pẹlu iru awọn aati.
  • Awọn aati ti Sonochemical ti wa ni ibẹrẹ nigbagbogbo nipasẹ olutirasandi lai si nilo fun awọn afikun.
  • Nọmba awọn igbesẹ ti o wa ni deede ti a beere fun ni ọna itọpọ le ma dinku ni igba diẹ.
  • Ni awọn ipo kan a le ṣe itọsọna si ọna miiran.

Kan si wa / Beere fun Alaye siwaju sii

Ọrọ lati wa nipa rẹ processing awọn ibeere. A yoo so ti o dara julọ oso ati processing sile fun ise agbese rẹ.





Jọwọ ṣe akiyesi wa Ìpamọ Afihan.


Iwe-iwe / Awọn itọkasi

  1. Esen, Ilker et al. (2010): Awọn akoko ti o pọju Awọn ifarahan Ikọja Awọn ọna ti Aromatic Aldehydes ni Omi Labẹ Ipa-Ọna Ultrasonic. Bulletin of Korean Chemical Society 31/8, 2010; pp. 2289-2292.
  2. Hua, Q. et al. (2011): Ultrasonically-promoted synthesis of mandelic acid by phase transfer catalysis in ionic liquid. Ni: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Vol. 18/5, 2011; pp. 1035-1037.
  3. Li, J.-T. et al. (2003): Iṣesi Michael ṣe ayipada nipasẹ KF / ipilẹ alumina labẹ olutirasandi ifihan itanna. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 10, 2003. pp 115-118.
  4. Lin, Haixa et al. (2003): ilana ilana ti o rọrun fun Ọgbẹ ti Dichlorocarbene lati inu ifunjade ti Erogba Tetrachloride ati iṣuu magnẹsia lilo Ultrasonic Irradiation. Ni: Molecules 8, 2003; pp 608 -613.
  5. Lin-Xiao, Xu et al. (1987): A arabara ọna wulo fun iran ti dichlorocebene nipasẹ ultrasonic ifihan itanna ati alakoso gbigbe catalysis. Ni: Acta Chimica Sinica, Vol. 5/4, 1987; pp. 294-298.
  6. Ken, Shao-Yong et al. (2005): Ikọja alakoso catalyzed kolaginni labẹ ultrasonic ifihan itanna ati bioactivity ti N '- (4,6-disubstituted-pyrimidin-2-yl) -N- (5-aryl-2-furoyl) thiaurea awọn itọsẹ. Ni: Indian Journal of Chemistry Vol. 44B, 2005; pp. 1957-1960.
  7. Kubo, Masaki et al. (2008): Kinetics of Solvent-Free C-Alkylation of Phenylacetonitrile Lilo Ultrasonic Irradiation. Kemikali Engineering Akosile Japan, Vol. 41, 2008; pp. 1031-1036.
  8. Maruoka, Keiji et al. (2007): Awọn Ilọsiwaju Lọwọlọwọ ni Asiko-alailẹkọ Iṣiparọ Iṣipopada. Ni: Ibinu. Chem. Int. Ed., Vol. 46, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2007; pp 4222-4266.
  9. Mason, Timothy et al. (2002): Lo sonochemistry: awọn lilo ti agbara olutirasandi ni kemistri ati processing. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2002.
  10. Mirza-Aghayan, M. et al (1995): Imudarasi Irigiramu Itanna lori Imudara Asiri ti Michael Resaction. Tetrahedron: Asymmetry 6/11, 1995; pp 2643-2646.
  11. Polácková, Viera et al. (1996): Imudarasi olutirasandi Cannizzaro lenu labẹ awọn ipo gbigbe-alakoso. Ni: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Vol. 3/1, 1996; pp 15-17.
  12. Sharma, MM (2002): Awọn ogbon ti nṣe ifarahan awọn aati lori iwọn kekere. Yiyan-ṣiṣe aṣayan iṣẹ-ṣiṣe ati ilana intensification. Ni: Pure and Applied Chemistry, Vol. 74/12, 2002; pp. 2265-2269.
  13. Török, B. et al. (2001): Asymmetric reactions in sonochemistry. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 8, 2001; pp. 191-200.
  14. Wang, Maw-Ling et al. (2007): Olutirasandi iranlọwọ iranlọwọ awọn alakoso-gbigbe catalytic epoxidation ti 1,7-octadiene - A iwadi kinetic. Ni: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Vol. 14/1, 2007; pp. 46-54.
  15. Yang, H.-M .; Chu, WM. (2012): Agbara olutirasandi-Iranlọwọ-Catalysis Fun ikoko: Ọna ti Green ti Substituted Benzoate pẹlu Igbesi aye Igbese meji-Igbese-Igbese Itọsọna ni Eto Solid-Liquid. Ni: Awọn ilana ti 14 tith Asia Pacific Confederation of Chemical Engineering Congress APCChE 2012.


Awọn Otitọ Tita Mọ

Ultrasonic tissue homogenizers ti wa ni nigbagbogbo tọka si bi sonsator sonbe, sonic lyser, ultrasound disruptor, ultrasonic grinder, sono-ruptor, sonifier, sonic dismembrator, alagbeka disrupter, ultrasonic disperser tabi dissolver. Awọn ofin oriṣiriṣi naa nfa lati awọn ohun elo oriṣiriṣi ti o le ṣẹ nipasẹ sonication.