Sonochemistry mo sonochemical niʻihi ʻoku nau toe fai

Ko e Sonochemistry ko e malaʻe ia ʻo e kemisitulii ʻoku fakaʻaongaʻi ai ʻa e fakaʻata malohi ke poupouʻi, fakavaveʻi mo fakaleleiʻi e ngaahi toʻonga kemikale (synthesis, catalysis, maʻulalo, polymerization, hydrolysis mo e ala meʻa pehe). ʻOku ʻulungaanga ʻaki ʻe Ultrasonically cavitation ʻa e ngaahi tuʻunga matolu ʻo e ivi, ʻa ia ʻoku ne tuʻuaki mo fakalahi ʻa e ngaahi toʻonga kemikale. ʻOku vave ange ʻa e tupu ʻa e tali, maʻolunga ange pea mo hono fakaʻaongaʻi ʻo e lanu mata, vaivai reagents tafoki sonochemistry ki ha meʻangaue ʻaonga kiate kae lava ke maʻu ha ngaahi toʻonga kemikale kuo fakaleleiʻi.

Sonochemistry

Ko e Sonochemistry ko e fakatotolo mo e ngaue ki he feituʻu molecules ʻoku fai ai ha kemikale koeʻuhi ko hono fakaʻaongaʻi ʻo e ultrasonication malohi (e.g., 20 kHz). Ko e meʻa fakaofo ʻoku ne fatongia ʻaki sonochemical ngaahi toʻonga ko e cavitation. ʻOku hoko ʻa e ultrasonic pe cavitation ʻi he taimi ʻoku fakatahaʻi ai ha ngaahi peau malohi fakaʻata ki ha huhuʻa pe slurry. Koeʻuhi ko e fetongitongi ʻa e ngaahi siakale malohi/maʻulalo ʻoku fakatupu ʻe he malohi fakaʻata e ngaahi peau ʻi he huhuʻa, vekiume (cavitational voids) ʻoku ʻoatu, ʻa ia ʻoku tupu ai ha ngaahi siakale lahi. ʻI he taimi ʻoku aʻu ai ʻa e cavitational vekiume ki ha faʻahinga lahi ʻoku ʻikai ke ne lava ʻo maʻu ha ivi lahi ange, ʻoku implodes fitaʻa leva ʻa e fuopotopoto pea fakatupu ha feituʻu vela lahi. ʻOku characterised ʻa e feituʻu vela fakalotofonua ko ʻeni ʻi he mafana ʻo e ʻea, faingataʻa mo e streaming ʻo e ngaahi vakapuna huhuʻa ʻaukai ʻaupito.

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Sonochemical glass reactor at the ultrasonicator UIP1000hdT. Ultrasonic (acoustic) cavitation initiates, intensifies and accelerates chemical reactions

Sonochemical Seinopolo: ʻOku kamata ʻe he sonication lahi mo e ola cavitation ʻa e ngaahi toʻonga kemikale pea ʻe lava pe ke fetongi ʻaki ha ngaahi hala.

Cavitation mo e ngaahi nunuʻa ʻo e malohi lahi Ultrasonication

Acoustic cavitation as shown here at the Hielscher ultrasonicator UIP1500hdT is used to initiate and promote chemical reactions. Ultrasonic cavitation at Hielscher's UIP1500hdT (1500W) ultrasonicator for sonochemical reactions.ʻOku faʻa ui foki ʻa e cavitation, ʻa ia ʻoku faʻa ui ko ultrasonic cavitation, ki ha foomu ʻe ua, tuʻunga lelei mo e molengofua cavitation. Lolotonga e cavitation ʻa e cavitation, naʻe tuʻo lahi e oscillates ʻa e foʻi leta cavitation ʻi hono tuʻunga potupotutatau, lolotonga ia ʻoku ʻi ai ha ngaahi liliu ʻi he fuopotopoto ʻoku fuonounou ʻi ha ngaahi siakale mo e fakaiku ʻi ha holoa lahi (Suslick 1988). ʻE lava ke hoko ʻa e cavitation ʻi he founga fakaleleiʻi mo e molengofua ʻi he founga fakaleleiʻi pea ʻe lava ke hoko ʻa e cavitation ko ha ʻAna ʻo e kau molengofua. ʻOku fakatupu ʻe he implosion fuopotopoto, ʻa ia ʻoku ne ʻulungaanga ʻaki ʻa e cavitation molengofua mo e malohi sonication, ha ngaahi tukunga fakatuʻasino kehekehe kau ai ʻa e mafana ʻo e 5000 – 25,000 K, ngaahi teke ʻo aʻu ki ha pa ʻe 1000, mo e ngaahi saiti huhuʻa mo e velocities ʻo aʻu ki he 1000m/s. Koeʻuhi ʻoku siʻisiʻi ange ʻa e mate/implosion ʻo cavitation bubbles ʻi ha nanosecond, fakamafana maʻolunga mo mokomoko ʻo lahi ange ʻi he 1011 K/s ʻe lava ke fakatokangaʻi. ʻE lava ke kamata mo fakavaveʻi e ngaahi toʻonga ʻea fakamafana mo differentials ko ia. Fekauʻaki mo e ngaahi saiti huhuʻa ko ʻeni, ʻoku fakahaaʻi ʻe he microjets vave ko ʻeni ʻa e ngaahi lelei maʻolunga ʻi he taimi ʻoku heterogeneous fefeka ai – huhuʻa slurries. ʻOku impinge ʻa e ngaahi vakapuna huhuʻa ʻi he fukahi tahi ʻaki ʻa e mafana mo e malohi ʻo e fuopotopoto ʻauha pea tupu ai ha interparticle foʻi fakatuʻutamaki naʻe pea pehe ki he ngaahi feituʻu fakalotofonua. Ko ia ai, ʻoku ʻi ai ha paʻanga lahi kuo fakaleleiʻi ʻi he founga fakaleleiʻi.


ʻOku ultrasonic lelei taha ʻa e cavitation ʻi he viviku mo solvents vakai ki he ngaahi faingataʻa vapour. Ko ia ai, ʻoku lelei ki he ngaahi polokalama sonochemical ʻa e mitia ʻoku maʻulalo vapour.
Ko e ola ʻo e ultrasonic cavitation, ʻe lava ke fetongi ʻe he ngaahi malohi malohi ʻa e ngaahi hala ʻo e fakafeangai ki ha ngaahi hala lelei ange, koeʻuhi ke toe lahi ange ʻa e ului mo e/pe ko hono fokotuʻu ʻo e ngaahi koloa ʻoku ʻikai fiemaʻua.
ʻOku ui ʻa e feituʻu matolu ʻoku faʻu ʻaki e cavitation fuopotopoto ko e feituʻu ʻafu. ʻOku fokotuʻu lelei ʻa e fakaʻata maʻolunga mo maʻolunga ʻi he ngaahi 20kHz mo e malava ko ia ke fakatupu ha amplitudes maʻolunga ki he toʻu tangata ʻo e ngaahi feituʻu vela lahi mo e ngaahi tuʻunga sonochemical lelei.

ʻOku lava ke maʻu mo fakamoʻoniʻi ʻa e ngaahi meʻangaue ultrasonic ki he fale fakakemi pea pehe ki he ngaahi meʻa fakamisini ultrasonic ki he ngaahi founga fakakomesiale sonochemical pea fakamoʻoniʻi ko ha tokotaha falalaʻanga, lelei, mo anga fakakaumeʻa ʻi he loki fakatotolo fakakemi, pailate mo e meʻafua ki he ngaahi meʻa fakapisinisi kakato. ʻE lava ke fakahoko ʻa e ngaahi toʻonga Sonochemical ko ha kulupu (batch) (i.e, vaka fakaava) pe ʻi he laine ʻo fakaʻaongaʻi ha Seinopolo toʻotoʻo kuo tapuni.

Ultrasonicator UIP2000hdT with sonochemical inline reactor for highly efficient sonochemical applications such as sono-catalysis and sono-synthesis.

Ultrasonicator lalahi UIP2000hdT (2kW) mo sonochemical laine Seinopolo.

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Sono-Synthesis

Ko e Sono-synthesis pe sonochemical synthesis ko hono fakaʻaongaʻi ia ʻo e ultrasonically cavitation kae lava ke kamata mo tuʻuaki ʻa e ngaahi toʻonga kemikale. ʻOku fakahaaʻi ʻe he ultrasonication malohi (e.g., ʻi he 20 kHz) ha ngaahi ola malohi ʻi he molecules mo e kemikale bondings. Hange ko ʻeni, ʻe lava ke iku ʻa e ngaahi ola sonochemical tupu mei he sonication lahi ʻi he vaeua molecules, faʻu ha radicals tauʻataina, mo e/pe liliu ngaahi hala ʻo e kemikale. Ko ia ai Sonochemical synthesis ʻoku fakaʻaongaʻi lahi ia ki he ngaohi ʻaki pe liliu ʻo ha ngaahi naunau nano kehekehe. Ko e ngaahi sipinga ki he nanomaterials ʻoku faʻu ʻo fakafou ʻi he sono-synthesis ko e nanoparticles (NSame) (e.g., koula NSAme, siliva NSAME), pigments, ngaahi konga mahuʻinga nano- nano-hydroxyapatite, frameworks ukamea (MOFs), ngaahi meʻa fakafaitoʻo malohi (APIs), microsphere teuteuʻi nanoparticles, nano-composites ʻi ha ngaahi naunau lahi kehe.

Ultrasonically synthesised silver nano-particles are spherically shaped and show a uniform particle size.

ʻĪmisi ʻo e TEM (A) mo hono lahi ʻo e tufakiʻanga nāunaú (E) ʻo e nanoparticles siliva (Ag-NSame), ʻa ia kuo sonochemically synthesized ʻi ha ngaahi tuʻunga ʻoku feʻunga.

ʻOku toe fakaʻaongaʻi foki ia ko e ultrasonically ʻoku ne poupouʻi crystallization (sono-crystallization), ʻa ia ʻoku fakaʻaongaʻi ai ʻa e malohi fakaʻata ke maʻu ai ha ngaahi founga supersaturated, ke kamata crystallization/precipitation, mo mapuleʻi ʻa e lahi mo e morphology ʻo fakafou ʻi he ngaahi fakangatangata ʻo e founga ngaue fakaʻata. Lomiʻi heni ke ako lahi ange fekauʻaki mo sono-crystallization!

Sono-Catalysis

Sonicating ʻe lava ke fakaleleiʻi ʻe ha kemikale ʻoku fakamavaheʻi pe fakaleleiʻi catalytic ngaahi toʻonga. ʻOku fakasiʻisiʻi ʻe he ivi sonochemical ʻa e taimi tali, fakaleleiʻi ʻa e vela mo e feʻaveʻaki paʻanga, ʻa ia naʻe iku ʻo lahi ange ai ʻa e kemikale constants, ʻomi, mo e selectivities.
ʻOku lahi e ngaahi founga catalytic, ʻa ia ʻoku ʻaonga lahi mei hono fakaʻaongaʻi ʻo e malohi fakaʻata mo hono ngaahi nunuʻa sonochemical. Ka ʻi ai ha konga heterogeneous ʻo e feʻaveʻaki paʻanga catalysis (PTC) ʻoku kau ai ha huhuʻa ʻe ua pe lahi ange immiscible pe ko ha taʻanga ʻoku fefeka, ngaahi monuʻia mei sonication, ko e ivi sonochemical mo e paʻanga ne fakaleleiʻi.
Hange ko ʻeni, naʻe hanga ʻe hono vakaiʻi taʻofi ʻo e fakalongolongo mo ultrasonically ʻo tokoniʻi catalytic viviku peroxide oxidation ʻo phenol ʻi he vai ʻo fakaha mai naʻe holoki ʻe he sonication ʻa e ivi ʻo e tali, ka naʻe ʻikai hano ʻaonga ʻi he hala ʻo e tali. Ko e ivi fakamalohia ʻo e oxidation ʻo phenol ʻi RuI3 naʻe maʻu ʻa e malohi ʻi he lolotonga ʻo e sonication ko e 13 kJ mol-1, ʻa ia naʻe tuʻo fa hono fakafehoanaki ki he founga oxidation fakalongolongo (57 kJ mol-1). (Rokhina et Al, 2010)
ʻOku lava lelei hono fakaʻaongaʻi ʻo e Sonochemical catalysis ki hono ngaohi ʻaki ʻo e kemikale pea pehe ki hono ngaohi ʻo e ngaahi naunau micron mo nano ʻo hange ko e ukamea, alloys, ukamea meʻa koʻeni, ngaahi naunau ukamea, mo e composites ʻoku ʻikai ke ʻi ai hano ukamea. Ko e ngaahi sipinga angamaheni ʻo e ultrasonically tokoniʻi PTC ko e transesterification ia ʻo e ngaahi fafaʻafaʻesiti ki methyl maʻulalo (biodiesel), hydrolysis, ko e saponification ʻo e vesitapolo lolololo, sono-Fenton tali (Fenton-hange ko e ngaahi founga), sonocatalytic maʻulalo mo e ala meʻa pehe.
Laukonga lahi ange fekauʻaki mo e sono-catalysis mo e ngaahi polokalama pau!

Ngaahi polokalama Sonochemical kehe

Koeʻuhi ko ʻenau fakaʻaongaʻi totonu, ala falalaʻanga mo faingofua hono fakalele, sonochemical systems hange ko e UP400St pe UIP2000hdT ʻOku fakamahuʻingaʻi ia ko ha meʻangaue lelei ki he ngaahi toʻonga kemikale. ʻE lava ke fakaʻaongaʻi ngofua ʻa e hielscher Ultrasonics sonochemical devices ki he kulupu (fakaava beaker) mo e laine hokohoko sonication ʻo fakaʻaongaʻi ha sonochemical toʻotoʻo. Sonochemistry kau ai ʻa e sono-synthesis, sono-catalysis, maʻulalo, pe polymerization ʻoku fakaʻaongaʻi lahi ʻi he kemisitulii, nanotechnology, saienisi ʻo e ngaahi naunau, pharmaceuticals, microbiology pea pehe ki ha ngaahi ngaueʻanga kehe.

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Meʻangaue Sonochemical maʻolunga

Hielscher's industrial processors of the hdT series can be comfortable and user-friendly operated via browser remote control.Ko Hielscher Ultrasonics ko hoʻo kautaha tuʻukimuʻa taha ia ʻi he ngaahi fakakaukau foʻou, siteiti-ʻo e-Art ultrasonicators, sonochemical e toʻotoʻo, niʻihi ʻoku nau fekauʻaki mo e ngaahi toʻonga lelei mo falalaʻanga sonochemical. ʻOku fokotuʻutuʻu ʻataʻata pe ʻa e Hielscher ultrasonicators kotoa pe, manufactured mo siviʻi ʻi he hetikuota Hielscher Ultrasonics ʻi Teltow (ofi ki Pealini), Siamane. Makehe mei he ngaahi tuʻunga moʻui fakatekinikale maʻolunga taha mo e robustness mo e 24/7/365 ngaue ki he tafa lelei ʻaupito, Hielscher ultrasonicators ʻoku faingofua mo falalaʻanga ke ngaue. Ko e ngaahi meʻa siʻi pe ʻoku ne fakafaikehekeheʻi ʻa Hielscher Ultrasonics mei he ngaahi meʻangaue kehe sonochemical, ko e polokalama fakakomipiuta, mo e menu ki he ngaahi fakamatala fakahangatonu, ko ha fanga kiʻi meʻa siʻi pe ʻoku ne fakafaikehekeheʻi ʻa Hielscher Ultrasonics mei he ngaahi meʻangaue kehe sonochemical.

Precisely Adjustable Amplitudes

Ko e amplitude ko e feituʻu ia ʻi muʻa (tokoni) ʻo e sonotrode (ʻoku toe ʻiloa pe ko ultrasonic fekumi pe Meʻaifi Hoane) pea ko e tefitoʻi meʻa ia ʻoku ne takiekina ultrasonic cavitation. ʻOku ʻuhinga ʻa e amplitudes maʻolunga ange cavitation. ʻOku fakafalala malohi ʻa e cavitation ʻoku fie maʻu ki he faʻahinga tali, kemikale reagents fakaʻaongaʻi mo e ngaahi ola pau ʻo e tali sonochemical pau. ʻOku ʻuhinga ʻeni ʻoku totonu ke adjustable ʻa e amplitude kae lava ke ne fakaleleiʻi ʻa e malohi ʻo e cavitation ki he tuʻunga lelei taha. ʻE lava ke reliably ʻa e Hielscher ultrasonicators kotoa pe pea fakatonutonu ia ʻo fakafou ʻi ha mapuleʻi fakaʻilekitulonika fakapotopoto ki he amplitude lelei taha. ʻE lava ke fakaʻaongaʻi ʻa e meʻatui pupolio ke fakasiʻisiʻi pe fakalahi ʻa e amplitude fakamisini. Ultrasonics’ ʻe lava ʻe he ultrasonic lalahi processors ʻo fakahaofi ha amplitudes maʻolunga ʻaupito. Amplitudes ʻo aʻu ki 200μm ʻe faingofua pe ke lele hokohoko ʻi he tafa 24/7. ʻOku lava ke maʻu ha amplitudes maʻolunga ange fakapatonu ultrasonic sonotrodes.

Mapuleʻi totonu ʻo e ʻea lolotonga Sonochemical ngaahi toʻonga

Sonochemical setup consisting in the ultrasonicator UP400St with temperature sensor for sonochemical reactionsʻI he cavitation ʻafu, ʻoku fuʻu mafana ʻaupito ʻa e mafana ʻo e ngaahi tikili ʻe lauiafe Celsius ʻe lava ke fakatokangaʻi. Neongo ia, ʻoku fakangatangata pe ʻa e mafana ʻo e ʻea ko ʻeni ki he loto miniti mo e takatakai ʻi he imploding cavitation fuopotopoto. ʻI he founga lalahi, ʻoku negligible ʻa e mafana ʻo e ʻea mei he implosion ʻoku ʻi ai ha foʻi fuopotopoto ʻe taha pe siʻi cavitation. Ka ʻe lava ʻe he hokohoko atu ʻo e sonication ʻi ha ngaahi vahaʻataimi loloa ange ʻo fakatupu ha tupulaki lahi ʻa e ʻea ʻo e huhuʻa. ʻOku tokoni ʻa e mafana ko ʻeni ʻo e ʻea ki he ngaahi toʻonga kemikale lahi pea ʻoku faʻa lau ʻoku ʻaonga. Neongo ia, ʻoku kehekehe pe ʻa e mafana ʻo e ngaahi toʻonga kemikale kehekehe. ʻI he taimi ʻoku faitoʻo ai e ngaahi naunau pelepelengesi ʻo e ʻea, ʻe ala fie maʻu ke mapuleʻi e mafana ʻo e ʻea. Koeʻuhi ke lava ʻo maʻu ha ngaahi tuʻunga lelei ʻi he lolotonga ʻo e sonochemical, ʻoku ʻomi ʻe Hielscher Ultrasonics ha ngaahi founga kehekehe ki hono mapuleʻi totonu ʻo e ʻea lolotonga sonochemical founga, hange ko sonochemical kau tanaki mo e ngaahi selo kuo fakanaunau ʻaki ʻa e saketi fakahaofi mokomoko ʻo.
ʻOku lava ke maʻu ʻetau sonochemical e ngaahi selo mo e niʻihi ʻoku kau ki ai ʻaki ha saketi mokomoko ʻo, ʻa ia ʻoku ne poupouʻi ha dissipation vela lelei. Ke vakaiʻi hokohoko ʻa e mafana ʻo e ʻea, ʻoku fakanaunau ʻa Hielscher ultrasonicators ʻaki ha mafana pluggable sensor resistance, ʻa ia ʻe lava ke fakahu ki he huhuʻa ke fua maʻu pe ʻa e ʻea lalahi. ʻOku fakaʻata ʻe he polokalama fakakomipiuta ko ʻeni ʻa e tuʻunga ʻo e mafana ʻo e ʻea. ʻI he taimi ʻoku lahi ai e mafana ʻo e ʻea, ʻoku kiʻi longo e ultrasonicator kae ʻoua kuo tukutukuhifo e mafana ʻo e ʻea ʻi he huhuʻa ki ha feituʻu pau pea toe kamata he taimi pe ko ia sonicating. ʻOku lekooti he taimi pe ko ia ʻa e ngaahi meʻafua ʻo e ʻea mo e ngaahi fakamatala mahuʻinga ultrasonic mahuʻinga kehe ʻi ha kaati SD pea ʻe lava pe ke toe fakaleleiʻi faingofua ki hono puleʻi ʻo e founga ngaue.
Ko e mafana ko ha Parameter mahuʻinga ia ʻo e ngaahi founga sonochemical. ʻOku tokoniʻi koe ʻe he tekinolosia fakamaʻalaʻala ʻa Hielscher ke ke tauhi e mafana hoʻo tohi kole sonochemical ʻi he mafana lelei taha.

Ko e ha Hielscher Ultrasonics?

  • Ko e lavame'a ma'olunga
  • Tuʻunga ʻo e tekinolosia fakaʻaati
  • Faingofua mo malu ke ngaue
  • falala'anga & robustness
  • kulupu (batch) & he
  • ki ha faʻahinga tohi pe
  • polokalama fakakomipiuta poto
  • smart features (e.g., fakamatala protocolling)
  • CIP (maʻa-ʻi he-feituʻu)

'Oku 'omi 'e he e tepile 'i lalo ha faka'ilonga ia 'o e tu'unga 'o e ngaue ki he fakafuofua'i 'o e hotau ultrasonicators:

Kulupu (batch) 'o e tohi 'Oku tafe mai 'a e 'ea 'Oku fokotu'u atu 'a e ngaahi me'angaue
mL 'o e 1 ki he 500 10 ki he 200mL/miniti 'e UP100H
mL 'i he 10 ki he 2000 20 ki he 400mL/miniti 'e UP200Ht, UP400St
0.1 ki he 20L 0.2 ke 4L/miniti 'e UIP2000hdT
10 ki he 100L 2 ki he 10L/miniti 'e UIP4000hdT
n.a. 10 ki he 100L/miniti 'e UIP16000
n.a. lalahi fakataha'i 'o e UIP16000

Fetu'utaki mai kiate kimautolu! / Kole kiate kitautolu!

Kole ki ha fakamatala lahi ange

Kataki 'o ngaue 'aki e foomu 'i lalo ke kole ha toe fakamatala ki he ultrasonic processors, faka'aonga'i mo e totongi. Te mau fiefia ke alea'i e founga 'oku mo 'i ai mo ho'omou ngaahi fie ma'u ultrasonic he polokalama!









Kataki 'o fakatokanga'i ange 'etau Tu'utu'uni totonu fakatautaha.


Ultrasonic high-shear homogenizers are used in lab, bench-top, pilot and industrial processing.

Hielscher Ultrasonics ʻa e ngaohiʻanga koloa maʻolunga ultrasonic homogenizers ki hono tuifio ʻo e ngaahi polokalama, fakamovetevetea, emulsification mo e toʻo hingoa ʻi he fale fakatotolo fakakemi, pailate mo e meʻafua ki he ngaahi meʻa fakapisinisi.



Ngaahi tohi/fakamo'oni fakafolofola

  • Suslick, Kenneth S.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Fang, Mingming; Cichowlas, Andrzej A. (1995): Sonochemical synthesis of nanostructured catalysts. Materials Science and Engineering: A. Proceedings of the Symposium on Engineering of Nanostructured Materials. ScienceDirect 204 (1–2): 186–192.
  • Ekaterina V. Rokhina, Eveliina Repo, Jurate Virkutyte (2010): Comparative kinetic analysis of silent and ultrasound-assisted catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of phenol. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, Volume 17, Issue 3, 2010. 541-546.
  • Brundavanam, R. K.; Jinag, Z.-T., Chapman, P.; Le, X.-T.; Mondinos, N.; Fawcett, D.; Poinern, G. E. J. (2011): Effect of dilute gelatine on the ultrasonic thermally assisted synthesis of nano hydroxyapatite. Ultrason. Sonochem. 18, 2011. 697-703.
  • Poinern, G.E.J.; Brundavanam, R.K.; Thi Le, X.; Fawcett, D. (2012): The Mechanical Properties of a Porous Ceramic Derived from a 30 nm Sized Particle Based Powder of Hydroxyapatite for Potential Hard Tissue Engineering Applications. American Journal of Biomedical Engineering 2/6; 2012. 278-286.
  • Poinern, G.J.E.; Brundavanam, R.; Thi Le, X.; Djordjevic, S.; Prokic, M.; Fawcett, D. (2011): Thermal and ultrasonic influence in the formation of nanometer scale hydroxyapatite bio-ceramic. International Journal of Nanomedicine 6; 2011. 2083–2095.
  • Poinern, G.J.E.; Brundavanam, R.K.; Mondinos, N.; Jiang, Z.-T. (2009): Synthesis and characterisation of nanohydroxyapatite using an ultrasound assisted method. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 16 /4; 2009. 469- 474.
  • Suslick, K. S. (1998): Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology; 4th Ed. J. Wiley & Sons: New York, Vol. 26, 1998. 517-541.


High performance ultrasonics! Hielscher's product range covers the full spectrum from the compact lab ultrasonicator over bench-top units to full-industrial ultrasonic systems.

Hielscher Ultrasonics e ngaohiʻanga koloa maʻolunga ultrasonic homogenizers mei he Loki fakasaienisi ki he lahi ʻo e lalahi.